ūʾa, + wūʾa

OB lit. ibir talīmijaiqabb wu-a-a aī tuklatni ZA 110, 48 viii 15 (where) my close friend does not say Alas for my brother we trusted in!


+ ubiyannu mule; MB

Emar [MIN (= ane)-gr-nun]-na = ku-da-nu = -bi-ia-an-nu Emar 6/4, 550: 224, s. Pentiuc 2001, 187f.


udru camel, Iran. lw.

S. also tamru.

The more specific transl. bactrian camel is most probably wrong (court. M. Heide). The alleged spelling ta-ma-ra-te RIMA 3, 9: 39 (Shalmaneser III, cf. Mayer 2009, 428; a single ex. with no published copy or photo) is conspicious: in Iraq 25, 52: 18 (Shalmaneser III) and in RINAP 4, 20: 51 (Esarhaddon, several ex. of the inscription!) we read clear -du-ri. Moreover, a reading udru but not tam(a)ru fits the Iran. etymon Old Pers. ua-, Old Ind. uṣtra- (J. Tavernier, OLA 158 [2007] 566). Mistake of the scribe who did not understand the foreign word udru in a vorlage and misread -du- as ta-ma-?


uDDuru I, uDr emmer; 11th month of Nippur calendar and festival with the same name (?); Sum. lw.

Cf. CAD udduru (mng unkn.), utr (CAD U 337b); AHw 1401a udduru (< adāru to be dark); CAD uwaru eleventh month and festival (Mari), s. AHw 1447a s.v. uwurum.

After Cohen 1993, 118f., udduru, utr and uwaru could belong together with uDDuru and uDr as two variants of one word and uwaru as misreading for uDr.

For lex. ref.s cit. CAD and AHw, s. also uDDuru II.

Lw. from Sumerian udra/udduru, which denotes a sort of emmer and 11th month of Nippur calendar.

1. Emmer (s. Powell 1984, 51f.) a) ud-ra = ZZ.M = zi-iz a-a-nak-ku = uD-ru- (var. ut-tu-ru-[]) Diri V 221f. = MSL 15, 174f. (cf. CAD U 337b).

b) zi-izZZ = ku-na-u; ZZim-g-gM = MIN; ZZud-raM = MIN Nabnitu XXII 112ff.

c) Type of emmer broth: tu7 udra(ZZ.M) = uD-[ru]- = []-ru- Hg. B VI 92 = MSL 11, 89 (among other products made of emmer, s. uluinnu date-sweetened emmer-beer und ḫau sweet food).

d) 6,1/2 gn -[nun] ana tu7-d-duru5(ZZ.A) a 13 bur-zi JCS 29, 17 ii 7f. 6,1/2 shekel oil for the emmer broth poured into 13 bowls bur-zi (OB list of offerings to Nusku).

After Powell 1984, 51f., ZZ refers to zīzu down into the OB period and denotes the unprocessed form of emmer that is the threshed, cleaned spikelets. ZZ.AN, on the contrary, represents the basic processed form of emmer, that means husked emmer after the kernels have been separated from the chaff used in beer and groats making. During the OB period the reading kunāu for ZZ.AN is established, which gradually replaces also the older word zīzu. Finally, about the MB period ZZ.AN = kunāu comes to designate both, processed and unprocessed, forms of emmer.

The Akkadian equivalent of ZZ.AN as well as the reading of the logogram in the early periods is, therefore, not entirely certain. The cited references suggest that the reading of ZZ.AN (with var. ZZ.M and ZZ.A) emmer could be udra with semitized equivalent uDr or uDDuru.

2. 11th month (emmer-month): a) Ur III itiuD-Du-ru-u Owen NATN 311 r. 4; itiZZ.A-u ig-Kizilyay NRVN 1, 98; iti-ZZ AUCT 2, 28: 5; itiuD-r BE 3, 117 iii 44, coll. Cohen 1993, 119, n. 5.

b) OB u4-ud-ru = ZZ.A = uD-Du-ru- = den-ll OB Diri Nippur Sec. 9: 37f. (MSL 15, 32).

c) OB inūma -[u]D!-ri-im ARM 9, 97: 26 on the occasion of the U. festival (on the 20th day of the month Kiskissu, the 11th month in Mari), coll. Cohen 1993, 119, n. 6.

d) OB ina iti-uD-ri-im antallm iakkan itānu ibb[ai] ebūrum ier u [] ARM 26, 248: 19 if in the month of U. an eclipse occurs, north wind will come, the harvest will be successful and [].

e) NA [iti]x-li-li-ti = itiZZ.M RA 17, 119 (K 00945 r. 3).

Note that Marti in NABU 2003/10 argues for the old readings -[w]a-ri-im ARM 9, 97 and -wa-ri-im ARM 26, 248 on the basis of the photos (s. also CAD 359b). He connects uwarum with Arab. uwrum ardeur du feu, violence de la chaleur and assumes that the month uwaru corresponds to the months July/August with their high temperatures. However, one recognizes the clear UD on the photo of ARM 26, 48. The situation of ARM 9, 97 is more ambiguous. The horizontal wedge could belong to UD (= WA) as well as be the beginning of the following RI. Since it would be then the only instance for uwaru, it seems better to read the sign in question as UD! with Cohen.

After Cohen 1993, 118f. the name of the eleventh month (abāṭu) of the Nippur calendar was written systematically itiZZ.A in the pre-Sargonic texts, itiZZ in the Ur III period and itiZZ.M in the first millennium B.C. On the basis of reading of emmer in LL, Cohen considers the reading itid-duru5 for itiZZ.A emmer-month (for ZZ = d = ti-ik-tum s. CT 35, 7: 34). As the references above demonstrate, the spelling uDDuru in both languages, Sumerian and Akkadian, for the 11th month has lasted down into the OB period.



uDDuru II desig. of a person

For OB Diri Nippur Sec. 9: 37 cit. CAD U 20b and AHw 1401a s. uDDuru I.

1. l al--a = ḫa-al-pu, l al--a = uD-Du-rum , l -a = a er-re-tim OB Lu A 82 (MSL 12, 160) accused, u., cursed. Cf., perhaps, adāru I D darken (AHw 1401a).

2. l-u11-zag-ga-bar-bar = uD-Du-rum Nabnitu J (= XVII) 179 (MSL 16, 159 + DCCLT), after words derived from eṭēru to save, take away. eṭēru D is, however, prev. unattested. l-u11-zag-ga-bar-bar is otherwise equated with alliʾayya driveller (OB Lu B-C Nippur 334f. (MSL 12, 168 ); OB Lu B-C Seg. 10: 15).



ugāru meadow

yu-pa-at-ti : .[G]R-ri LUGAL EN-ka4 EA 250: 47 and he cultivated the fi[el]ds of the king, your lord (Moran 1992, 303 and 304, note 8). For the gloss marker here s. pet II.



+ ugg lion; MB; Sum. lw.

ug = <ug>-gu8- Emar 551: 38 (Ḫḫ XIV 121; MSL 8/2, 16).


ukk to render desititute, to diminish

CAD U 56, AHw 196 ek II

OB ḫubūr māt[im] -te-ek-ki-ma iktabas Westenholz 1997, 276: 16 it dimished the clamor of the land and trampled (it) down.


ulla II distant time

OB ul-lam YOS 11, 24 i 15 (first spelling with Mimation), s. nisannu.


ullu, ḫullu III collar

MB [dala]t? -li ALL no. 11 r. 14, s. lṭu.


ummānu troops

Note the vowel harmony in um-m-ni-a OA Sarg. 43.


ummatu maun body, bulk

CAD U 118 u. A d: For BM 47507 s. JAOS 103, 26f.


ūmtu, + ūmdu (one specific) day

MB UD-um-du KAR 158 vii 36.


**unnuḫu s. anāḫu D


up cloud

OB -pe-erakbātima CUSAS 10, 10: 24 you ride the clouds.


upurtu, upurtu a headdress

OB lubūa u u-pu-ur-ta-a nukkirā FM 9, 71: 23 change her cloth and headdress!


urri by day

MB -r-ri-i ALL no. 11: 9, s. paspasu.


uru bedroom

OB [in]a ur-i-ma CUSAS 10, 8: 21 [in] the bedroom (s. qarāru).


ūru I roof

OB ⌈ēlīana -ri Finkel 2014: 45 I went up the roof (in order to pray).


ūru II vulva

MB a tarammu -ri nadīkum bābum rapum uddulum ALL no. 11 r. 8 that which you love, my vulva, is laid down for you: a wide, spacious gate.


urubātu II house-warming ceremony

OB lit. [l]īpu bītam aj i[k]unam -ru-ba-tim ZA 110, 49 base 18 may he build a house but hold no house-warming ceremony.


usukkānu the one with (multicolored?) cheek (a bird)

CDA 428: usukānu

OB -su-ka-nu-ummuen Edubbaa 7, 100: 60 (in list of birds). Cf. usukku B a bird CAD U/W 285 where also the [usu]kkānu is mentioned. Black/Al-Rawi 1987, 126 compare azangunu and uzun qan. Derivation from usukku cheek might be a popular etymology. Al-Rawi/Dalley 2000, 107 interpret it as a variant of mesukku. Note, however, that mesukku is already attested in l. 49.


uṣurtu, + eṣirtu drawing, plan

By-form eṣirtu attested OB, s. kippatu.


ur, + pl. ūrtu; + SB

1. CAD U 303f.; in AHw ref. p. 257 erētu 2 and 258 er 3.

2. SB u-ra-a-t Jimnez 2017, 252: 34, cf. ḫīʾāqu .


utell (CAD U 333f.) s. utlell.


utlell to rise

In TIM 9, 45: 35, read instead of -te-el-le (AHw 1444 utlell 2a) and -te-el-le (CAD U 334 utell) rather ?-te⌉-l(IL)-le.The form is a passive Dt of el.


utlu lap

OB lurt[mam?] i-nu-ut-li-ka rabbi? PRAK 1 B 472 i 4 I want to make lov[e with (you) in your soft(?) lap.


utnēnu II to pray

1. OB lit. lut!-nen! muʾerra RA 86, 81: 3 let me beseech the leader.

2. Ug. [an]a Marduk anāku at-na-ni-u at-na-ni-u [t]o Marduk I pray(?), I pray(?) ORA 7, 208: 33.


utr s. uDDuru I


utuḫḫu, + ituḫḫu a kind of bread; + OB

1. Ur III a) ninda-tḫ-ḫu-um- YBC 3637 i 14; BM 103455 r. 15 (fine flour and fine kum-flour) for u.-bread. S. Brunke 2011, 149ff.

b) nindau4-tuḫ-ḫu-um- CUSAS 3, 1077: 3

2. OB ninda-tuḫ-ḫu-um NBC 7236: 3 (BIN 10, 184). S. Brunke 2011, 149ff.



utullu, + pl. utullānu herdsman

SB amaḫnī u -tu-la-ni Fs. Lambert 203, 46: 3 sheepfolds and herdsmen.



ūṭu half-cubit

OB lit. ammat mūtum -uṭ balāṭu in izamāru a D[N] BiOr. 75, 21: 6 death one cubit away. Life a half-cubit away. The glance of D[N]: two one-third cubit away.


uwaru s. uDDuru I.


uzzu fury

OB lit. uz-za muraʾʾiu anti VS 10, 213 i 13, s. rappu.