K

 

+ Kaʾāšu “to wrap up”; OA

G 1. (produce the tablet with the seals of PN and PN2) ina maškim ki-i-ša-šu-ma dannināma kunkāšuma ana PN3 ulā ana PN4 piqdāšuma lublam AKT 3, 84: 17 “wrap it up firmly in a fleece, seal it and entrust it to PN3 or to PN4 that he brings it here” (also ib. 82: 24; 83: 22; 88: 43; 89: 35; 100: 18).

2. tuppam ša talaqqűni ki-i-šu‑ma ina kunukkēni ana PN lu[put] TC 2, 26 r. 17 “wrap up the tablet that you will obtain, (seal it) with our seals and write on it ‘(addressed) to PN’”.

3. 1 tuppam -i-iš-ma PN (...) ēzibam CTMMA 1, 116 no. 84a: 47 “one tablet in a wrapping (lit. it has been wrapped up and) PN has left with me” (sim. AKT 3, 104: 12).

Disc.: The forms point to a II/ʾ verb g/k/qaʾāšum of the i/i class (GOA § 18.6). By lack of any plausible cognate, the nature of the initial velar remains unknown.

NJCK

 

kabābu I “shield”

OB ša ka-ba-bi UET 7, 73 i 34 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) “the one (in charge) of the shields” (followed by ša qašti “bowman”). Cf. Sjöberg 1996a, 118.

 

kabābu II “to burn”

1. OB SILA4 MÁŠ.ŠU.GÍD.GÍD ša maḫar il[im] ik-bu-bu ARM 26/1, 280 no. 113: 6 “the lamb of the diviner which they burnt in front of the god”.

2. LB libbaka ik-ta-ba-ab-ka dubsar 3, 29: 8 “your heart burnt you”.

JW (1), MPS (2)

 

+ kabal- “to plunder”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

GN eqlīšu : ga-pa-lu--a QS 3, 4: 20 “who plundered his fields?”, cf. 22, 24; : qa-pa-lu--u u lāma GN₂ GN₃ : qa-pa-lu--a ib.: 29–31 “you plundered GN before GN₂ plundered GN₃”.

JW

 

kaballu “a garment for legs and/or feet”

OB 4 tāpal ka-ba-li ARM 23, 444: 3 “4 pair of k.”. S. Durand 2009, 49 for numerous add. Mari refs.; Cf. Salonen 1969, 64.

JW

 

kabaraḫḫu s. gabaraḫḫu

 

kabāru “to be(come) thick”

1. Said of trees, OB ka-ab-ru FM 2, 168 no. 89: 6, 7, 9.

2. Said of ṣērū “ribs” and imdū “stanchions” in Finkel 2014: 14, 16, s. pānu II.

 

kabāsu “to step, tread, trample”

G 1. OA “to tread upon s.o.” i.e. “to harm (financially), to treat unfairly, to neglect s.o.’s interests”:

a) ammala taleʾʾeʾu gumurši lā ta--bi- BIN 6, 42: 10 “settle it (i.e. my case) as well as you can; do not treat me unfairly!”; cf. AKT 3, 62: 30, ATHE 65: 31, AKT 8, 1: 23(?).

b) (may DNN be my witnesses that ...) mimma KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN lā ak-bu-- AKT 3, 62: 10 “I have not deprived you of a single shekel of silver”; cf. BIN 4, 51: 14 (= OAA 1, 64).

c) KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN ina šiʾim (…) rāmakka ku-ub--am CCT 2, 26a: 18 “settle for a shekel of silver less from the proceeds”; sim. ICK 1, 192: 23; KTS 1, 22a: 16; kt h/k 347: 15, s. Balkan 1967,

 395.

2. OA “to remit, to waive” (interest): ša 2 ITU.KAM ṣibtam ak-bu--kum TC 3, 40: 24 “I have waived for you two months’ interest”; also kt c/k 680: 11 (Balkan 1967, 401); sim. AKT 11A, 113: 20; BIN 4, 145: 16; CCT 6, 46a: 11; TC 3, 40: 34.

3. OA “to deduct”: 18 GÍN ammassuḫuttim ni-ik-bu-ús AKT 8, 41: 13 “we deducted 18 shekels for impurities”; s. also AKT 6C, 636: 6, 671: 34; BIN 4, 51: 45 (= OAA 1, 64); kt c/k 1087: 21f. (s. Balkan 1967, 407).

4. OA “to annull”: māmītum šīt -áb--at Balkan 1967, 410 kt c/k 1548: 8 “that oath has been annulled”.

5. OA “to end, to resolve”: nuštamgeršunuma rugummāʾēšunu ni-ik-bu-us(‑ma) Balkan 1967, 409 kt g/k 100: 14 “we made them come to an agreement and we resolved their complaints”; awātam ku-bu-ús CCT 3, 25: 19 “wind up the affair!”; sim. OIP 27, 62: 22.

6. OA “to disregard, to overlook”: mimma kasapni lā ta-k[ŕ]-ba- RA 59, 151 no. 23: 14 “do not overlook any silver of ours!”; s. also AKT 6C, 530: 11.

7. OA “to give up, to relinquish”: PN u PN2 ana PN3 u PN4 qāssunu ik-bu-(‑ma) AKT 8, 175: 12 “PN and PN2 have given up their share (of silver) in favor of PN3 and PN4”.

8. OA without direct object:

a) ana ayyītim balūʾa ta-ak-bu-ús AKT 8, 1: 12 “why have you proceeded without me?”; sim. ib. 16.

b) PN ulā ušašqal ulā a--ba--um Fs. Veenhof p. 139: 16 “I will not make PN pay nor will I take action against him”(?).

9. OB lit. ik-bi-us--um-ma du-ul-la-šu RB 59 = Fs. Reiner 190: 5 “his toil became too heavy for him”.

10. OB lit. ka-bi-iš-ti eqel niš[ī] UET 6/2, 404: 6 (ZA 102, 196) “(DNf,) who paces out the field of mankind” (Mayer 2016, 222).

11. OB ša kīma ka-ba-si-im [al] u immerū i-ka-ab-ba-su ARM 27, 29: 18f. “[ox]en and sheep were trampling any (locusts) that could be trampled”.

12. OB ša kīma ka-ba-si-im ik-bu-sa ARM 27, 28: 23f. “they trampled any (locusts) that could be trampled”.

13. S. also Š, below.

14. Del. HSS 13, 119 (CAD K 7 ad 2 e), s. **kaniniwe.

+ Gt 1. OB kīma immerāt mātikama puḫur li-ik-ta-ab-sa RATL 117, 10: 19 “they (= sheep) shall run around together just like the sheep of your land” (Mayer 2016, 222).

2. MB Emar […] ūmi ki-it-bu-u[s] Emar 445: 3.

D OA “to deduct, to waive, to balance”: mimma abūša šalṭam ḫabbulu -bu-ús(‑ma) kt 91/k 158: 18 “whatever her father owes in cash has been balanced”, s. Veenhof 1997, 374; s. also BIN 4, 187: 5; kt c/k 101: 15 (Balkan 1967, 403).

Dt OA šiʾim ṣubātīʾa ší-li-ip--im ina barēkunu-uk--ba- KTH 19: 32  do not remit to each other (part of) the price of my šilipkāʾum-textile”.

Š 1. OA tuppam ša ūmē adī mišl[išu] ša PN ūmē nu-ša-ak-bi-i[s] TC 1, 20: 13 “as to the tablet with the term regarding the half share of PN, we have had the term reduced”(?).

2. OB ša kīma k[ab]āsim ú-ša-ak-bi-ěs ARM 27, 27: 20 “I made them trample any (locusts) that could be trampled”.

N 1. OA gumurma malā lā a--bu- kaspam (…) šuqul CCT 3, 30: 33 “settle (the case) and pay the silver, so that I will not be harmed”.

2. OA (silver) attāma na-ak-bi4-sú-ma alkam KTS 1, 4b: 20 “give up(?) (some 10 or 20 shekels of silver) for him and come here!” (uncert. nakbissumma may also come from kabātu).

3. OB ana eqlim ina erēšim lā ik-ka-bi-su AbB 12, 137: “they shall not step on the field during cultivation!” (ingressive N is otherwise attested in NB, s. CAD K 11 ad 8).

4. NB (the Borsippeans) ik-kab-ba-su-ú SAA 10, 118 r. 9 “will be subdued”.

NJCK (G 1–8, D, Dt, Š 1, N 1-2), MPS (G 9, 11–13, Š 2, N 4), JW (G 10–11, Gt, N 3)

 

kabātu, kabādu “to be(come) heavy”

G 1. OA “to be(come) heavy”, of tablets: mīššum tuppum ik-bi4-it-ku-nu-tí-ma lā tušēbilānim BIN 4, 26: 49 “why has a tablet become too heavy for you to send me one?”

2. OA “to be(come) serious” (of conditions):

a) PN mariṣ kŕ-bi4-it AKT 9A, 41: 6 “PN is seriously ill” (cf. OB maruṣ kabit Sumer 14, 68 no. 43: 16); sim. ib. l. 27.

b) dullum ina ālim ik-tí-bi4-it Prag I 467: 5 “distress has aggravated in the city”.

3. With panū, “to be(come) worried, anxious”:

a) OA ištū 3 šanātim u 4 šanātim aššumi mera PN panūʾa kŕ-áb-tů(‑ma) AKT 9A, 152: 6 “since 3 years or 4 years I have been worrying about PN’s son”.

b) OA (may good news from you reach me in the City) panūʾa ana ṣērika lā i-kŕ-bi4- KBo. 9, 9 r. 7 “so that I need not be worried about you’; s. also VS 26, 71: 7; kt n/k 1377: 22 (Gökçek 2017, 41); AKT 3, 67: 19.

4. OA uncertain: (here, I will no longer keep sending you textiles) ša i--bu- CCT 3, 23b: 5 “that are heavy” (ikabbitūni expected).

5. OB ik-bi-us--um-ma dullašu RB 59 = Fs. Reiner 190: 5 “his toil became too heavy for him”.

6. Var. kabādu: OB biltum ik-ta-ab-da-an-né-ši-[im] ARM 27, 37: 47 “the load has become too heavy for us”.

7. SB ša nešműšu ik-bi-tu (var. [i]k-bit) tu[ša]ptâ uznu tazquššuma ša rāmanuš i[k-bi]- (var. ik-bit) elīšu AfO 19, 64 iii 1-2 // BM 61649+ iii 8–9 // BM 87226: 12–13 “you allowed the ears of him who has become hard of hearing to open, you raised up him who has become a burden onto himself” (Mayer 2016, 222).

D 1. OB ammīnim panīki tu-ka-ab-bi-tim OBTR 141: 19 “why did you make your face heavy towards me?”, i.e. “become stubborn” (Mayer 2016, 222).

2. ṣābam li-ka-bi-du-nim-ma ARM 27, 179 no. 102: 22 “they shall heavily equip workers for me (for harvesting)”, cf. ṣābum kibittum (MARI 5, 666). For the var. kabādu s. also ARM 26, 224 (M.11371: 12) and kabtu.

3. OB kalakkam elīšina u-ka-ab-bi-it ARM 14, 18 r. 9 “I made heavy on them (the dams) the dug-out material”.

+ Dt OA “to act honourably, in accordance with one’s honour”: ṣuḫārtum irtibī ku-ta-bi4-it-ma alkamma ana sūn DN šukušši BIN 4, 9: 21 “the girl has grown up: act in accordance with your honor, (i.e.) come here and place her on DN’s lap” (not Dtn, because intrans.).

MPS (G 5–6, D 3), JW (G 7, D), NJCK (G 1–4, Dt)

 

kabbartu “part of the foot or leg; hock”

MB Emar uzuka-bar-tum ana enti DN Emar 369: 57 “the hock to the entu-priestess of DN”. Cf. Emar 370: 36, 446: 33. S. Pentiuc 2001, 93.

JW

 

+ kabbāru “a type of copper ingot”; OA

šulūšāʾum ana -ba-ri-im Anatolica 12, 131 Ka 435: 6 “(they offer (to pay) a rate of) three (units of wool) for (one) k.”. S. Donbaz and Veenhof 1985, 131–34; Dercksen 1996 for translation and discussion. Cf. OB g/kubāru, also a type of ingot.

JW/NJCK

 

+ kabbāʾu “seamster”; OB

ka-ba-ú inaddűninnima ittallakū AbB 10, 41 r. 35 “(send the garments to PNN.) The seamsters will abandon me and walk away” (reading after von Soden 1986, 473).

JW

 

kabbu “burning”

Lex. anqullum = MIN (šāru) kab-bu AOAT 50, 373: 191A (malku) “heat” = “burning wind”; s. an--ul = šāru ka-ab-bu RA 17, 185: 17 (Hrůša 2010, 236).

 

kabilli s. qawili

 

+ kabilukku “a dish or fruit”; NA

1 BÁN ka!-bi-lu-ki SAA 11, 28: 8 “1 seah of k.” (between wine and fig cakes).

 

+ kab/pkurru “metal part of a wheel”; OB

1. OB (bronze and tin) ana sappī kakkī ka-aB-ku-ur-ri ša 2 magarrī GAL ARM 25, 693: 15 (= ARM 32, p. 272) “for s., pegs, and k. for 2 large wheels”, sim. ARM 22, 203+ ii 40 (= ARM 32, p. 277f.)

2. Here separated from OAkk. kab/pkūru on semantic grounds, cf. Arkhipov 2012, 156.

JW

 

kab/pkūru, + kabkullu(?) “a container”

Lex. kuškáb-ku[l] = ŠU-lum (= kabkul(l)um) MSL 7 p. 133 with Civil apud Steinkeller 1991. Perhaps Presarg. and Sarg. (giš)NAG.KUD/KU/KUL, read káb-kud(r)/ku/kul (Steinkeller 1991 with refs.).

S. also kab/pkurru.

JW

 

kablu “leg of a piece of furniture”; + OA

1. OA -ab-lu (of a table) AKT 3, 66: 35.

2. OB of table: ka-ab-la-tu-šu FM 8, 46 no. 6: 11, s. kamiššaru.

3. Cf. Ebla ga--lum MEE 2, 23: 2 (decorative element on a vessel, s. Pasquali 2005, 128).

JW (1, 3), MPS (2)

 

+ KaBrānumng. unkn.”; OA

(if PN comes back to PNf, he has to pay five minas of silver) u šuʾāti ina GA-ÁB-ra-nim idukkūšu Veenhof 2018a, 39 kt 89/k 345: 14 “and/or they will kill him in...” (also ib. 19, in a marriage contract, corresponding to ina i-DÍ-nim in the same phrase in other texts). S. Veenhof ib.: “Several Anatolian contracts stipulate alongside (or as substitute for?) a monetary fine the death penalty for breaking a promise of non-vindication.”

Prob. also i-GA-ÁB -ra-n[im!] OIP 27, 19A: 16 in the same clause.

NJCK

 

kabru “thick”

1. OA also of textiles: Prag I 487: 5, see garzu.

2. LB 4 ka-ba-ri (followed by dates and wood) AOAT 414/1, 69: 4 “4 fattened (sheep?)”.

S. also kapru.

 

kabrūtuthickness”(?)

Lex. […]-⌈a⌉ = kab-ru-tum MSL 11, Hh. 14: 292. Read perhaps kaprūtu “a (salpeter-based) cleaning product”, < kapāru II “to wipe clean” (Butz 1984, 306f.). The word appears between kasű-mustard and salt.

JW

 

kabsu “young (male) sheep”; + OB

1. OB uduka-ab-si qallūtim AbB 9, 162: 12 “small young sheep”.

2. NA ana mīnimma! PN ēpuš muk amēlu kab-su raddīʾu šū SAA 16, 5: 6 “why did PN do it? I say: The man is a sheep, a follower”.

3. Cherry 2017, 291f.: not an Aram. lw. in Akk.

JW (1), MPS (2–3)

 

kabtu “heavy”

1. OA ana barīte šarrē kŕ-áb-tů-tim niʾāti mīnam ṭaḫḫuʾātunu 01/k 217: 48 “what business do you (merchants) have among us, mighty kings?” (s. Günbattı 2014, 90).

2. OB ka-ab-di-im ARM 33, 346 n. 154: 59, s. qaqqadum.

3. MB lex. KAB = kab-tum Emar 6/4, 537: 735 (Sa), Sjöberg 1998, 277.

NJCK (1), JW (2–3)

 

kabű Idung”; + OA

AHw. s.v. kabūtu(m).

1. OA nēmalam šuʾāti DN u DN₂ a--bi-im lidīšū CCT 6, 14: 51 “may DN and DN₂ trample that profit into dung!” (Veenhof 2008a, 83 n. 348).

2. OB šurīpa[m] lipaḫḫirū ina iṣṣim ka-bi-i u šittam damqlimsű ARM 1, 21 r. 14 “they shall gather ice. Using a piece of wood they shall clean (it) from dung and feces” (Mayer 2016, 223).

3. OB aššum ka-bi-i u [s]umuktim ša arḫātim OBTR 327: 4 “concerning: cow dung and waste” (Mayer 2016, 223).

4. NB ka--e-šú-nu iḫaššalū inappűma ana libbi aḫāmeš usammaḫūma iṭennūma ippű ikkalū ABL 1000: 9 (AOAT 242, 292) “they crush (wild donkeys’) dung, sieve it, mix it together, grind it, bake it, and eat it” (said of foreign tribes, s. Mayer 2016, 223 + n. 10).

5. SB […] ⸢kī⸣ labūku ka--e kī lā risni ša ašlākī JSS 4, 10 (LKA 92): 10 “(the smell of cattle) […] like (something) steeped in dung, like it has not been soaked by the fuller”. Diff. Lambert ib. and 1975, 123: “like something not mended by the tailor”, presumably thinking of mukabbű. S. Mayer 2016, 224.

NJCK (1), JW (2–5)

 

kabű II “pod”

In UET 5, 590: 10 (quot. CAD K 29) read ka-b/pu-ú ma-li! -lu-p[u] “pods, as many as are peeled” (von Soden 1975, 460).

JW

 

**kabű B (CAD K, 29)

The ref. ARM 1, 21 r. 14 belongs to kabű I (von Soden 1975, 460).

JW

 

kabūtu “dung”

1. OB lit. ka-bu-ut alpim CUSAS 10, 12: 17 “ox’s dung”

2. OB šumma aḫi Purattim gulgullātimumallī u ka-bu-ut sisî ⸢mala⸣ qanęušzīz AbB 13, 60: 12 “I will (surely) fill the Euphrates with skulls and I will (surely) let the horse dung rise up as high as the reeds” (Edzard 1974, 125; Mayer 2016, 223).

3. SB liḫtī ka-bu-ut-ka (var. ka-bu-ut-ta-ka) liqmā dG[IBIL] LKA 153 r. 18 // BMS 61: 19 “the god of fire shall gather up your feces and burn them” (Mayer 2016, 223).

4. NA ka-bu-ut alpī emārī immerē sisę ina mātīšu ay ibšī SAA 2, 2 iv 7 “may there be no more dung of oxen, asses, sheep, and horses in his land” (Mayer 2016, 223).

S. also kabű.

JW

 

**kabűtu (CAD K, 29: “a part of the body of the horse”)

S. kabūtu.

 

+ kad- “to speak”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

kīmę : ur-ḫu ka-ta-ša-nu-ni-ia QS 3, 5: 45 “that he is saying the truth”, s. the comm. ib. p. 73.; cf. ur-ḫu ka-du-uk-ku ib. l. 57.

JW

 

kadabbedű “oral paralysis, aphasia”

In Maqlű I 90 (cit. CAD K, 31a as KA.DIB.BI.DA.A) read KA.DAB.BÉ.DA (Schwemer 2007, 14).

JW

 

ka-da-bi-bu s. dābibu

 

kadammu “a building; dungeon(?)” + LB

1. NA 14 ka-da-am-me SAA 19, 156: 4 in broken context. S. katammu.

2. ka-dam-mu SpTU 4, 121 ii 16 (in broken context).

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

kadāru II, + kedēru, + gadāru “to be wild, goring; (of hair, clothing) to be disheveled; to bend downwards”

1. OB lit. a) sinnišātu pērēte ga-ad-ra-ma Or. 87 19 ii 4 “the women are untidy regarding (their) hair”.

b) sinništumzikri lubuštaša ga-ad-ra-at-ma ib. ii 11 “the woman, like a man, her dress is untidy”.

2. SB (if (the statue of) Marduk) ana panīšu ke-di-ir SpTU 2, 35: 4 “is bending forwards”; ana warkīšu ke-di-ir ib. 5 “is bending backwards”.

Disc.: Sallaberger 2009, 235: k. is frequently said of aurochsen, whose attack stance is characterized by the lowering of the head – AHw.’ssich aufbäumen” is therefore inaccurate, as it denotes the opposite movement. When said of images and objects, k. should be understood as “to bend downwards” accordingly.

JW

 

kadāšu “celebration”

OB lit. ištanaḫḫiṭā ka-da-aš-ša-am YOS 11, 92: 11 “(the girls) keep twirling in celebration”.

JW

 

+ kadītu “an implement”; LB

1 ka-di-tum CT 55, 216: 5.

JW

 

kadriu (CAD K 32) “an epithet of Ištar”

Edzard 1974, 125: read kadrayyű, fem. kadrayyītu. Perhaps derived from kadrű, mng. “(Ištar) the generous”?

JW

 

kadru “aggressive; bent forward”

S. kadāru.

 

kad/trű, + ked/trű “greeting gift”

1. OB lit. bāb⸢iš ina⸣ ke-ed-⸢ri⸣-im lušīl CunMon. 8, 110: 5 “at the gate with a gift of greeting will I rejoice”.

2. OB lit. luddinma ke-ed-ri-a-am UET 6/2, 395 r. 16 “I shall give a gift”.

JW

 

kādu “watch, outpost”; + OB

ina nawęm ḫibram u ka-di ul nīšū Durand 1992, 118: 37 “we have neither a (nomadic) group nor outposts in the steppe”. Earlier disc. with further lit.: Streck 2000, 101.

 

+ KāDu, KaDDu (?) “a small object”; OA

2 GA-ḪI-in kt c/k 399: 9 (s. Dercksen 2015a, 51); 4 GA-ḪI kt c/k 441: 39 (ib. 54).

A small object mentioned in lists of expenses among other poorly known items such as dulbātum, saḫertum and ZiBārātum.

NJCK

 

kādűmng. unkn

OB lex. ḪI-ak = ka-du-ú MSL 12, 203-11: 27, cf. UD-a-ak already cit. in CAD K 35 (OB Lu 72).

JW

 

kâdu I “to be distressed(?)”

Cf. CAD K 35 kâdu B

D 1. OB te-te-ḫé = mu-ki-du (after mu-re-šu-um “slanderer”) ZA 94, 230 ii 7 2 “molester”. lillum mu-ki-id bēli emūqi ib. 231 v 7 “the fool is a molester of the mighty one”.

2. OB aganna 1 awīlum ina libbišunu ša ú-ka-du-šu ulūma e--el-lu!?⸣/<lu>-šu⸣ ⸢awīlum šū liqbī ARM 27, 116: 18 “now then, a man among them whom I am molesting or else I am oppressing, let that man speak”.

 

kâdu II “to take into custody”; + NB

G NB mannui⸣-kud-da-áš-šum⸣-ma tašapparamma OIP 114, 2: 18 “you shall send somebody who will take him into custody”.

**Gt s. Streck 2003a, 77.

 

kagallu, kigallu “a kind of waste land”

Lex. ki-ga[l]-lu/la = MIN (erṣetu ša mērešti) AOAT 50, 330: 22 (malku) “waste land = agricultural land”.

 

+ kaḫlu “power”; OB; Amor. lw.

ša meš a-bu ka-a-li [x?] u sugāgī ša GN ša adīni lā maḫrū FM 10 p. 104f. no. 66 “(silver) of the ‘fathers of power’ and the sheikhs of GN that had not been received until now”. The word is further attested in the Amor. onomasticon (Streck 2000, 101).

JW

 

kaḫšu “a chair”; EA; NWSem. lw.(?)

In EA 120: 18 read 1 [G]U.ZA ka-aḫ-šu (cf. CAD K 36 s.v., s. Borger 1975, 71a, Moran 1992, 199 n. 8). Ugar. kḥṯ is perhaps borrowed from Hurr. ke/išḫe/i, the etym. of which is disputed (s. Richter 2012, 216f. for bibliogr.).

JW

 

+ kāʾilu “a musician(?)”; OB

1. DUMUmeš NAR⸢meš⸣ [...] a[št]alű u ka-i-lu DN FM 9, 246 no. 63 r. 3 “the musicians, the a. musicians and the k. of DN”.

2.  ka!-i-li ARM 1, 13: 31 and ka-i!-[li?] ib. 34, both in broken context.

3. The suggestion that k. is a variant of kalű “lamentation-priest” (Durand 1997, 27; Durand/Guichard 1997, 63; Ziegler 2009, 65) is difficult for morphological reasons.

 

**kakilu (CAD K 44) “a bird”, s. kurmadillu.

 

kāipu (CAD K 36) “evildoer” read kayyipu (Edzard 1974, 125).

 

kaʾiššu s. g/kaʾiššu

 

kajj- s. kayy-

 

kakardinnu, karkadinnuvictualler; confectioner”; + OA

1. OA PN --ar--nu-um Prag I, 496: 17.

2. taqrībatam ša --ar--nim “the taqrībatu-ritual(?) of/for the victualler” kt 87/k 178: 7 (unpubl., court. K. Hecker).

3. MA PN ka-kar-⸢di⸣-nu MARV 3, 49: 8, as recipient of honey.

4. NA 12 kar-ka⸣-di-ni SAA 5, 215: 17 (in list of craftsmen, followed by bakers and cooks).

5. NA kar-ka-din SAA 12, 83 r. 3 (between brewer and cupbearer).

Disc.: Jakob 2003, 395–398 with add. MA refs.; Richter 2012, 180 (possibly Sem. KKR + Hurr. -tennu).

JW (1, 4), MPS (3, 5), NJCK (2)

 

kakdâ, qaqdâ “constantly”; + OB

OB lit. Ga-aG-da-am Lambert 1989, 325: 27 (broken context), s. the comm. ib. 333: “Its etymology is unknown since first-millennium writings begin variously ga-, ka- and qa-. A form qaqda derived from qaqqadu is unlikely in view of the writing here when compared with ka-aq--ra in 24 above.”

JW

 

kakikku s. kakkiku

 

kakkiku “an official”; OB

Syll. spelling: ka-ak-ki-ki-i[m] NABU 1992/122 A.3357: 10.

JW

 

kakkabānu, kabkabānu “starlike; a bird”

1. OA PN kŕ-áb-kŕ-ba-nu-um AKT 8, 70: 24 “PN the starlike” (līmu REL 74, s. Veenhof 2003, 25).

2. NA [1]00 kak-kab-nat issi! kirrute! SAA 7, 148 iii 12 “[1]00 k. birds from the kirratu vessel”.

3. NA 5 kak-kab-nat naptune! SAA 7, 149 ii 7 “5 k. birds for the meal”.

4. NA 5 kak-ka-ba!-nat?⸣mušen ša PN masenne SAA 7, 172: 4 (= ADD 1020 in CAD K 44 k. a) “5 k. birds of PN, the treasurer”.

5. NA 2 kak-kab-natmušen SAA 7, 160: 3 (= ADD 1087 in CAD K 44 k. a).

NJCK (1), MPS (2–5)

 

kakkabtu “star”

NA kak-kab-tú ša ḫurāṣi SAA 9, 11: 7 (s. also 11) “golden star”.

 

kakkabu “star”

1. OA 17 -ku-bu-ú ša kaspim kt c/k 18: 45 “17 stars of silver” (in a list of precious objects, s. Dercksen 2015b, 39).

2. OA As an epithet of Ištar, s. also AKT 6C, 526: 15; 11A, 163: 4.

3. OB lit. aṣbat pī ka-ka-bi AML 84: 1 “I seized the mouth of the stars” (referring to the constellation scorpio in an incantation against scorpions?).

4. OB qa-ka-ba-at kaspim u ḫurāṣim A.2576: 5’ “stars of silver and gold” (Charpin 1989–90, 94). S. Arkhipov 2012, 46f. for add. refs.

NJCK (1–2), MPS (3), JW (4)

 

kakkallu s. qalqālu

 

kakkartu “round loaf of bread; a metal ingot”, + OA

1. OA 5 --ra-tum 57 MA.NA šuqultum AKT 2, 59: 9 “5 k. weighing 57 minas”; cf. ib. 1; Prag I 482 r. 5; CCT 6, 19b: 27. S. Dercksen 1996, 59.

2. OB ka-ka-a[r-tum] ARM 21, 258: 33 “(2 talents and 29 1/2 minas of copper) in ingots”.

3. MB Emar nindaka-ak-kar-tum Emar 560: 90.

S. also kakkaru.

JW (1–3); NJCK (1)

 

kakkaru, + kikkiru (?) “talent; a bread”

1. OB URUDU ša 1 ⸢GÚ ka-ka-ri (or 1 ka-) FM 8, 164 no. 47 r. 5 “copper (in the weight) of a disk of 1 talent”. S. Durand ib. p. 166.

2. EOB Mari kikkiru (Limet 1976, 165 n. 11):

a) 5 BÁN ŠE ki-kir 5 GURUŠ ARM 19, 378: 2 “50 liters of barley (for) k. of 5 men”.

b) 1 A.GŔR 3 GUR 8 SĚLA Š[E] ki-kir 50 GURUŠ.GAL 56 TUR ARM 19, 379: 2 “1568 liters of barley (for) k. for 50 grown men and 56 young men”.

c) ki-kir […] ARM 19, 380: 3 (in broken context).

3. MB Emar “talent”: ka-qa- GUŠKIN ša PN Emar 59: 1 “one talent of gold from PN”:

4. MB Emar “a bread”: zarḫa ana ninda.meška-ak-ka-ri Emar 387: 5 “zarḫa-flour for k.”; s. also Emar 434: 8, 393: 25, 436: 12. nindaka-ka-ru TUR Emar 460: 21 “small k.”

Disc.: Likely NWSem. lw. (Huehnergard 1987, 136). S. Pentiuc 2001, 91. Cf. Hurr. gaḫari-and kakkari (Richter 2012, 179f.). S. also kakkartu.

JW

 

kakkassu s. kakkussu

 

kakkišuweasel?”

NA [ka-ki]š-a-ti (in broken context) SAA 9, 4: 3.

 

kakku “stick; weapon, mace”

1. OB lex.:

a) gištukul-sík-ĝu10 = ka-ak-ki pērtiya CUSAS 12 p. 154 ii 3 (Ugumu) “bun(?) of my hair”.

b) gištukul zú-ĝu10 = ka-ak-kišinniya ib. 155 v 11 “my canine tooth”.

2. OA lit. kakkam nadānun: ana 70 ālānī --am a--in OA Sarg. 9 “I waged war with 70 cities”.

3. OA mīššu ša kīma awīlim raggim -ku-šu ilqēʾuma a–GN ittalku LB 1206: 7 (unpubl., court. K. R. Veenhof) “why has he taken his weapon like an evil man and gone to GN?”; sim. TC 3, 25: 18.

4. “mace” in lists of (precious) objects: 5 -ku-ú AKT 6B, 468: 9 “5 maces”, s. Barjamovic/Larsen 2008, 153f., inventory of a chapel); s. also kt c/k 18: 46 (Dercksen 2015b, 39).

5. OA ana -ki-im qadēšuma ušteneṣṣűniāti(‑ma) Çeçen 2002, 67 kt 92/k 526: 13 “they are trying to make us go out with him (the ruler) for fighting”.

6. rabī k. “overseer of the weapons”: OA PN rabī -ke-em AKT 10, 54A: 4; BIN 4, 163: 4; TC 3, 158: 9.

7. NA PN bēl k.: EN-TUKUL-KUR-u-a BATSH 6/2, 53 r. 5, 54 r. 7, 60 r. 8'', 145 r. 14''; EN-TUKUL-ša!-du-ú-(a) 55 r. 17 “The lord of the weapon is my mountain”.

8. ša k.: OA PN ša GIŠGAG-ki kt 92/k 193: 37 (= KEL A) // ša -ki! kt 91/k 555: 26 (= KEL B) // ša GAG-im kt n/k 517+1571: 41 (= KEL D), s. Veenhof 2003, 10 and 26 “the one (in charge?) of the weapon(s)”; s. also AKT 11A, 153: 5.

9. For OB refs. s. Arkhipov 2012, 110–112.

S. also kaksappu.

NJCK (2–6, 8), MPS (1–2, JK (7)

 

kakkű “lentil(s)”; + OA; + MA

1. OA lit. kakkāʾum: addīšim --a-am lā abārašši kt 90/k 178: 29 “I threw lentil(s) at her but I did not catch her” (incant., s. Michel 2004b, 398). Pace Michel kakkāʾam rather than kakkam “weapon”, cf. the sequel: “I threw beer bread, thyme and salt at her”.

2. MA šimka-ak-ku StAT 5, 47: 6.

NJCK (1), JW (2)

 

kakkullu, qaqqullu, + kukkallu?, + kukkullu “mash-tub, a wooden container”

1. OB Ě.SAG daqqāt qa-qú-ul-lim AbB 2, 87: 28 “first-rate oil, small amounts left over from the q.-vessel”; cf. Bottéro 1965, 378 (kak!-ku-ul-lim).

2. OB Alal. var. kukkallu?: 1 GAL KŮ.BABBAR ku-uk-ka-al-li AlT 366: 4 “1 silver cup (of) k.-type”.

3. kukkullu: 

a) MA in personnel lists “quiver(?) or container of sling-stones(?) and its carrier”: PN ku-ku-lu BATSH 18, 58: 8, 18, 20; 74 r. 13, 15f., 22; 75: 20f.; PN ku-kúl-lu BATSH 18, 74 r. 35; 76: 6 and pass.; Chuera 71: 11; PN ša ku-kúl-li Chuera 70: 11, 23, 55; VS 21, 6 pass. (s. Freydank 1980, 103f. and n. 19); ša gišku-ku-li KAM 7, 8: 6. For add. refs. s. BATSH 18, 246 n. 883. S. Postgate 2008, 87; Jakob 2009, 101.

b) NA 2 gišku-kul?-u ḫaḫḫī SAA 11, 85: 4 “two k.-containers with plums”.

4. Pace AHw., there is no need to separate kakkullu I “Maischbottich” and kakkullu II “Früchte-, Abfallkorb”, s. Sallaberger 1996, 85–87.

JW (1–2, 4), JK/MPS (3)

 

kakkultumash-tub”; OB, MB, SB

OB k. (īni) “iris”: ... = kak-kúl-la-tum UET 7, 93: 42, followed by šapiltu and tēʾu īni, both designating parts of the eye.

 

kakkussu, kakkassu “a domesticated plant”; + OA; + OB

1. OA lit. uncert.: adī Ga-Ku-Za-am u pitiltam a-na--ú-ki-ni lā tappaššerī kt 91/k 502: 12 “until I put a ... and a string on you, you shall not come loose(?)” (incantation, s. Kouwenberg, forth.). The addressee is a diqāru, a pot or vessel, hence this Ga-Ku-Za-am may be a different word referring to a kind of lid or stopper.

2. OB (n) ka-ka!--tum ša ana GN buṭumtašin[a] ibbabla Stol 1979, 22 A.5861: 4 “(n) k., the green seed of which was brought to GN”.

NJCK (1), JW (2)

 

kakkūsu s. kakkussu

 

kakkušakku “a medicinal plant; a stone”

SB [na]kak-ku-šak-ku KAL 9, 37 iv 30 (among stones used to make a magic charm).

JW

 

kakmű “from Kakmu

1. OB TÚG Zuḫű ka-ak-mu SAG AWTL 94: 1, 3 “Zuhű-garment in the Kakmu-style of best quality”.

2. OB [i]na qabę manni ka-ak-mi-a-am ana bīt napṭarišu tanaddī … ka-ak-me-a-am ana bītišu tanaddī … ka-ak-me-a-am ša bītišu šūṣī CUSAS 15, 1: 6 – r. 4 “by whose order are you throwing the Kakmean into his (= my lords) guest house? (I have shown you my lord’s sealed tablet, and yet) you throw the Kakmean into his house! … Evict the Kakmean from his house!”

JW

 

+ kaksappu “a weapon”; OB

1 ka-ak--pu KŮ.BABBAR ARM 32, 325 M.10710: 1; ARM 21, 430: 1. Derived from a genitive construction: ka-ak(-)sŕ-pí ARM 31, 72: 16 and gišTUKUL -ap-[] ARM 32, 478 M.12597 r. 8 (cf. sappu “a lance”), s. Arkhipov 2012, 112–3. Perhaps “spearhead”.

JW

 

kalakku I, + kulukku “excavation, silo, storeroom, box”

1. Cold storage for ice: a) OB ka-la-ka-tim-m[a] FM 2, 140 no. 76: 18, s. kaṣāru G.

b)ina ka-la-ka⸣-[tim] ša umallű! 3 A.GŔR šurīpam upaḫḫi[r] ib. 12 “in the (cold) stor[es] that I had filled with water I collected 3 ugār (ca. 3600 l) of ice”.

2. NB ZÍD.DA.KASKAL ana ku-lu-ku-šú attadu OIP 114, 78: 15 “I poured travel provisions in his box”.

 

kalakku II “raft, kelek”; + NB

NB [] quppu ka-lak-ki SAA 18, 106: 7 “[either] a guffa or a kelek”.

 

kalāma “all, everything”

Delete ref. BBSt. No. 35: 6 in CAD K 65 (Borger 1975, 71a).

JW

 

kalammu “part of a chariot(?)”; MA

1. 20 NÍG.LAL ša NA₄meš ša ka-lam-me StAT 5, 3: 20, 21 “20 bindings of stone of the k.”, s. ib. p. 18.

2. 2 NA₄meš ša ka-lam-me […] StAT 5, 6: 5 “2 stones of the k.”

JW

 

kalappu, kalabbu, + kalbatu “pickaxe”

1. OA add. refs.: Prag I 625: 7; AKT 5, 17: 10; kt 88/k 310: 17 (s. Bayram 2016, 19); kt 88/k 972: 17 (s. Donbaz 2008, 219).

2. MB Emar 1 ka-⸢al⸣-ba-tum URUDU RE 69: 11, between “1 cart” and “1 copper axe”. The mng. is suggested by the context. The word is otherwise masc. in sg. with a fem. pl. Beckman (ib.) translates “copper bitch”.

3. NA ḫursān lallik an.barka-la!-pu lantuḫ! SAA 21, 15: 11 “I will go to the ordeal and lift the pickaxe”.

NJCK (1), JW (2), MPS (3)

 

kalbānātu “grapple(?)”

1. Lex. k[a]l-ba-na-tum = nabalkattu AOAT 50, 361: 34 (malku) “grapple(?) = scaling ladder”. S. Hrůša ib. p. 228.

2. OB simmiltam u k[a-a]l-ba-na-tam FM 1 p. 82: 42 “ladder and grapple(?)”.

 

kalbāniš, + kalbānī “like a dog”

ka-al-ba-[n]i-i[š] AML 119: 87; ka-al-ba-ni AML 116: 3.

 

kalbatubitch

1. OA in rabī kalbātimoverseer of the bitches” (as hunting dogs?): maḫar PN rabī -al-ba-tim AKT 3, 41: 18 “before PN, the overseer of the bitches”; s. also Chantre 2: 22’; kt c/k 1641: 17 (Albayrak 2005, 98); kt g/t 36: 8, 10, 12 (Bilgiç 1964, 148). S. Veenhof 2008a, 221.

2. OB lit. ka-al-ba-tam uššar CUSAS 10, 10: 43 “I will let the bitch go” (said of a woman).

3. MB Emar, uncert. (Flurname?): eqel mērēšu ina nārān ina ka-al-ba-ti AuOrS 55: 1 “farmland in between the rivers, in/among k.” Arnaud 1991, 11 interprets the word as qalbātu “well” (cf. Arab. qalīb-, pl. ʾaqlibat-).

NJCK (1), MPS (2), JW (3)

 

kalbu “dog”

1. OA as an epithet or a nickname: kunuk PN -al-be-em AKT 6B, 492: 5 “seal of PN, the ‘dog’”; of the same person also in kt m/k 148: 18 (Hecker 2004a, 65), kt c/k 515: 8 and 678: 2 (court. J. G. Dercksen).

2. OB kalab Šamaš (CAD K 62, AHw. 425 kalbu 8d): ur-me = k[a-l]a-ab dUTU UET 7, 93: 37. S. Sjöberg 1996, 228.

3. SB ka-lab-dKIN.SIG Fs. Lambert, 169 no. 15: 22, perhaps an insect.

4. NB anāku kal-bi pāliḫi SAA 18, 71 r. 13 “I am a fearsome dog”.

NJCK (1), MPS (2, 4), JW (3)

 

kalgukkű, + kalkukku “red ochre”; + OB

1. OB aššum ka-al-gu-uk-ki-im gabîm u liqtim ARM 18, 15: 5 “concerning the red ochre, gabű-alum and liqtu-alum.”

2. OB 4 MA.NA ka-al-gu-uk-ki-im ARM 22, 259: 4 “4 minas of red ochre”.

3. OB 1 MA.NA ka-al-gu-ku ana šipir gišGIGIR SAG ARM 23, 188 no. 208: 1 “1 mina of red ochre for work on a first-quality chariot”; cf. 209: 1, 210: 1, 211: 1.

4. OB aššum annu[ḫa]ri aššum gabî aššum ka-al-[gu]-uk-ki Fs. Birot, 98 no. 1: 7 “concerning annuḫaru-alum, concerning gabű-alum, concerning red ochre” (memorandum).

5. OB ka-al-ku-uk-ki-im Fs. De Meyer, 270: 6, 8 (s. kalű IV).

JW

 

kalītukidney

1. OB lex. ellag gůn-ba-ra-ĝu10 = ka-li-it birkiya CUSAS 12, 157 ix 10 (Ugumu) “my testicles”.

2. OB lex. ellag gůn-šŕ-ga-ĝu10 = ka-li-it libbiya ib. ix 11 “my kidney”.

 

+ kallâmquickly, promptly”; OB

1. PN ka-al-la-a-am ana ṣērika išpurannęti Fs. von Soden, 52 A.2435: 13 “PN sent us promptly to you”.

2. (tuppam) PN ka-al-[lam] ana ṣēriya ušābilaš[šu] ARM 3, 68: 19 “PN had (the tablet) promptly send to me”.

3. ka-al-la-a-am ana ṣēr bēliya awīlē šunūti šurrī ARM 14, 105: 19 “bring these men to my lord, quickly”. S. also ARM 18, 8: 18 and ARM 33, 101: 33.

Disc.: Charpin 1994: Most Mari refs. cit. s.v. AHw./CAD s.v. kallű are adverbial. Apparently < kalla-am with adverbial acc. ending. Final -i in NA kalliʾu seems to be a secondary development.

JW

 

kallamāre, + kannamāre (MA), + kallanāri (NA) “early in the morning”

1. MA a) ka-na-ma-ri arḫiš lublūni Chuera 1: 6 “they must quickly bring (them) in the early morning”.

b) ūma ka-an-na-ma-ri lillik Chuera 5: 6 “he shall go the same day, in the early morning”

c) ka-na-ma-ri šamma [ikkulū] BVW A 8, Ab: 7 “[they will eat] grass at dawn” cf. D: 5; M+N r. 5. cf. H: 2.

2. NA ka-[l]a-na-ri-šú SAA 15, 6: 7; kal-la-ma-a-re SAA 13, 88 r. 6, 100: r. 9; ka-la-ma-re SAA 5, 243 r. 14.

Disc.: Etym. likely < kal- + namāri, lit. “entire (time of) shining”, cf. kal ūme, kal mūše (Streck 2017, 598–9; de Ridder 2018 §491).

JW

 

kallanāri s. kallamāre

 

kallāp/bu “a foot soldier, auxiliary troops”

1. NA pl. kalbāte: 80 kal-ba-te⸣ SAA 5, 215: 20.

2. rab k.: NA GAL KAL!-bi Orient 29, 120 no. 8: 3 (seal legend); GAL-kal-lap BATSH 6/2, 127 r. 3, 127 r. 9.

3. NA pl. (PNN) kal-la-pa-nu BATSH 6/2, 121 r. 6.

Disc.: Borrowed into Aram. as klbʾ (Fales 1987, 469). On mng. (infantry rather than a type of courier or dispatch rider) s. Postgate 2000a, 104.

MPS (1), JW (2, disc.), JK (2, 3)

 

kallatu “bride, daughter in law”

1. OB fka-al-la-tam ana mārīya ušērib FM 2, 76 no. 40: 6 “I made enter a bride (into the house of) my son”; cf. ib. 8.

2. OB 7 DAMmeš ka-la-tum FM 4, 215 no. 36: 2 “7 wives (of the king)”. Cf. N. Ziegler ib. p. 45f.

3. OB ka-la-at-ni ēzib CUSAS 36, 207: 9 “I divorced our daughter in law”.

4. OB kallat bītim: É.GI₄.A É OBTIV 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1. S. Kraus 1973, 53f.

5. OB kallat Šamaš “dragonfly” (AHw. kallātu 3a, CAD K 79 as a separate lemma): -dúb-dúb-bu/za-an-za-na-? = ka-la-at dUTU UET 7, 93 r. 9f. S. Sjöberg 1996, 229f.

MPS (1–2, 5), JW (3–4)

 

kallu “bowl”

SB dugkal-lu ša ina šarūri šamši SAA 3, 35: 9 “a bowl in the rays of the sun”.

 

kallű “express messenger, courier”; + MA

1. MA PN kal-li-ú Chuera 58: 4.

2. With ina/ana/ “post-haste”, MA:

a) a-na kal-le-e BATSH 4/1, 5: 10’; 9: 34; 19: 4’.

b) i+na kal-le-e ib. 13: 14.

c) ana ka-li-ia StAT 5, 54: 13.

S. also kallâm.

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

kalmak/qru “an adze or ax”

OB (bronze for) 1 ka-al-ma-aK-ri ARM 32, 223 M.7190: 4. S. Arkhipov 2012, 113.

JW

 

kalmarḫu “a tree”

In SMH 708 r. 8 (cit. CAD K 86a) read after coll. gal-ma-ar-ḫ[é] (SCCNH 8, 364).

JW

 

kalmartu, + garmartu “a month name, a festival”.

NA nadbaku ša gar-mar-te SAA 12, 69: 35 “expenditure for the g.

 

kalmatu “parasite, louse”

1. OB qēmam ... ka-al-ma-tum iltapat ARM 14, 74: 7 “the parasites have infested the flour”.

2. OB PN: Ka-al-ma-ta-nu JCS 23, 127: 4 (von Soden 1975, 460).

Disc.: Lion/Michel 1997, 720–722.

JW (2), MPS (1)

 

+ kaltu, keltu? “rival, opponent, pretender to the throne”; OB

1. ša PN ward[ī] [ana k]a-de-e-im ana ka-al-ti-{TI-}ia [tatt]anaššēʾam u anāku mār PN2 [waradka] ša inanna maḫriyawaš⸣bu [ana k]a-al-te-ka ul attanaššī[ku]m] Fs. Larsen, 99–115 (A.1215): 44, 48 “(what? Is it acceptable) that you should ceaselessly promote my servant PN against me as my kadű (and) my rival, while I should not keep promoting against you as your rival the son of PN2, your servant, who now stays with me?” (transl. Sasson 2007, 455 n. 9, cf. Charpin/Durand 2004, who take kadű to mean “protect” or the like, cf. kīdūtu.).

 (ARM 26, 377: 29)

2. ana ka-al-ti-ia šiprī i[št]anappa[r] u daʾatī ul iš[â]l ARM 26, 312: 23 “he keeps sending messengers to my rival but does not care about me”.

3. PN maḫar bēliy[a ikš]udanni [umm]ami ki-il-ti ittī P[N2 wa]šib an]āku maḫar bēliya kīʾam āpulšu u[mmami wu]ddi bēli awīlī šunūti innaddinakkum u [bēl]ī ana PN kīʾam iqbī umma[mi] [...]x aḫḫīka luterrakkum assurr[ri bēlī? ki-i]l-ti šunūti ana [...] ARM 28, 53: 8, 13 “PN [cam]e to me before my lord, saying: ‘My rival [st]ays with PN2’. I thus answered him before my lord: ‘[Cer]tainly my lord will give to you those men’. And my [lo]rd thus said to PN: ‘[...] I will return to you your brothers’. Hopefully [my lord(?)] will [...] those ⸢rivals⸣”.

4. [a]mmīnim ki-il-ti ina GN wašib ARM 28, 115: 36 “why is my rival staying in GN?”

5. sarrar[u … š]a ittī ki-il-ti-[ia] ana qaqqadiya leqîmilli⸣kūnim RATL 112: 6 “the bandits (…) who came with my rival to take my head”.

Disc.: Charpin/Durand 2004; Sasson 2007, 455ff.; Lion 2000, 219f; Durand 2000a, 183 n. 388. S. also kaltūtu.

JW

 

+ kaltūtu “rivalry”; OB

[P]N ana ka-al-tu-ut [P]N2 našű ARM 28, 44: 28 “they are positioning PN as a rival (against) PN2”.

S. kaltu.

JW

 

kalű IV “yellow ochre”

1. OB lit. ka-lu-um // ka-lu-ú panūšu AML 51: 8; 50: 20; 60: 3 “his face is yellow-ochre paste”, s. qitmu.

2. OB aššum ka-li-im u kalkukkim Fs. De Meyer, 270 (M.11050). 5 “concerning the yellow ochre and red ochre”.

Lit.: Stol 1998, 347f. (yellow ochre, not orpiment).

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

kalű V “to hold, detain”

G aššum nēbaḫim ka-⸢le-ni⸣ CUSAS 36, 63: 6 “we are detained because of the nēbaḫu-payment” (kalęni instead of kalęnu < kalī-ānu).

Gt(n) ta-ak-/tak-te-el-lu-a-ma AOAT 275, 226 r. ii (Streck 2003a, 68).

JW

 

kālű “dam; a designation of fields”

For LB (designation of fields) s. Da Riva 2002, 88f.

JW

 

+ KalūBu, KalluBu(?) “a valuable object”; OA

(thieves have entered the temple of Aššur) mēšurum -lu-bu-ú zamruʾātum u katāpū tablū Bab. 6, 187 no. 7: 13 “the mēšuru-symbol, K., zamrūtu and katāpu-vessels have been taken away”.

NJCK

 

kalūmtu “female lamb”

1. OB lit. ⸢luwaʾʾirrēʾî ... arḫāti u ka-⸢lu-ma⸣-ti-im lilqűnimmi šitta ša arḫāti[m] u ka-lu-ma-ti AML 120: 13, 16 “let me instruct the herders of cows and she-lambs so that they grab for me the sleep of cows and she-lambs”.

2. OB lit. aḫzā ka-lu-ma-tum maḫrīšu AML 125: 10 “she-lambs are seized in front of him”.

 

kalūmu “(male) lamb”

1. OB lit. aḫzū immerū ka-lu-mu AML 125: 9 “sheep and lambs are seized”.

2. MA lalāʾū 16? ka-lu-mi-ia BATSH 4/1, 12: 28 “the kids and my 16? (male) lambs”.

3. LB 3 ka-lu-mu par-rat AOAT 414/1, 184 r. 6 “3 male (and) female lambs”.

4. S. also ḫadīru.

JK (2), MPS (1, 3), JW (4)

 

kalzu “a military unit”; NA

1. [ina] pan PN rab kiṣir šanę aptiqissuimmaggur ina kal-zi-a-ma alassu[m] SAA 1, 236: 5 “I appointed him [to] the service of PN, the second cohort commander. He did not agree, saying: ‘I will serve as a runner in my own unit’”.

2. PN ša ka[l-zi]-šú ša ka[l-zi nišīšu⸣ SAA 1, 171: 9f. “PN of his k. unit and of the k. unit of his people”.

3. ša kal⸣-[z]i ittalkūni ib. 28 “the (members) of the k. unit came”.

4. ana PN ana ša kal-zi šarru bēlī lišʾala ib. 32 “let the king, my lord, ask PN and the (members) of the k. unit”.

5. SAA 1 p. 216: “community”.

 

kamādu “to beat (fabric)”; + OB

1. OB n MA.NA šutűm [k]āmidū li-i[k]-mu-du-nim-ma BagM 23, 186: 7 “n minas of woven textiles – the kāmidu-craftsmen shall beat”.

2. OB ka-ma-du-um Lackenbacher 1982b i 29’, ii 16, ii 32, and pass. A two-day step as part of various methods of textile fabrication, after cleaning (zukkű) and needle repairs (?) (eṣēru) and before carding (mašāru).

3. NB [i-ká]m-ma-du-šú-nu-ti SAA 17, 11 r. 2 “they will beat (?) them”; ṣubātī lik-mu-du-ú-ma ib. r. 6.

Disc.: The mng. “to beat (in order to soften)” (AHw.) rather than “to weave” (CAD) is supported by cognates (Arab. kamada “to soften (a fabric); Syr. kmd “to become flaccid”) and ITT 5, 9996 (already cit. CAD K 121 s.v. kamdu). For possible cognates in Ebla and Ugar. s. Sanmartín 2019, 307f. The procedure in question may be a kind of felting (Lackenbacher 1982b, 141f.; Wasserman 2013, 264).

S. also kamdu, kimdu, kāmidu.

JW (1–2), MPS (3)

 

kamālu “to become angry”

With acc.: OB lit. [k]a-mi-il-ka libbī! ZA 110, 45 iii 64 “my heart is angry with you”.

 

kamamtua herb or spice”; OAkk, Ur III

1. Ur III kŕ-ma-am-tum CUSAS 3, 442: 15; CUSAS 3, 557: 6. For further ref. s. CUSAS 4, 92.

2. A spice which ceased to be used after the Ur III period (Heimpel 2009, 98 n. 64). To be distinguished from kamantu, s. the disc. in CAD K 109 s.v.

NR/JW

 

kamāmu “to nod, to shake the head (?); an expression of displeasure”

G OB lit. ta-ak-ma-am KALAM x […] JRAS Cent. Supp. iii 7 “you nodded, the land […]” (Lambert 1967, 103; Streck/Wasserman 2008, 347). This form shows that the verb is, pace AHw. 430, not a/u but a/a.

+ D SB mu-kám-mi-mu-ú-a ORA 7, 320: 44 “those who shake the head at me”.

Disc.: Mayer 2007, 132 n. 8: An expression of displeasure, perhaps “to growl, to grumble”.

JW (G), MPS (D)

 

kamantu “a (pharmaceutical) plant”

1. Del. ref. BE 9, 99 (cit. CAD K 110), read ka-⌈ra⌉-šú (coll. Leichty/Zadok apud Donbaz/Stolper 1993).

2. For add. refs. s. Scurlock 2007. Her suggestion to identify k. with henna is not supported by the evidence (Renaut 2007).

JW

 

kamānu “a cake”

NA 2 nindaka-ma-na-a-ti SAA 12, 68 r. 11 “2 k.-cakes”.

 

kamar(r)u, kabar(r)u, + kanar(r)u “(garden) wall”

AHw. kamar(r)u, CAD kamāru A.

1. MB ina ka4-ma-a[r(-)] SCCNH 4, 348: 5.

2. MB ka-na-ri HSS 14, 5: 1.

Lit.: Wilhelm 1985, 53; Richter 2012, 182 s.v. kab/m/war(r)u(m).

JW

 

kamāru I, kamarrusnare, trap”; + OB

1. OB lit. iṣṣūr māt lā māgirī i-ka-mar-ri išḫuḫ RA 86, 81: 8 “the bird of the land of the disobedient wasted away in the trap”.

2. in k. šakānum:

a) OAkk in <a>ppārim -ma-ra-ma iškun FAOS 7, p. 291 Fragm. C 7 ii 4 “in the marshes he set traps”.

b) EOB -ma-ar-šu-n[u] išku[n] ZA 93, 9 v 7 “he snared them”, pl. -ma-ri-šu iškun ib. 8 iii 2’.

c) We follow AHw. in assuming that this is a metaphor for inflicting defeat. Diff. CAD K, who assume a noun kamāru B “defeat”. It has further been suggested to connected the word with kamāru IV “to pile up” (which is also said of bodies and ruin), s. Mayer 2016, 224.

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

kamāru II “defeat”

S. kamāru I.

 

kamāru III “a (dried?) fish”; + OA

1. OA 49 -ma-ru Prag I, 740: 11 and kt 92/k 241: 7 (unpubl., cit. Dercksen 2001, 44 n. 23). S. Lion/Michel 2000, 78–80. S. also kamāru V.

2. OB ku₆ka-ma-ri ... [ā]kulma []diš ina pīya ṭābū [u] inanna ana kayyān[im] ina ku₆ka-ma-ri ... ātanakkal ARM 28, 88: 6, 10 “I have eaten the k. fish and they were very good in my mouth. [And] now I want to eat from the k. fish all the time”.

3. OB ⸢3?⸣ ka-ma-ruku ana napt[an] šarrim u [ṣā] ARM 21, 90: 1 “3(?) k. fish for the meal of the king and the soldiers”.

4. OB in Tell Leilan s. TLT p. 353f.

5. Etym. s. the disc. in Kogan/Militarev 2005, 171f. S. also kawarḫu.

NJCK (1), JW (2–5)

 

kamāru IV “to pile up, accumulate”

Gt OB lit.rabīʾat ki-it-mu-ra-atšupassu CUSAS 10, 1: 39 “is his dwelling not big (and) heaped up high?”

 

+ kamāru V, g/qamāru? “a piece of clothing or equipment”; OA

1. ḫuršiānum ša -ma-re-e AKT 5, 58: 7 “a box with k.” (alongside a saddlecloth, ropes, pack-saddles, a sack and a box with dulbātum).

2. (PN is bringing you) šakūkam u -ma-re kt n/k 268: 13 “a belt and k.” (s. Çeçen/Gökçek 2017, 467).

3. 10 -ma-re KBo. 9, 9 r. 11 (at the end of a list of clothing and unidentified items).

Disc.: Refs. listed under kamāru III could potentially belong here as well, although the context is less clear. S. Veenhof 2010, 170.

NJCK/JW

 

+ kamāsiš “kneeling”; OB

OB lit. PN ka-ma-s[í-i]š maḫar DN illakā [m]āšu CUSAS 10, 2 iv 8 “PN, as he was kneeling, his tears constantly flowed before DN”.

 

kamāsu I, kamāṣu, kanāšu “to gather”

G 1. OB anāku ana GN ka-am-sa-ku RATL 143: 19 “I (and my troops) gathered in GN”.

2. LB ki-in-ṣa-a-ma dubsar 3, 135: 16 “gather!”, cf. kusītu.

2. Perfect iktemis: NB (silver) ik-te-mis OIP 114, 41: 11.

D NA eṣādu ka-ni-ši StAT 2, 163: 11 “collect (m.) the harvest”.

MPS (G 2–3), JK (D), JW (G 1)

 

kamāsu II “to kneel, to squat”

G 1. OA tadaggalā kīma ammākam kīʾam ina išātim -am--ku-ni AKT 9A, 73: 7 “do you not see that there (? sic!) I am simply sitting in the fire?” (i.e. “things have got too hot for me”? The writer is clearly in financial trouble).

2. OB lit. [k]a-mi-is ZA 110, 39 i 16, s. šēdu.

NJCK (1), MPS (2)

 

kamaššuratu s. kamiššaru

 

kamʾatu, + kamʾu “white truffle”; + MB Ugar., + LB

1. OB awīlī ana kam-a-tim leqęm aṭrudma umma anākuma pīqat ka-am-ú itât āl[im] ibaššű ... illikūma gibʾī tamšīl ka-am-i ublūnimma awīlī šunū[ti] utēr umma anākuma ištū gibʾū ibbašű ka-am-i ātammarā illikūma ka-am-i ītammarū anūmma ka-am-i ša ublūnim [a]na ṣēr bēliya ušābilam [ka-a]m-i šināti ... ARM 27, 54: 6–21 “I dispatched men to collect white truffles, saying: ‘Perhaps there are white truffles around the city.’ ... They went and brought red truffles resembling white truffles, and I turned back those men saying: ‘Since there occured red truffles, look everywhere for white truffles!’ They went and looked everywhere for white truffles. Now I have sent to my lord the white truffles that they brought. Those [white truf]fles ...”.

2. MB Ugar. [k]a-ma-ʾa-⸢tu PRU 6, 159: 3 (reading after Huehnergard 1987, 137).

3. LB ka-ma-a-tú PIHANS 79, 18: 5 (s. NABU 1997/88).

4. On truffles s. Stol 2014, 149f.; for Ebla refs. s. Pasquali 2005, 129f.

JW

 

kamdu, kandu, + gandu “a designation of textile”; + LB

LB (1/3 sekel silver) ana 1 ga-an-du Zawadzki 2013, 550 r. 5 “for 1 g.”

S. kamādu.

JW

 

+ kamēšu “ a sort of bread(?)”; NA

1 ka!-me-šú SAA 7, 174: 11 in list of various breads.

 

kāmidu “a textile craftsman”

S. kamādu.

 

kamîš “like a captive”; + NA

[l]išēšibšu ka--iš SAA 2, 4: 21 “may she have him sit like a captive”.

 

kamiššaru, kamiššuru “pear tree”

1. OB dippāt[ūšu] elammakkum u kablātūšu giška-mi-šu-ru-[um] FM 8, 46 no. 6: 12 “its (the table’s) top shall be e.-wood and its legs shall be pear wood”.

2. OB 1 gišGU.ZA gišŠENNUR.[BAB]BAR.RA x x x RIMA 1, p. 56: 11 “1 throne made from k.-wood” (Šamšī-Adad inscr.).

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

kamkammatu “a kind of ring”

1. Ur III 1 urudu-am--ma-tum ArOr 87, 36 no. 3 = RA 113, 41 “1 copper k.”. Otherwise kam-kam-ma-tum in Ur III (cf. CAD K 124 a).

2. For add. OB refs. s. Arkhipov 2012, 80.

JW

 

+ kamliš “furiously”; OB

aš-ri-UŠ ⸢ša libbiki⸣ [k]a-am-li-iš šuttuqu kűmma Ištar Or. 87, 16 i 30 “wherever you desire, to furiously split (the house) – is yours, Ištar”.

JW

 

+ Kamlu “a bread”; MB Emar

nindaKA-am-la i-zu-ú-zu Emar 388: 66 “they will share (pres.!) the bread”. Huehnergard apud Pentiuc 2001, 146 suggests a connection to Syr. qmal “to become moldy”, qumlā “blue mold on bread; barley cakes baked in the embers and allowed to grow sour”.

JW

 

kammakku s. kammaku

 

kammaku “a tarpaulin for chariots”; OB

1. kakkabū [š]a kam-ma-ki-im ša GIŠ.GIGIR ša ḫamuḫḫim ARM 32, 484 M.15076: 3 “(silver for) stars for the tarpaulin of the ḫamuḫḫu-chariot”, cf. ARM 7, 115.

2. 2 gadakam-ma-ku ARM 21, 294: 2; cf. ARM 18, 45.

3. 1 kam-ma!-ku duḫšî ARM 21, 255: 3 “1 tarpaulin of blue-green (wool/leather?)”.

Disc.: A tarpaulin usually made from wool or linen (Durand 2009, 50, 158 and Arkhipov 2012a, 9).

JW

 

kammamtu s. kamamtu

 

kammu I, pl. kammātu “tablet; platelet; a rivet”; + NA

CAD kammu B and C.

1. NA 37 ka-ma-te! KŮ.GI ša qaqqad sisî CTN 2, 151: 1 “37 platelets of gold for a horse’s head”.

2. NA (1 quiver) 2 kam-ma-tu SAAB 13, p. 8 no. 4: 2 “two rivets”. The suggestion noted by Postgate/Collon ib. p. 8 to understand this as a “dome-headed” nail or tack in view of kammu II “a fungus” is unconvincing, as it seems doubtful that Assyrians would have made the connection between dome-shaped mushrooms and the mold- or lichen-like kammu II.

3. 3 kam-ma-ni SAA 7, 49 i 4 in inventory of tablets and writing boards.

JW (1–2), MPS (3)

 

kammu II “a fungus; a substance used in leather production”

CAD kammu A.

 

kammutu s. kammu I.

 

+ kamru II, kumru “priest”; MB Emar

1. LÚ.MEŠ.GAL lú.meš-ma-ri Emar 446: 38 “the nobles and priests”; lú.meš-ma-ru ib. 17.

2. [D]N ka-ma-[ri] Emar 378: 48 “DN of the priests”.

3. D[N ]l ku-ma-ri Emar 373: 134, cf. 468: 3 “DN, lord of the priests”.

4. ša tabkū ku-ma-ri Emar 274: 17 “of the storehouse of the priests”.

Disc.: Some refs. may also be interpreted as gammaru (“whole populace”) or derivates of kamāru IV “to heap up” (s. Pentiuc 2001, 95–6 for disc. and lit.). The forms are West-Sem. pls. Cf. Ugar. kmr, syllabically GU-um-ru PRU 3, 69–70: 21–24 (Huehnergard 1987, 95).

JW

 

kamsu I “a designation of garments”; OA

New refs.: AKT 6A, 144: 9; AKT 7A, 176: 2; AKT 9A, 120: 7.

An indicator of high quality, perhaps “finished”, “gathered in (of edges?)” (< kamāsu I), s. Michel/Veenhof 2010, 253f.

NJCK/JW

 

kams/ṣu II “kneeling”

NB kam-ṣe-e-ti SAA 17, 201 r. 8 in broken context.

 

kamʾu s. kamʾatu

 

kamű II “captive”; + OAkk

OAkk logogr. LÚxKÁR/ÉŠ: n GURUŠ.GURUŠ ušamqit n LÚxKÁR ik[m]ī FAOS 7, RIM C 1: 54 and pass. “he fell n men, he took n captives” (s. Kienast/Sommerfeld 1994, 225).

JW

 

kamű III “to capture”

D 1. SB [mu-]kam-mu-ú-a ORA 7, 320: 37 “those who capture me”.

2. SB [ku]-um-mu ina kaműtimma ORA 7, 322: 70 “he is [bou]nd in captivity”.

 

kamūnu I “cumin”

1. OA add. refs.: Prag I 740: 11; 429: 26 (// OIP 27, 55: 31); AKT 4, 37: 19; AKT 5, 57: 9; 58A: 8; kt 88/k 418: 2 (s. Bayram 2016, 38).

2. OB (10 liter of) ka-mu-nu FM 2, 25 no. 4: 10 (in list of vegetables and spices).

NJCK (1), MPS (2)

 

kamūnu II, + kamunű(?) “(a) fungus”

1. SB ina lumun ka-mu-ni-e l[a ṭābi ša…] JNES 33, 347 r. 7 “because of the evil of ill-[portending] k.-fungus”, s. Caplice ib. p. 349; cf. ka-mu-nu-u BAM 329 (Kinnier Wilson 2005, 8).

2. “Gall” on tamarisks: SB ka-mun bīni JMC 5, 9: 68 (Ugu) “k. of the tamarisk” (as a medical ingredient, s. Worthington ib. p. 25). The mng. “gall” is supported by explanations with gabű “alum” in comm. and lex. texts. Both tamarisk galls and alum are historically used in tanning. Like a fungus, galls grow from the bark. S. Streck 2004, 285f.

Disc.: S. Kinnier Wilson 2005, 8–11.

JW

 

kaműtu “captivity”

SB [ku]mmu ina ka-mu-tim-ma adi ušteššera rāmanu ukannu du[mqu(?)] ORA 7, 322: 70 “he is [bou]nd in captivity, until he provides justice for himself and establishes what is g[ood(?)]”.

 

kanaktu, kanatku, + kanatḫu “an incense-bearing tree”; + Ur III; + OA

1. Ur III n ḪAR giš-na-at-ḫu-um CUSAS 3, 1375: 35ff. “n k.-tree seedling(s)” (for a garden). Cf. -na-at-ku HSS 14, 198: 1 (Nuzi, CAD K 135b, 2, 1’) and ka-na-a-at-ki EA 22 iii 32. S. also Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 358.

2. OA (1 l) zarʾam ša -na-ak-tim KTS 2, 14: 16 “of seed of the k.-tree”.

3. OB lit. pl. ka-na-ka-ti, s. munű I.

4. After Moran 1992, 59, note 35 and 83, note 41 the logogram in EA 25 iv 51, which is quoted in CAD B 64 under bullukku as ŠIM.BAL, must be read ŠIM.GIG (= kanaktu).

Disc.: Jursa 2009, 161 (perhaps opopanax); Richter 2012, 183f. (Hurr. kanagi).

NR (1, 4), MPS (3), JW (5), NJCK (2)

 

kanāku “to seal”

G 1. Said of body parts: OB lit. ak-nu-uk appam u ḫasīsam ak-nu-uk šipīʾātim ša muḫḫišu ša DN ú!(I)-ra-am-mu-šu AML 114: 13 “I sealed the nose and the ear. I sealed the sutures of his skull, that DN had loosened”.

2. OB ina kunukkiya u kunuk mārī kārim bītam ni-ik-nu-uk FM 2, 285 no. 130: 20 “we sealed the house with my seal and the seal of the sons of the merchants’ area”.

D bīssu ú-ka-ni-ik FM 2, 285 no. 130: 8 "I sealed his house".

 

kanaqurtu s. q/kanakurtu

 

kanasarru, kanazerru, kašanšarru, + katanšarru “wooden part of wheel”

OB 3 ka-ta-an-ša-ra-tum u 2 lišānū epinnim AbB 11, 82: 9 “3 k. and 2 plow shares”, cf. ib. 12 and 14. The text clearly differentiates TA and ŠA.

JW

 

kanāšu I “to bow down, to submit”

D 1. EOB [an]a šēpī[šu] ⸢ú⸣--ni-í[s]--[n]u-ti RIME 4, p. 713 ii 19 “he made them fall at his feet”.

2. OB (food for soldiers) inūma ku-nu-ši-im KTT 139//140: 10 “at the time of submission”.

3. MB lex. DU = ku-un-nu-šu Emar 6/4, 537: 347 (Sa) “to force into submission”.

MPS (2), JW (1, 3)

 

kanatḫu s. kanaktu

 

kanatku s. kanaktu

 

KA-an-DA-BI-tum s. qanű

 

kandaku “boat hold”; foreign word

Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 36: Cf. Syr. kndwqʾ, “large storage jar for grain”, perhaps of Persian origin (s. Sokoloff 2009, 683).

JW

 

kandalu s. qandalu

 

kandarasānu, NA kandirše, kundiraše “a linen dress”; + NA

1. Lex. túgkun-dar-a-ši AfO 18, 331: 288 (practical vocabulary of Assur).

2. NA 1 kun-dir-a-še SAA 7, 121 i 6 (in list of cloths).

3. NA túgkan-dir-še SAA 7, 174: 5 (in list of cloths).

4. 4 túgkun-dar-a-šá-ni StAT 2, 164: 10.

Disc.: S. CAD K 148 kandarasanu (LB), AHw. 436 kandaru, AHw. 1569 kunda/irašu.

S. Gaspa 2018, 283–284. k. sometimes co-occurs with the sasuppu-garment and appears to be used in ritual context.

JW/MPS

 

kandirše s. kandarasānu

 

kandu, + kindu “a container”; NB, LB; Aram. lw.

1. 30 ki-in-du ša kupsū AfO 38/39, 81 no. 2: 12 “30 k. of (sesame) pressings”, s. MacGinnis ib. 82.

2. NB 1 kan-du (of bronze, for measuring oil) dubsar 7, 39: 5.

Disc.: S. Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 36f.; Cherry 2017, 158f. (Aram. lw.).

JW

 

kandu s. kamdu

 

kanīktu “sealed silver medal”

1. OB 10 GÍN 1 ḪAR KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN ka-ni-<ik>-tum FM 1, 140 A.486+: 63 “1 ring of 10 shekel silver, a medal of 1 shekel”; s. ib. 64–69.

2. OB 1 ḪAR ša 4 GÍN KŮ.BABBAR ů 1 GÍN KŮ.BABBAR ka-ni-ik-tam idinšum ARM 18, 19: 10 “give him 1 ring of 4 shekel silver and 1 shekel silver in form of a sealed medal!”

3. OB 2 GÍN ka-an-ka-tum nībum [n GÍN K]I.LÁ.BI ARM 32 p. 381 M.6206: 5 “medals of 2 shekel nominal value, their [weig]ht is [n shekel]”.

Disc.: Arkhipov 2012, 17 with further refs.

 

+ kāniktufemale seal bearer”; OB

OB lit. [ša? ]t makkūrim [k]a-⸢ni⸣-ik-ta-šu (// kišib-lá) atti Nidaba and Enki 53 “you are the seal bearer [of(?) the store]house”.

 

kāniku “sealed document”

s. also kanniku

 

**kaniniwe (AHw. 437, CAD K 152)

In HSS 13, 119 read 2 BÁN! ni-ir!-we a-na <I>Ga-a-pa-a-zi, cf. HSS 14, 200 (Deller 1983; cf. Richter 2012, 184). S. nirwe.

JW

 

kankannu, g/kangannu “a potstand”; + MB

MB kan-ga-an-nu [...] BaF 21, 202: 2, 4.

JW

 

kannamāre s. kallamāre

 

ka/inna/iškarakku, ka(n)giškarakku “a table”

1. OB 1 gišKA.GIŠ.KARA₄ tuppašu elammakum ARM 22, 306: 7 “one k., its top (made from) elammaku-wood”; cf. 316 ii 8.

2. OB aššum giška-ni-iš-ka-ra-ki-im ša meluḫḫim KŮ.GI GAR.RA ARM 23, 100 no. 103: 8 “(memorandum) concerning 1 wooden k. from Meluḫḫa, gold plated”. Cf. gišBANŠURx ka-an-giš-ka-ra-ki ARM 23, 190 no. 213: 13.

3. OB (1 mina of glue for making) giški-in-na-aš-ka-ra-ki ARM 21, 303: 7 and s. p. 362 n. 29 for spelling variants.

JW

 

kanniku, kāniku “sealer, person in charge of sealing”; + OA

13 GÍN URUDU ana PN -ni-ki-im OIP 27, 58: 28 “13 shekels of copper for PN, the sealer”.

NJCK

 

+ kannišu “wooden table(?)”; OB

1. 3 DUG GEŠTIN ana giška-ni-ši-im FM 11, 151: 8 “3 jars of wine for the k. (when the messengers sat in front of the king in the date palm court)”.

2. 8 DUG GEŠTIN ŠŔ.BA 2 DUG GEŠTIN ša sīmi ZI.GA ana giška-an-ni-ši-im ib. 25: 17 “8 jars of wine, among them 2 jars of red(?) wine, expenditure for the k.”.

3. ZI.GA ana giška-an-ni-ši-im FM 11, 26: 12.

4. Cf. G. Chambon, FM 11 p. 29f. S. also kannu I.

 

kannu I “wooden rack for storing containers, potstand

1. OB lit. šaknāt ina ka-an-nim AML 27: 7 “you (the fermentation vat) are placed on the potstand”.

2. OB 1 DUG GEŠTIN ana ka-an-nim FM 11, 1: 2 “1 jar of vine for the rack” Cf. ib. 5: 2; 12: 4; 152: 8; 161: 2 etc.

3. With det. giš: giška-an-nim ib. 21: 9, 11, 32; 27 r. 11; 30: 4; 31: 6; 33: 8; 35: 2; 57: 2; 79: 2 etc.

4. k. ša šarrim “of the king”: ib. 25: 29; 59: 2; 153: 2.

5. k. ša bāb ēkallim “of the palace gate”: ib. 84: 2.

6. In ARM 9, 33: 5; 187: 4 read, instead of É k. (CAD K 156 k. A in bīt k.), gišk., s. G. Chambon, FM 11 p. 27.

7. Cf. Chambon, FM 11 p. 26–29; Guichard 2005, 24–26 with add. refs. S. also kannišu.

 

kannu II “band, rope”

OB ka-an-nu aš-la-a tāmu[r] ša [eleppim] Finkel 2014: 10 “ropes each one ašlu long – (when) you have found (them) for [the ship]”.

 

**kannūtu (AHw. 438), kannűtu (CAD K 157) s. qunnunu.

 

kanšu I “submissive”

Fem. kanšatu “a kind of musician”, referring to her “kneeling” position: 21 ka-an-š[a]-tum FM 4, 21 no. 37: 2 (in list of musicians); 49 fka-a[n-š]a-tum ib. 6. S. ib. 215 no. 36: 9–12. Cf. N. Ziegler, ib. p. 70.

 

kanšu II “work-team, array”; Aram. lw.

LB suluppē ana imērē ša ka-an-šú ... SUM-na Jursa 1999, 147 BM 42347: 14 “the dates were given for the donkeys of the work-team”. S. Jursa ib. p. 100: not “donkey caravan”, but “work-team, array”.

 

+ kantuḫḫu, ḫanduḫḫu “attachment to a chariot; part of a lock”

AHw. and CAD s.v. ḫandūḫu and CAD G 152a; AHw. Nachträge 1559a.

1. OB 5 qullum ša taskarinnim 5 ka-an-tu-ḫu-šu-nu Fs. Veenhof, 219 BM 80394: 3 “5 rings of boxwood, their 5 k.”.

2. OB (silver) ana iḫzi ša 4 ka-an-tu-ḫi ša nūbal MÁ.GANan.NA ARM 25, 351 (= ARM 32, 406 M.11273): 3 “for setting 4 k.s of a palanquin of Magan; cf. ARM 25, 287 (= ARM 32, 407 M.10463): 11.

3. ana ka-an-tu-uḫ-ḫi ša nūba[lim] ARM 32, 211 M.11620: 3 “for the k. of the chariot”.

4. MB In BE 14, 123a: 10–11 read kam-du-ḫi and kam-duḫ-ḫi with van Koppen 2001, 220 pace AHw. s.v. ḫandūḫu and CAD s.v. mašīru. The emendation to ḫi!-du/duḫ-ḫi is unneccesary. Rather, the word ḫidduḫḫu, pl. hinduḫḫētu, attested in the same text l. 8 and in Nuzi, is a separate lemma.

JW

 

kânu “to be(come) permament, firm, true”

Dt OB [ina p]anīniqę⸣m uk-ti-in-nu FM 3 p. 71 no. 5: 8 “they place themselves (pres.!) before the offering” (Streck 2003a, 112).

Št 1. [awī]lum šū [b]aliṭ adī maḫar bēliya ittī PN -ta-ka-a[n]-nu ARM 28, 105: 25 “this gentlemen shall remain alive until they will interrogate him before my lord together with PN” (s. Streck 2003a, 122).

2. maḫar PN ⸢li⸣-iš-ta-ki-n[u-šu] FM 3, p. 169 no. 15: 8 “they shall have him permanently placed before PN”.

S. Mayer 2016, 224 on the mng of the Dtt (“to interrogate”) and additional Št refs.

JW

 

kanūnu s. kinūnu

 

kanzūzu “chin”

SB ME.ZÉ-šú n[u-u]š-šú : kan-zu-u[s-su …] SpTU 1, 31: 8 “his ME.ZÉ is shaky : his chin is [shaky]” (comm. on Sa-gig 5); su-qat-su : kan-zu-us-su ib. 26 “his suqtu : his chin”. Cf. uzu su-uq-t[ú] = [k]an-zu-zu (Hg. B IV, 2 = MSL 9, 34).

JW

 

kapādu “to plan, take care of”

G i-class: NB ki-pi-id-ma OIP 114, 35: 28, s. qullu; Jursa 1997/1998, 422; Streck 1999a, 292.

Gtn OB ištū alliku aḫ-ta-ap-pu-ud-ma AbB 10, 193: 5 “since I left, I have been managing (the sesame field in GN)”.

D 1. EOB ana kuru[mmātīšu] māru šip[riya] ku-pu-u[d] AS 35: 16 “shall my messenger take care of his (own) rations?”

2. OB zibbatam kīma ṣibűtim ku-pi-da AbB 5, 172: 20 “take care (pl.) of the tail-end (of the canal) as desired”.

MPS (G), JW (Gtn, D)

 

kapālu, qapālu “to coil, roll up

G OB (rations for workers) ša qinnazātim ik-pi-lu CUSAS 15, 74: 4 “who plaited(?) whips”.

Gt Streck 2003a, 29:

1. OB šumma 2 ṣerrū … ik-ta-ap--lu Fs. de Meyer, 306: 9 “if 2 snakes coil around each other”.

2. SB bēl emūqiták-ta-píl Ugar. 5, 278 ii 10 “do not wrestle with a strong man!” (cit. AHw. 924 s.v. qitbulu, but s. already CAD Q 292).

D maštūtam ša ina qātī[ka] ibaššű li--ap--[lu] AbB 6, 189: 18 “they shall roll up the weave that is available to you”.

Dt OB lit. mu-uk-ta-ap-pi-l[i] TIM 9, 41: 28.

S. also muktaplu and kaplatu.

MPS (Dt), JW (G, Gt, D)

 

kapāpu, + kabābu “to bend, to curve”

SB qātātušu u šēpāšu ana kišādišu ik-tab-ba (var. ik-tap-[p]a) Diagnostic Handbook XXVI: 13 (Stol 1993b, 60) “(if his fit overcomes him and) his hands and feet curve towards his neck”, cf. ik-tab-ba SpTU 2, 44 r. 17.

JW

 

kaparru I “herd boy”; Sum. lw.

1. OB PN KA.BAR AbB 13, 41: 3.

2. SB ka-par Jiménez 2017, 248: 5, cf. rabābu Š.

Disc.: Selz 1993 (loan from Sum. gáb-ra).

MPS (2), JW (1)

 

kaparru II “spadix(?); a metal implement”

1. OB 4 ka-pa-ar-ra-tim ZABAR ša 2 MA.NA.ŔM FM 8, 64 no. 14: 11 “4 bronze k. of 2 minas each” (mentioned between axes and shovels).

2. AHw. k. II = CAD k. B and C. Derivation from ḫepēru, as Durand ib. p. 12 suggests, is doubtful.

 

kapāru I “to strip, wipe off”

G 1. OB (oil) ana ka-pa-ar eleppim eššetim/maturrim eššim FM 3, 229 no. 60: 14; ib. 245 no. 95: 12 “for smearing a new ship/a new m.-ship”.

2. OB (oil) ana pašāš dalātim u ka-pa-ar bīt gallābim ib. 234 no. 61: 3 “for anointing the doors and smearing the barber's house”.

3. OB (oil) ana ka-pa-ar eleppim u bīt gallābim ib. 253 no. 113: 2 “for smearing a ship and the barber's house”.

4. OB (oil) ana ka-pa-ar 2 el[eppētim] ib. 258 no. 125: 7 “for smearing 2 sh[ips]”.

5. NA ka-pir ÚTUL SAA 12, 83 r. 11 “dishwasher” (in list of craftsmen).

D OB lit. šumma kezret li--ap--ir aštammaša AML 131: 14 “if she is a harlot, may she clean her tavern”.

+ Dt 1. OB lit. eṭlū uk-ta-ap-pa-ru ša kī arkātim VS 10, 214 iii 1 “young men are cut off as if for spear poles”, cf. disc. Streck 2010, 562.

2. OB awāssu li-ik-tap-pe-er AbB 1, 67 r. 13 “his matter shall be cleared up” (von Soden 1975, 460).

MPS (G, D, Dt 1), JW (Dt 2)

 

kapāṣu I “a seashell (?) and its imitations in stone or metal”

OB qašta u na₄ka-pa-ṣisic-a túgBAR.SI.IG AbB 12, 94: 28 “(buy for me) a bow, a (?) k., and a head-scarf”.

Disc.: AHw.’sein roter Stein” (s.v. kapaṣu) must be rejected based on lex. and contextual evidence for k. made from various materials. Cf. the disc. CAD K 181.

JW

 

kapāṣu II “to bend over”

Del. RB 59 in AHw. 443 k. 2 and CAD K 181 k. 1a and cf. kabāsu.

 

 

kapāšu I, gapāšu “to swell, rise up; to be(come) abundant”

G Var. kapāšu (cf. CAD K 128b): OB lit. i-ka-ap-pu-ša kīma tīʾāmtim AML 173: 42 “it becomes abundant like the sea”.

+ Ntn OB lit. ta-at-ta-ag/k-pi-iš mātam qabalšu BiOr 30, 361 “his attack kept increasing against (?) the land (adv. acc.?)” (Mayer 2016, 210).

 

kapāšu II, + gapāšu “to perform in disguise”

S. kāpišu.

 

kapātu G “mng. unkn.”, D “to bring together, collect”

CAD kupputu

Dt NA uk-tap-pat SAA 10, 117: 6 (in broken context).

JW

 

kapaʾu s. kupű

 

+ kapiltu “a bead”; OB

1. 3 kap-la-tum na₄PAR.PAR.DILI M.10382: 3 “3 k. of pappardilű-stone”.

2. 1 kap-la-at uqnîm ARM 32, 456 M.5954 r. 12 “1 k. of lapis lazuli”.

Disc.: Arkhipov 2012, 47. Perhaps < kapālu “to coil, to roll up”.

JW

 

kāpiru “caulker; polisher”

NA k. diqāri “dishwasher (lit. ‘polisher of cooking pots’)”:

1. []ka-pir UTÚLmeš MUŠEN.DŮ MÁ.LAḪ4 AD.KID SAA 12, 83 r. 11 “a dishwasher, or a fowler, or a boatman, or a reed-worker”.

2. The emendation ka-pir UZU!(UTÚL) in STT 385 iii 10’ suggested in CAD K 184 and the subsequent assumption of a new lemma mng. “butcher(?)” is not necessary (already Salonen 1974).

3. For disc. s. at length s. Gaspa 2009.

JW

 

**kāpiru B “butcher(?)” s. kāpiru

 

kāpišu, k/gāpištu “a performer in disguise, cross-dresser (?)”

OB 1 munusga-pí-i[š₇-tum] i-ga-ap--iš FM 3 p. 60 no. 3 iii 14 “1 g. performs”; 7 munusga-pí-[ša-tum (maḫar DN?)] i-ga--ša […] usaḫḫarām[a (maḫar DN₂?) i-ga--ša ib. 20‑23 “7 g. perform (before DN?) […then] they turn around and perform (before DN₂?)”. S. ib. p. 51f. and FM 11 p. 60.

JW

 

+ kappāḫu “mason”; OB

1. ḫišeḫti ka-ap-pa-ḫi 4 ḫaṣṣin siparri ... 4 kaparrātim ZABAR ... 2 marri siparri ... FM 8, 64 no. 14: 9 “requisites of the mason, 4 bronze axes, 4 bronze k., 2 bronze shovels”.

2. ittī ka-pa-ḫi [NA]4 li-ba-aḫ-ḫu-ú ib. 34 “let (the men) search [ston]e together with the masons”.

3. Derivation from ḫepű, as Durand ib. p. 10f. suggests, is doubtful.

 

kappaltu “groin, loin”

On etym. s. Kogan/Militarev 2002, 316.

 

kapparnu s. kapparru

 

+ kapparru “a vessel”; MB Emar

1 dugkap-pár-ra GEŠTIN.NA Emar 371: 9 “1 k. with wine”; cf. 304: 4; 370: 112.

Pentiuc 2001, 97 suggests derivation from WSem. KPR “to cover”, but cf. kapparnu “a pitcher” (CAD K 185, Richter 2012, 186, Hurr. lw.). S. also Huehnergard 1987, 139 (Ugar. ⸢dug?ku?-ba-ra-tumeš PRU 6, 158: 13).

JW

 

kappu I “wing”

1. OB [k]a-pa-an imittam u šumēlam dawdâm idūkā FM 3, 146 no. 14: 13 “the wings (of the army) on the right and left side inflicted a defeat”.

2. OB ⸢kap⸣(KAB) lurmim šūbilam ARM 28, 43: 16 “send me the wing of an ostrich!”

3. TÚG kap lu-ur-me ARM 30, 369 M.12814 ii 1 “a garment made of the wing of an ostrich”; s. ib. p. 105f. for further ref.s and disc.

4. OB “a bead”: a) (bands) ša kap-pí ša pappardilîm ARM 21, 223: 39 “of k. made from pappardilű-stone”.

b) 1 kišādu ša kap-pí uqnîm ARM 32, 461 M.7748: 3; 465 M.8353+: 2, 3; 483 M.14335 r. 4 “1 necklace of k. made from lapis lazuli”.

c) 1 kišādu ka-ap- uqnîm ARM 32, 191 A.3490: 2, 4; cf. ARM 31, 546 no. 287 r. 11.

d) S. Arkhipov 2012, 47. If not identical with kappu I, perhaps < kapāpu “to curve”.

5. “plumes” as decoration on a helmet, s. q/gurpis(s)u.

MPS (1–3), JW (4–5)

 

kappu II “(palm of the) hand, handful (as a measure); a vessel” ; + NB

1. SB kap-pi iq-né(-e) SAA 3, 14: 12 “bowl of lapislazuli”.

2. NA 1 tupnīnu 153 kap-pi kaspi ina libbi 1 tupnīnu 25 kap-pi kaspi SAA 1, 158: 14–16 “1 box containing 153 silver bowls, 1 box (with) 25 silver bowls”.

3. NA 2 giškap-pumeš [(x) giš]kap-pu URUDU giš AN.BAR [(x) k]ap-pu URUDU StAT 2, 184: 9–11 “2 drinking bowls, a copper drinking bowl, an iron bed, a copper drinking bowl”.

4. NA kap!-pu PN ana rab ēkalli SAA 16, 50: 1 “k. of PN to the palace manager”, unclear.

5. NB ina kap-pí uqatt[ű] SAA 17, 201 r. 3 “they destroyed (the writing boards r. 1) with (their) palms”.

6. LB as a measure:

a) LB 3 (GUR) 4 (PI) 1 BÁN 5 qa ŠE.BAR ina ma-ṭi-ur-nu ša 16 kappīšuana PN GÍR.LÁ idin CT 49, 123 // 122 // 182: 6 (Jursa, Persika 9, 191) “give to PN, the butcher, 3; 4.1.5 barley, (measured) by the measure of 16 handfuls”;

b) ina gišma-ṭi-ur-nu ša 18 kappīšu BM 54555: 7 (Jursa, AOAT 254, 115);

c) [gišma-ṭi-ur]-nu ša 16 kappīšu CT 49, 129: 2 (Jursa, AOAT 254, 116).

MPS (1–2, 4–5), NR (6), JK (3)

 

kappu-rapšu “‘wide-wing’, a bird”

Perhaps loan-translated into Hitt. as pattar-palḫi of same mng. (Riemschneider 1975).

JW

 

+ kappultum “wrapping”; OA

ṣubātān ša -pu-ul-tim CCT 2, 36 a 6 “garments for wrapping” (von Soden 1975, 460).

Cf. kapullu.

JW

 

+ kappuṣű “contraction(?)”; SB

kŕp-pu-ṣu-ú SAA 3, 32 : 25 in broken context.

 

+ kapullu “wrap, skein”; OB

šīpātim damqātim ša ka-pu-la-ši-na laqtu AbB 12, 75: 15 “(send me) good wool whose skein has been gathered”.

JW

 

kapru “village”

1. OB ka-ap-ra-tum ana lib GN iktamsū ARM 28, 53 r. 8 “the villages assembled in GN”.

2. NA logogr. URU.ŠE: URU.ŠE qanni GN SAA 21, 140: 8 “a village outside GN”.

 

**kapru B (CAD K 190) “a type of sacrifice”

Read kabru “thickened”, said of preserved maltītu-drinks (Sassmannshausen 2001, 453).

JW

 

kaptarű “coming from Crete”

1. OB of vessels: 1 GAL kap-ta-ri-tum ARM 31, 188: 7’’: s. Guichard 2015, 209 for add. refs.

2. OB (tin) ana kap-ta-ra-i-im ARM 23, 526 no. 556: 28 “for the Cretian” (i.d. the ruler of Crete).

JW

 

kaptukkű “a jar of two seah

OB 1 dugBANMIN (of first quality oil) OBTR 205: 3.

JW

 

kāpu “embankment; rock”

Refs. in PNN (cit. CAD K 192 s.v. kāpu B “mng. uncert.”) belong here (already AHw. 445 and s. Heimpel 1997d).

JW

 

kâpu “to oppress”; + OB

OB lit. na-ki-ra-at DN a--ap VS 10, 213 i 11 “I oppress the hostile (lands) of DN”.

 

karābu “to pray”

G 1. ikribam ša ana DNf ta-ak-ru-bu-ni appūtumtamaššī TC 3, 35: 17 “please, do not forget the votive gift you promised to DNf”.

2. OB ina panīšu ṣalam bēliya ka-ri-bu FM 8, 132 no. 38: 21 “in front of him (the god) is a praying image of my lord”.

D 1. OAkk in bīt ilī libkīʾūnim u li--ri-bu-nim CUSAS 27, 77: 5 “in the house of the gods, let them weep for me and let them pray regularly for me”.

2. OA maḫar D[N] ana balāṭika u šalām GN nu--ri-ib Günbattı 2014, 91 01/k 217: 75 “we will pray regularly before D[N] for your life and the well-being of GN” (cf. Gtn in 55).

+ Dtn OB lu-uk-ta-ar-ra-ab AbB 1, 15: 29 “I shall pray incessantly” (Edzard 1974, 125).

JW (G 2, D 1, Dtn), NJCK (D 2, G 1)

 

**karadnannalla (CAD K, 198)

The ref. belongs to karadnannu “an ornament”, with Hurr. suffix -alla (s. Richter 2012, 189 with lit.).

 

karāku “to intertwine, gather”

1. Object people and animals: NA GAR-nu-ku-nu adu sīsę ki-ir-ka-ni arḫiš SAA 1, 22: 9 “gather quickly your prefects and horses!”

2. NA rēḫtu ik-ti-ri-ik SAA 21, 138: 12 “he gathered the rest (of the people)”, already cited AHw. 1566.

 

karallu I “prick, goad; a type of jewelry”

1. LB 4 uruduka-ra-al-leme AOAT 414/1, 110: 12 “4 copper pricks(?)” (after vessels and other objects made of copper and bronze).

2. LB ištēn ka-ra-al-la KŮ.BABBAR 2 semerē KŮ.BABBAR Joannés 1989, 355 NBC 8410: 9 “1 silver k., 2 silver rings”, s. Joannčs 1989a (a nose-ring?).

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

+ karammaru, kalammaru, karri ammaru “registry”; LB; Old Pers. lw.

1. amēlūtu ša … ina kar-ri am-ma-ru ša šarriušētiq Dar. 551: 12 “the slave woman whom he transferred in the king’s registry”.

2. (that house is mine) ina ka-⌈al⌉-am-ma-ri ša šarrišaṭir PIHANS 54, 106: 10 “it was written down in the king’s registry”.

3. (canal) ša ina ka-ra-am-ma-ri BE 9, 55: 4 “which is in the registry”.

Disc.: Stolper 1977, 259–266. From Old Pers. < *kāra-hmara- “counting people”, cf. Elam. karamaraš.

JW

 

karāmu “to prepare, make ready; to be prepared, ready”

1. NA GĚR.AD4 ik-rim-u-ni nuḫtarrip ina MN nissapar SAA 21, 79: 12 “since the crippeled were ready, we (could) have sent (them) already in MN”, already cit. AHw. 1566.

2. NA ša kar-me-u-ni šū urkiʾu NALK 214: 32 “whoever is at hand – he will be the guarantor”.

3. NA šarru ka-ri-im illak SAA 15, 164 r. 11 “the king is ready to depart”.

4. NA šumma … PN kar-me ina GN BATSH 6/2, 2: 4 “if PN is not available in GN” (stative, s. Fales 2000, 279).

5. Intransitive use: NA šattu tak-tar-ma SAA 19, 57: 6 “the year has advanced”.

Disc.: On use in NA legal documents s. Zaccagnini 1994, 37–42; On range of mng. s. Fales 2000 (pace AHw. “verzögern”, CAD “to hinder”) with refs.: transitive “to prepare (sth.); to make (sth.) ready, set, available”; intransitive “to be prepared, ready, set, present, available”; stat. “is prepared; is at hand”; ḫarrānu/ḫūlu karim “the going is easy”; karintu “preparation”.

MPS (1, 5), JW (2­–3), JK (4)

 

**karāmu B “to pile up” (CAD K), s. karāmu

 

karānu, kirānuvine; wine

1. OA lit. ṣa-ru-ú ki-ra-nim l[imq]utam qaqqaršu AML 9: 19 “may it (the baby) fall down to the earth like vine-snakes”.

2. OA lit. ina ṣer ki-ra-nim kī kibtim ašaršu liṣbat AML 11: 22 “may it (the baby) take its place on top of the vine-snake like wheat”.

3. OA (he will give 10 1/2 shekels of silver annually) ina wa-ra-ad ki-ra-nim AKT 10, 20A: 9 “at the coming down (i.e. the harvesting) of the grapes” (// 20B: 14).

4. OA (they will pay) ina -[ta-áp]) ka-ra-nim kt 92/k 1037: 7 “at the plucking of the grapes”, s. Çayır 2006, 8;

5. OA 30.TA ki-ra-nam PN u ša ki-ra-né ša rabī sikkitim našʾū kt m/k 179: 20 and 21 “PN and the wine dealer(?) of the rabī sikkitim are carrying 30 (jars?) of wine each” (unpubl., court. K. Hecker); rabī kirānim kt 93/k 946 “overseer of the wine”, s. Veenhof 2008a, 221.

6. OB lit. kīma šātű ka-ra-ni-im kīma mār sābītim limqutaššum šittum AML 124 r. 9 “like over a wine drinker, like over a son of a tavern keeper, may sleep fall over him”.

7. OB lit. azarrū ka-ra-na-am AML 132 = ALL no. 23: 8 “I will sow a vine”.

6. a) OB GEŠTIN (ša) sīmi “wine of red color(?)”: FM 11, 8: 1; 25: 16; 33: 2.

b) GEŠTIN ša sāmim “wine of red color(?)”: ib. 36: 1, 6; 39 iii 14; 42: 11; 45: 2, 8 etc.

c) S. G. Chambon ib. p. 14–16 for the question whether sāmu/sīmu is rather a toponym.

7. GEŠTIN ÚS sīmi “second quality red(?) wine”: ib. 33: 3.

8. GEŠTIN ÚS(ḫi.a) ib. 33: 4; 42: 1; 158: 15.

9. GEŠTINḫi.a SUMUN “old wine”: ib. 71: 4, 6a.

10. 11 DUG GEŠTIN ittī DUG GEŠTIN SUMUN ša ina bīt DN [i]ḫḫīqa ib. 21: 5f. “11 jars of wine were mixed together with (1) jar of old wine from the temple of DN”.

11. GEŠTINḫi.a GIBIL “new wine”: ib. 71: 7.

12. GEŠTIN(.NA) DŮG.GA “sweet wine”: ib. 25: 4; 168: 1.

13. GEŠTIN ma-ar-[ri] “bitter wine”: 161: 4, 15.

14. Provenance a) Ugarit: ib. 11, 75: 1; 76: 3; 77: 1.

b) Qatna: ib. 76: 1.

c) Saggarātum: ib. 84: 4.

d) For other places s. , s. G. Chambon, FM 11 p. 10–16.

15. NA bīt k. as part of the Assur temple: Ninurta ina É GEŠTIN van Driel 1969, 98 ix 39 “Ninurta (resides) in the ‘tavern’” (cf. CAD K 206b; reading after Farber 1973, 436)

16. LB kī ša ka-ra-nu ša bēliya ibaššű iltēn udű 2 BÁN ṭābu ina qātīšu bēlu lušēbil AOAT 414/1, 80: 7 “according to the availability of my lord’s wine may the lord send 1 jar of 2 seah (12 l) of good (wine)”.

17. LB dišpi u gišGEŠTIN AOAT 414/1, 73: 6 “honey and wine”.

NJCK (3–5), MPS (1–2, 6–17)

 

karāru “to put, set, place”; + OB

1. u qadū ana nadānišu ak-ru-ru ak-ru-ru-ma lā iddinaššu FM 7, 6 no. 1: 14 “and since I imposed (on him) again and again to give him, but he did not give him”. More likely karāru than q/garāru, suggested by J.-M. Durand ib. p. 7.

2. Lex. uncl.: PAD = KA-ra-a-rum Emar 6/4 537: 42 (Sa). Sjöberg 1998, 244: ga14-ra-a-rum < Syr.-Aram. grr “to scrape”.

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

karapḫu, karpaḫu “fallow land”; Hurr. lw.

1. NA [k]a-ra-ap-ḫi ma-aḫ-ḫa-ṣa ... [k]a-ra-ap-ḫi maḫ-ṣu SAA 19, 20: 4–6 “break the fallow land ... the fallow land has been broken”.

2. S. Richter 2012, 189 for lit.

 

karāṣu “to pinch off”

G OB lit. ka-ri-iṣ-ma ina apsîm ṭīdašu⸣ AML 97: 5 “the clay for it is pinched off in the subterranean region”.

D SB rūʾa ṭābi ú-kar-ra-ṣa napištī Ludlul I 88 “my good friend was ‘pinching off’ my life”, s. Oshima 2014, 216.

JW(2), MPS (1)

 

karašu, karšu “leek”; + Ur III

1. Ur III 1/2 sěla kŕr-šum CUSAS 3, 511: 74; 972: 28, 97; 975: 30, 98. Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 359: elsewhere in Ur III Sumerian garaš6.

2. 7 SĚLA ka-ar-šum FM 2, 25 no. 4: 5 “7 liters of leek” (in list of vegetables and spices).

 

karā/ašu Ifieldcamp

1. OB adī bāb ka-ra-ši-šu ukaššissu RATL 11: 13 “I chased him until the entrance to his camp”.

2. OB ištū ITI-4-KAM ka-ra-šu-um ana ka-ra-ši-im ittanaddinannęti RATL 140: 7 “for 4 months one fieldcamp has taken us (only) to (the next) fieldcamp”.

JW

 

karā/ašu II, + karšu “catastrophe, annihilation”

OB ša bēl awātišu u ša ittātišu GN ana ka-ar-ši-šu ikmisū FM 9, 200 no. 47 r. 13 “GN assembled for annihilation its enemy and all who stand by his (the enemy's) side”. In spite of the var. karšu, Ziegler's suggestion (ib. p. 201) to derive the word from karšu “belly” (mng. “to devour”) seems idiomatically unconvincing.

 

karattu “watercourse”

Lex. ka-ra-at-tum = nāru AOAT 50, 332: 41 (malku) “watercourse = river”.

 

karātu “to cut off(?), detach(?)”

1. NB amēlussu ak-tar-a-ta OIP 114, 17: 8 “I detached(?) his slave”.

2. amēlussu ak-ta-ra-t[a] ib. 29.

3. Elsewhere the verb is i-class.

 

karāṭu G “mng. unknown (a condition of the gall); N “to be merciful”

N SB ik-ka-riṭ-ma zamar itarri ālittu Ludlul I 18 “(once) he shows compassion, he quickly becomes like a mother”, s. Oshima 2014, 117.

JW

 

karballatu, + karmallatu, + karrarbatu “a piece of linen headgear”

LB kar-mál-la-tum CT 56, 558: 4; kar-bar!(MAŠ)-lat CT 57, 320: 11; kar-ra-ar-ba-tum CT 56, 382: 9.

JW

 

kāribu “a person providing offerings”

Da Riva 2002, 63: Not a profession, but a general term describing a wealthy private individual who provides temple offerings alongside the king.

JW

 

+ karikku, karīku (?) “a garment”; OB

1 tāpal ka-ri-ki ARM 30, 342 M.11535: 5 “1 pair of k.”

Cf. kerku, kiriku, karku.

JW

 

karintu “preparation”

S. Fales 2000, 278.

 

karkamisű “from Carchemish”; OB

(1 golden gullu-vessel) kar-ka-mi-su-úki ARM 31, 76: 1 “(for?) the man from Carchemish”, s. Guichard 2005, 170 n. 44.

JW

 

karkartu “an edible plant”; + MB

1. MB 2 GUR ŠE.BAR 1 GUR ṭurű aB-lu-ú 3(b) muššu 3 (p)!? kar-ka-ra-tum ... PN u PN2 ilqű MBLET 52: 4. 1 “2 kor of barley, 1 kor of dried(?) opopanax(?), 3 seah of muššu, 3 bushel(?) of k.”.

2. ⸢n⸣ muššu 3 (p)!? kar-ka-ra-tum 3 SĚLA ZAG.Ḫ[I.L]I ib. 8 “⸢n⸣ muššu, 3 bushel(!?) of k., 3 liter of cress”.

Disc.: Gurney, ib. p. 143 suggests to read nindakarkarātu and identifies the word as a variant of kakkartu “a round leaf of bread”. However, the syntax suggests a commodity measured by capacity.

NR

 

karkaṣu, + karkasu “a kind of mash”; + OB

OB lex. ka gaz munu4 = ka-ar-ka-su TIM 9, 88 r. 4.

JW

 

+ karkāyuCarian”; LB; Iran. lw.

PN ka-ar-ka-a-a WZKM 97, 257 BM 120024: 2 “PN, the Carian”.

Disc.: Otherwise karsāya in Bab. This form is a loan from Iran. karkā-, cf. Elamite kur-ka-ap. S. also kerkāya in VS 6, 302 and Stolper 1985 no. 116 (Jursa/Stolper 2007, 260f.).

JW

 

**karmu I (AHw. 449; CAD K 217 karmu adj.)

S. karintu (Fales 2000, 278).

 

karmuheap; storage

bīt karme “storeroom”: (barley) ina bīt kar-me ša erābe ana emetta tabik DeZ 2528: 8 (cit. CM 29, 322) “is heaped up on the right-hand side when entering the storeroom”. S. ib. 323–325 for disc.

JW

 

karpassu s. qarpāsu

 

karpatu “jar”

1. OB n DUG GEŠTIN(ḫi.a) rīqātu ša ka-ar-pa-tam ana ka-ar-pa-tim ušrīqū FM 11, 25: 12–14; 26: 6–8; 33: 11–14 “n empty jars of wine, that had been emptied jar by jar”.

2. S. Guichard 2005, 1f. for disc. and p. 210 for add. refs. (all logogr.).

Lit.: Powell 1987–1990, 499, 504f.

 

karriru “a criminal”

1. Bogh. lex. áš⸣-daḫ di = ⸢kar-ri-ru⸣= za-ap-⸢-at-tal-la⸣-aš MSL 17, 98ff. A i. 45 (Erimḫuš) “criminal = k. = who lets (things) leak/drip away”.

2. LB lex. [lú-kar]-ra = ⸢kar⸣-ri-ri (= sa-ar-rum) SpTU 2, 53: 56 “fugitive = k. = criminal” (quote of Malku I 91).

JW

 

karru II, + kurāruknob, handle”

1. OB ḫūratum ana ṣarāp ku-ra-ri ša šukurrī ARM 21, 306: 3 “madder(?) for dying the handles(?) of lances”.

2. OB (blue wool) ša ana šipir ku-ra-ri ša šukurrī ARM 30, 296 M.8208: 5 “for making tassels(?) for lances”.

3. To be differentiated from the kurāru disease.

JW

 

karru III “rags; mourning clothing”

1. OB anumma šārātīya ša qaqqad[iy]a u ka-ra-am ša ina pagriya nuṭṭup(sic) ušābilakkum ARM 10, 32: 7 “hereby I send you my hair from my head and the rags torn from my body” (coll. and disc. Durand 2009, 50).

2. SB elīša kar-r[a …] KAL 9, 6 ii 18 “like upon her the mourning dress […]”.

JW

 

+ karsāyu “Carian”; LB

1. PN kar-sa-a-a Iraq 68, 10 no. 3: 3, 6, 13 “PN the Carian”

2. PNf ka-ar-sa--tum Iraq 68, 13 no. 6: 3; PN ka-ar-sa ib. 8.

Disc.: S. Waerzeggers 2006 with add. refs.; Cf. karkāya.

JW

 

karṣu “slander”; + OA

1. OA awīlum ana PN -ar-ṣé-a ēkul AKT 2, 50: 31 “the man has slandered me before PN”.

2. OB lit. ākilāt ka-ar-<ṣí>-i-a CUSAS 10, 9: 30, s. ḫabību.

S. also karāṣu D.

NJCK (1), MPS (2)

 

karšu I “stomach, interior”

1. OB lex. šŕ maḫ šu-si ĝěr-ĝ[u10] = ka-ra-aš ubān [šēpiya] CUSAS 12 p. 157 xi 9 (Ugumu) “the ball of my toe”.

2. The rumen, first stomach of sheep and cattle (Stol 2006, 105f.).

 

karšu II s. karašu

 

kartappu “groom”

OB lit. Ḫamusisi ka-ar-ta-⸢pa!?⸣-k[a] (// kir4-⸢dab⸣) ASJ 19, 262: 5 “Ḫ. is your groom” (followed by kizű l. 6).

 

karű I “pile of barley”

1. OB lit. [k]a-re-e tīli [ka-r]e-e māši [ka-re]-e ki-ša-da/-[t]i-šu-nu [ta-ka]-ma!-ri Nidaba and Enki 55 “[you pi]le up piles (in the size) of a hill, piles (in the size) of a māšu-measure, [pile]s …”.

2. MA pišerti ka-ru-e BATSH 9, 60: 2 pass. “release of the grain heap” (i.e. grain distribution after threshing). On this phrase s. Röllig ib. p. 20 with prev. lit.

3. NA ka-ru-a-ni-ia l[aššu?] SAA 1, 264 r. 3 “I h[ave no(?)] storage heaps”; s. [k]a-ru-a-[ni] ib. r. 8.

4. NA šummu dēnu ina muḫḫi puṣę ina ka-ru-e-šú-nu StAT 2, 263 s. 3 “(they swear there is no) lawsuit concerning the empty lot (and/in?) their granary”.

5. LB udű ḫepű ū ḫal-qa ina ka-ri-šú-nu izaqqapū CUSAS 28, 75: 10 “(if) the equipment is broken or lost, they will pay an indemnity from their ‘grain heap’ (i.e. their commonly held property)”.

MPS (1, 3), JK/JW (2, 4), JW (5)

 

karű II “to be(come) short”

G NB akkāʾi annappil ak-te-ra-ma OIP 114, 63: 20 “how will I get paid? … I have become in need”, s. Streck 1999a, 293.

D NA DN ūmēšu arkūte ⸢li⸣-kar-ri CTN 6, 5: 10 “may DN shorten his long days”.

 

kāru “harbor; trading post”

OB lit. pl. nadűšum ka-ru ina GN CUSAS 10, 7: 7 “the harbors lie (ready) for him in GN”.

 

kasāpu I “to break off”

+ N (the wheel(?) of the chariot) i[t!-t]ak-sap SAA 16, 25: 11 “broke”.

 

kasāpu II “to make a funerary offering”; OB

+ Gtn OB kīma mītim kispam ak-ta-as--ip-šum AbB 13, 21: 9 “I kept making funerary offerings for him as if he were dead”.

N OB lit. kispum ul ik-ka--ap FM 3, 66 no. 4 i 15, s. 24, 31 “a funerary offering will not be presented”.

NR (Gtn), MPS N)

 

kasāsu “to chew, to gnaw”

SB [am]mīni eṭlam u wardatam ta-kŕs-sa-si KAL 9, 37 iv 38 “why do you gnaw (on) the young man and the young woman?” cf. // ta-kas-si-i, ta-kas-sa/sŕ-si in Muššuʾu VIII 48 (Böck 2007, 274).

Disc.: Pace CAD there are no semantic grounds to differentiate k. A “to gnaw, to chew up” and B “to hurt, to sting, to consume” (von Soden 1975, 460).

JW

 

+ KaSāTu “part of a table”; OA

GA-ZA-Dam ša ⸢paššūri⸣m ša ammat u ūṭ bilam kablu annakam ibaššī AKT 3, 66: 34 “bring the k. of the table measuring a cubit and a half. The (table’s) leg(s) are here.” The context suggests a mng. “tabletop” (Michel 2001b, 410).

JW/NJCK

 

kasilaqqu s. kizalāqu.

 

+ kasîš “bound” (?)

SB sīqiš ka-siš AfO 19, 51: 97 (Prayer to Ištar) “tight(?), bound(?)” (in broken context, s. already AHw. 1049, 1567; von Soden 1975, 461), cf. kasű I?

JW

 

kaslu “land drained by ditches”; + MB

1. MB (9 seah of barley) ina mu-[x k]a-as-li ša ālim ša PN MBLET 38 r. 2 “at the … of the k.-land of the town of PN”.

2. LB [k]a-sal Or. 86 p. 53 no. 3: 2.

3. LB adī ka-sa-la CUSAS 28, 64: 4 “up to the land drained by ditches” (in description of land).

JW (1), MPS (2–3)

 

kaspu “silver”

NA unusual spelling: ga-⸢as!⸣-bi gammur StAT 3, 12: 10 “payment is complete” (s. Faist ib., 37)

JK

 

+ kaspu II “chipped”; SB

Lex. ka-a[z-b]a  = GAZ = kŕs(GAZ)-pu-um CUSAS 12 p. 8: 27 (Ea).

 

kassibānű s. kusīpu

 

kassupu “broken”; + MA

MA 15 nigallū ka-su-pu-tu StAT 5, 75: 2 “15 sickles, broken”.

JW

 

kasű I “bound, fettered”

1. OA uncert.:

a) 402 dulbātim ku--a-tim Prag I 740: 10 “402 tied up d.” (s. dulba/ātu, a part or product of the plane tree).

b) mulūḫāt[im?] ku?--a-tim Bab. 6, 188 no. 9: 4’ “tied up m.”

Both dulbātu and mulūḫātu are of uncertain meaning. kasű (?) here either derives from an unknown noun KuZūtu in apposition, or from an adjective *KuZʾum or *kuZi/uum (cf. GOA § 7.2.3). Derivation from kasű offers a plausible etymology.

2. SB utnennu anḫu ka-su-ú ša bēl lemutti ik-su-šú ORA 7, 322: 80 “prayer of a weary, bound person, whom an adversary bound”.

NJCK/JW (1), MPS (2), JW (1)

 

kasű II “a spice and dye plant”

1. OB 1 GUR ka-si-i FM 2, 25 no. 4: 7 “1 kor of k.” (in list of vegetables and spices).

2. LB Aram. pl. also in ka-si- dubsar 3, 170: 3.

Disc.: For use in beer brewing s. Stol 1994, 175ff. His identification of the plant with cuscuta is uncertain, as, unlike cuscuta, k. is also used to achieve a red-purple color in wool (s. the disc. in Thavapalan 2020, 350–352 with prev. lit., who proposes “safflower”).

MPS/JW

 

kasű III “to bind”

SB iramm(i) ka-sa-a-šú Jiménez 2017, 48 “his bondage loosens”.

 

kāsu “goblet, cup; a capacity measure”

1. OA (the king) kŕ-sú umallīma itbuk (...) umma šunuma šumma māmītkunu ninaddī damani kīma kŕ-sí-im tabik Çeçen/Hecker 1995, 35 kt n/k 794: 34 and 41 “filled his cup and poured it out saying [...]. They said: ‘if we neglect our oath, may our blood be poured out like (the blood from) this cup”.

2. OA PN --am ša ilīšunu išattī(ma) AKT 7A, 294 tablet: 14 “(if) PN drinks the cup of their god” (i.e., apparently, if he swears an oath that he has told the truth).

3. OA --am Prag I 487: 24 “cup made of silver”. S. also KTS 2, 31: 7; Prag I 483: 14; 523: 17; and pass.

4. OA ana kŕ-sí-im rāmakkataddan Fs. Matouš II, 116: 22 “do not give yourself (over) to the cup (i.e. to drink)!”.

5. OB s. Guichard 2005, 2–13 and 211–213 for add. refs.

NJCK (1–3), JW (4–5)

 

kasūsu “falcon”; + NA

ka-su-su ditto SAA 7, 81: 3 “a golden falcon” (decoration on a dress pin).

 

kaṣādu “to seize hold”

D 1. OA “to arrest, to put in fetters”: šumma alākam ištē PN i-mu-ú --a-šu-ma šēriāneššu AKT 5, 4: 19 “if someone refuses to come with PN, put him in fetters and have him brought here”; sim. AKT 3, 87: 27; BIN 4, 25: 40; kt 88/k 970: 9, 17, 29, 32, 37 (s. Donbaz 2008, 211).

2. Unclear: (if the intended husband does not come within two months and does not care for his (prospective) wife, they will give the girl to another husband) a-ḫi- lā ú-- TC 1, 67: 19 “he (the intended husband) will not ‘bind’ the man who marries her (āḫissa)” (// a-ḫi!- ula ú-ša-Ga-ar RA 76, 170: 20: from nakārum Š “to instigate enmity”?);

3. adī 5 ūmē awātam ú-- šumma lā uk-ta-!? awīlam azakkarakkunūti AKT 11A, 85: 22 and 23 “within 5 days he will ‘bind’ the matter. If he does not ‘bind’ it, I will mention the man(’s name) to you” .

Dt OA tęrtušu lā uk-ta-ṣa-ad-ma FAOS Bh. 2, 43: 37 “his report shall not be delayed”.

Disc.: OA refs. in G mean “to bind by contract” rather than “to demand payment” (pace CAD K 252b s.v. kasű A v. 4). This meaning is however not attested for D (pace CAD K 253a A v. 6).

NJCK (D, disc.), JW (Dt)

 

kaṣāpu “to plan, to think”

D 1. NB ilū rabűtu ... [m]imma mala tu-kaṣ-ṣip qātka lušakšid SAA 17, 90: 6 “may the great gods make your hand achieve whatever you planned”.

2. NB itti libbišu ú-kaṣ-ṣip SAA 21, 21 r. 13 “he planned in his heart”.

 

kaṣāru, qaṣāru “to tie, knot; gather”

G 1.to gather”: OB enūtum 17 ka-aṣ-ra-at FM 9, 220 no. 53: 5 “17 instruments have been collected”.

2. “to freeze”, said of ice:

a) OB ina rîtim šurīpum ul ikkaṣir ina kalakkātimma šurīpum ka-ṣí-ir FM 2, 140 no. 76: 17 “on the meadow the ice did not freeze, but in the (cold) stores the ice is frozen”.

b) [šu]rīpum ka-aṣ⸣-ru FM 2, 145 no. 78: 9 “(because) the [ic]e is frozen”.

3. “to arrange, organize”: OB awātam ša ṣuḫārī iqabbīki ku-uṣ-ri-ši OBTR 39: 15 “the matter of which my servant told you – organize it” (s. the comm. in Langlois 2017, 14).

4. “to become angry” (s. kiṣru for the idiom kiṣir libbi rašű): OB mimma bēlī ana annętim ayyâšimi-qa-ṣa-ra-am FM 2, 216 no.118 r. 23 “my lord must not become angry with me because of this!”

5. “to knot (textile)”: MA ana ka-ṣa-ri EN lišpura li-ik-ṣu-ru limḫiṣū BATSH 4/1, 6: 13–14 “my lord shall write to me concerning the knotting; they shall knot and weave”.

6. to ratify, encase”: tuppī tubbala ana kunukkī ša kiṣrāti tutār šumma adī 1 ITU U₄meš tattabaltutaʾʾeri-ka-ṣu-ru-ni-ku Chuera 22A/B: 26 “you will bring my tablet, (and) convert (it) into a sealed case-tablet. If you have not brought (and) converted (it) within a month, they will not encase (it) for you.” For this translation s. Postgate 2013, 71.

N 1. OB bītum šū lāma kuṣṣi li-qa-ṣí-ir A.3936: 13’ (cit. Charpin 1989–90, 99b) “this house shall be constructed before the cold season”.

2. “to freeze”, said of ice: OB ik-ka-ṣí-ir, s. kaṣāru G.

MPS (G 1–2, 4, N 2), JW (G 3, 5, N 1), JK (G 6)

 

kaṣāṣu, gaṣāṣu “to gnash (teeth), to grind; to trim”

G 1. OB lit. nimrī ga-ṣi!?-ṣú Westenholz 1997, 100 r. 15 “my gnashing panther”.

2.  OB aššum Amurręti[m] ša PN irdę[m] kalűšinama ka-ṣa šībā 1 sinništum ina bīrišina ul ibašš[šī] FM 9, 218 no. 52 r. 10 “concerning the Amorite women that PN led here, they are all scuffed(?) (and) old. There i[s] not a single woman among them”. N. Ziegler ib. p. 218, 220 derives ka-ṣa from kaṣű “to be cold”, which cannot be excluded but seems less likely because one would rather expect a writing ka-ṣa-a.

3. SB [gur5-ru]-úš búr // […] gaṣ-GA-ṣu CTMMA 2, 15: 8, s. ib. p. 108 and TCS 3, 132 ad 434.

4. SB šumma ubānu kaṣ-ṣa-at SAA 4, 320: 7, r. 6 “if the finger is severed”.

5. SB šumma kubuš ḫašî ka-ṣiṣ SAA 4, 292: 5 “if the cap of the lung is severed”.

Gt OB lit. ki-ṣa-aṣ šaḫurrūtim Or. 87, 17 i 37 “the gnashing of the stupefied ones” (Streck/Wasserman 2018, 30: kiṣṣā/aṣ instead of kiṣṣuṣ).

+ Š OB ša kīma rēʾűm ip[peš]u [k]issatam šu-⸢uk-ṣi⸣-iṣ CUSAS 36, 71: 12 “have straw chopped up like a shepherd does”.

MPS (G 1–2), JW (G 3, Gt, Š)

 

kaṣâtu, qaṣâtu “early morning”

1. OB mūšam adī ka-ṣa-tim šūpišma ARM 18, 23: 10 “let (them) make (containers) during the night until morning”.

2. OB ša mūšam u qa-ṣa-tam ušallamū ARM 18, 32: 11 “who will complete (the task by working) day and night” (s. Kupper 1996, 79–80 for further Mari refs.).

3. OB (animals) niqűm ša ka-ṣa-tim FM 12, 214: 12 “morning sacrifice”.

4. NB ka-ṣa-a-tum SAA 17, 195: 4 in broken context.

Disc.: Streck 2017, 599.

JW (2, 4), MPS (1, 3)

 

kaṣbittu s. qāt ṣibitti

 

+ kāṣirtu “female knotter, tailoress”; OB

1. PN ṣuḫārki aššum -ṣí-ra-tim tašpurīm anumma 2 -ṣí-ra-tim ana qāt PN apqidamma OBTR 154: 11, 13 “you have sent PN, your servant, to me concerning female knotters; now I have entrusted 2 female knotters to PN”.

2. 4 MUNUS ka-ṣí-ra-tum ARM 13, 1 xii 13; cf. ARM 26/1, 265: 9 and perhaps FM 6, 43 ii 9 (Langlois 2017, 157).

JW

 

kāṣiru “knotter, tailor”

1. SB ka-⸢ṣirurpēti KAL3, 28: 4 “he who ties together clouds” (epithet of Adad), s. Frahm ib. p. 67.

2. In LB also tasked with laundry (s. Waerzeggers 2006a, no. 3 and p. 86).

JW

 

+ kaṣīʾ/yātu “an aromatic, Cinnamomum cassia(?)”; SB, LB

1. LB in lists of aromatics:

a) šimka-ṣi-ia-⸣ AOAT 414/1, 73: 15 (after qunnabu)

b) 1/2 MA.NA ka-ṣi-ia-t[u4] Jursa 2009, 168 BM 61003: 2 “1/2 mina k.

c) 1 MA.NA ⸢šimka-ṣi-ʾ-a-tum ib., 167 BM 67001: 5 “1 mina k. (worth 1 shekel of silver)”.

d) šimka-ṣa-a-a-[] ib., 151 BM 77429: 20.

e) ka-ṣi-a-tu ib., 161 BM 63707.

2. SB ka-ṣi-<<ṣi>>-ḫa-tum RAcc. 18: 6 Cf. AHw. 458, CAD K 266 s.v. kaṣiṣiḫatu.

Disc.: Both Jursa 1997a and Zadok 1997 connect the word with Hebr. qṣyʿh “a powdered bark like cinnamon” (Zadok) and cf. Gr. kassia. Jursa 2009, 161f.: identification uncertain. Pasquali 2014 connects Eblaite ga-zi-(a-)tum /ga-zi, mentioned in connection with bread and flour.

 

**kaṣiṣiḫatu s. kaṣīʾātu

 

kaṣru “bound, knotted, organized (of caravans, troops)”; + MA

1. OB of textile: ⸢GADA -ṣa⸣-ra-⸢am⸣ ul ima[ḫḫarū] ⸢mīnum-ṣa-r[u-u]m ša balū 2 ⸢GÉMEmeš⸣ OBTR 138: 12, 14 “(my lady said:) ‘They have not received the knotted textile.’ What about a knotted textile without (= if I do not have?) 2 servant-girls (to take care of it)?” (s. Langlois 2017, 138 for coll. and comm.).

2. MA PN GAL kaṣ-ru-te VS 19, 5: 23, 24 “PN, overseer of the organized (troops)”, s. Freydank 1976, 113. Cf. VS 21, 4: 47.

JW

 

kaṣṣāru “packing-supervisor”

1. OA 1/2 MA.NA beʾūlāt -ṣa-ri-im Prag I 836: 14 “1/2 minas as beʾūlātum-capital for the packing-supervisor”, cf. Prag I 542: 8, 739: 9, 704: 16. Smaller amounts are mentioned in EL 170: 1, TC 3, 134: 18 (Matouš 1974, 169).

2. EOB 2 -ṣa--en ARM 19, 248: 2.

JW

 

kaṣṣārūtu “function as packing-supervisor”; OA

ana kŕ-ṣa-ru-tim Prag I 695: 2 (Matouš 1974, 169)

JW

 

+ kaṣṣu II “a festival(?)”; MA

1. 2 UD.NÍTAmeš ana ka-aṣ-ṣi Iraq 70, 159 no. 7: 3 “two wethers for k.” (among other ceremonial events).

2. (sheep) ša ka-aṣ-ṣi ša naṣbete MARV 2, 19 r. 19 “for the k. festival(?) and the n. festival(?)”, s. Deller 1987.

3. (bread and sheep) [ša] ka-aṣ-ṣi Chuera 43: 2; (3 wethers) ša ka-ṣi ib. 4. S. disc. Jakob ib. p. 77.

JW

 

kaṣű “cold”

OB lit. lušqīka [m]ę ka-ṣú-ú-tim AML 119: 80 “let me give you cold [wat]er to drink”.

 

kaṣű II, qaṣű “steppe”

1. OB ana ka-ṣí-im-ma īlī ARM 14, 7 r. 6 “he went up to the steppe”.

2. OB [n]awâm ka!-ṣú-um malī ARM 14, 121: 41 “the steppe is full of herds”, s. Durand 1998, 384; [naw]âm qa-ṣi-im ... likmi[s]ū ib. 46 “let them assemble the [he]rds of the steppe”.

3. OB ḫanű kalušu ištū qa-ṣé-e-em ana šadîm ana rîtim ittalak A.1187: 14, cf. ib. 18 (cit. Charpin 1989/1990, 99) “all the Hanaeans went from the steppe towards the hills for pasture”.

Disc.: 1. On etym. s. Streck 2000, 101.

2. The word is not attested in OA, but s. the difficult -ZI-im AKT 8, 149: 2 instead of expected -ṣa-im, and PN ina Ga-Zi-im assī AKT 2, 31: 16 “I called PN ...”.

MPS (1–2, disc. 1), NJCK (dics. 2), JW (3)

 

kaṣű III “to be(come) cold”

G 1. OA emārum ša upqim ina -ṣa-im iḫliq(ma) Prag I 804: 13 “(when) a donkey with an upqu-load perished from the cold”.

2. OA in šīmum kaṣī “trade is cold”, i.e. “has ceased, is at a stand-still”, s. Veenhof 1972, 383f.; kaṣāʾu seems more straightforward than kasāʾu “to bind” as suggested by Veenhof, s. GOA p. 249 n. 6 and for the spelling kŕ-ṣú GOA § 3.2.1.1. Additional refs.: AKT 4, 39: 4; AKT 6C, 619: 10 and 654: 32; TPAK 1, 50: 48.

3. MA tūr ūmū i-ka-ṣu-ú BATSH 4/1, 6: 11 “the days will be cold again (and will not be suitable for washing)”.

4. For FM 9, 218 no. 52 r. 10 s. kaṣāṣu.

NJCK (1–2), JK (3), MPS (4)

 

kâṣu “to flay, skin”; + MA

1. MA a) ina mēlte mītū lā a-ku-ṣ[u] BATSH 9, 37: 20 “(he spoke) thus: ‘(the donkeys) died in a flood’ (and) thus: ‘I did not skin (them)’”.

b) ina šipir mēlte mētūi!-ku-su(sic) BATSH 9, 43: 4 “they (the donkeys) died in the wake of a flood, he did not skin (them)”.

c) ē-class (also in Nuzi): lā a-ke-e-ṣu BATSH 9, 48: 11 “I did not skin (them)”.

2. NB lišānšu mittu … ina patri ta-ku-us-siu ina x x tankissi OIP 114, 85: 15 “his tongue is dead … you flayed it with a dagger and cut it off with …”.

JK (1), MPS (2)

 

kašādu “to reach, arrive; accomplish; conquer”

G 1. ṭēmu ik-tal-da!(KA) BATSH 4/1, 14: 5 “the decision reached me”, s. the comm. p. 167; for this sound change s. de Ridder 2018, 14.

2. LB ⸢kul⸣-du AOAT 414/1, 192: 12 “carry (it) out!” (at the end of the letter).

Gt 1. OB lit. [li]-ik-ta-aš-da-ak-ki VS 10, 214 viii 22 “[let] it reach you”, s. Streck 2010, 569.

2. OB šumma lā ki-iš-šu-[d]a-ti šuprīmma eqlam ana errēšim luddin AbB 8, 71: 8 “(if you wish, work the field yourself.) If you cannot manage (?), write to me and I will give the field to a cultivator” (s. Streck 2003, 68. The function of the Gt is unclear).

Dtn 1. Matouš 1974, 169: OA ḫa-ra-ka uk-ta-na-ša-ad Prag I 720: 8 “I constantly go on your trade journeys”.

2. OB lit. rūʾam tu-uk-ta-na-aš-ša-di CUSAS 10, 10: 25 “you constantly drive away a boyfriend”.

Št OB eqel pīḫātika šu-ta-ak-ši-id-ma AbB 12, 5: 7 “have the field for which you are responsible finished!”, cf. AbB 10, 191: 18; 12, 8: 14; 124: 9; 72: 27 (Streck 2003a, 122).

MPS (G 2, Gt 1, Dtn 2), JW (Gt 2, Dtn 1), JK (G 1)

 

kašāru, kešēru “to restore, replace, repair; to succeed, achieve; OA to compensate for(?)”

AHw. kašāru, CAD kašāru A-C

G 1. OA “to compensate for, to pay back(?)”: (please make him pay the silver (...) and send it to me) ḫu-bu-li/e ša a-ša-du-e!-tim aḫbulu -ak-šu-ur AKT 2, 52: 16 “so that I can pay back/make up for my debt (or: the debts) which I incurred for the šadduʾutu-tax”.

2. OB u anāku annānūm ammīnim ke-čš-re-ku RATL 18: 38 “and I, why should I succeed here?”.

3. SB šebirte ana ke-še/ši-ri BAM 124 iii 57 // 125: 8 “in order to restore what was broken” (von Soden 1975, 461).

D 1. EOB (men) kŕ-šur saparrim ARM 19, 64: 2 “for repairing carts”; also 114: 3; 324: 3.

2. OB (oil) ana ku-úš-šu-ur eleppētim (labirātim) FM 3, 218 no. 24: 3; FM 3, 229 no. 60: 15 “for repairing (old) ships”.

3. OB dūram ša išātum īkulu li-ka-ši-ru-ú CUSAS 36, 11: 19 “they shall repair the wall that fire consumed”; cf. dūrum ku-[š]u-ur 7: 16 “the city wall shall be in good repair”; ⸢ku-še⸣-ra-a 10: 24 “repair (the parts he set of fire)!”; cf. 12: 15.

Disc.: Pace CAD K 284–286, there is no need to assume three lemmata: kašāru A “to repair” and kašāru C “to replace”, both a/u, are surely identical. Later kašāru B “to succeed, to achieve” (i/i), may well be another example of the shift from a/u to later i/i (s. Kouwenberg 2010, 77f.). Von Soden 1975, 461 proposed to interpret the instances given for kašāru B as elliptic use of the otherwise transitive verb.

JW

 

kašāšu I “to gain control of, acquire”

MA sirāšű ša ak-ši-šu-ni immērī lilqēʾū Chuera 9: 20 “the brewers over whom I have gained control shall take (on) sheep”.

Cf. kāšišu.

 

kašāšu II “to feel dizzy(?) (a symptom of disease experienced after standing up)”

G 1. SB itebbēma i-káš-šú-uš itebbē u ikammis STT 91+: 85 = SA.GIG XXV 30 “he stands up and feels dizzy(?), he stands up and keels down” s. Stol 1993b, 73.

2. The transl. “to feel dizzy” is suggested by the context. Von Soden proposed a basic mng. “to be(come) heavy, bulky” (AHw. 462), based on the etym. from ar. kṯṯ “to be thick”.

JW

 

kašāṭu “to cut off”

1. OB lit. lā ta-ka-aš-ši-ṭa-an-ni YOS 11, 24 ii 9 “don’t cut me off!”

2. OB [n]īš ilī ša pī tuppi annî[m l]ā ni-ka-aš-ši-ṭú [lā n]imaššű RATL L.-T. 3 iv 2 “the oath by the gods according to the wording of this tablet we shall not sever, we shall not forget”. Cf. 1 v 9'''; 7 b, 4'

JW

 

kāšišu, + kāsisu “creditor, pledge-taker”

OB ana ka-si-si-šu AbB 10, 81: 8' “(a letter will go) to his creditor”.

 

kašittu OB “recovered (stolen) goods”; SB “success, achievement”

OB kīma ka-ši-it-tim šinīšu aštaprakkum kaspam šūbilam CUSAS 36, 145: 13 “like (chasing after) stolen goods I have already sent you two messages (saying) ‘send me silver!’”.

JW

 

kaškaššu, + kaškāšu “overpowering”

Lex. níĝ-ůl-la = ka-aš-ka-a-šum CUSAS 12 p. 252: 165.

 

kašku “part of a field”; Nuzi

Disc.: Negri Scafa 1982 (inalienable part of a parcel of land); Richter 2012, 193 with prev. lit.

JW

 

kašmaḫḫu, kašmāḫu “first-class beer”; + OB

1. OB kaš-ma-ḫa-am ukallam AbB 9, 41: 23 “he is holding first-class beer for me”.

2. NA munaqqű KAŠ.MAḪ ša K[N] KAL 3, 22: 5 “the libation vessel for first-class beer of K[N]”.

JW

 

+ kaššilu “a profession connected to beer production”; OB; Sum. lw.

1. (PNN) ka-ši-lu ša KAŠ ÚS ARM 22, 57 A iii 12 “k.s for second quality beer”; ša KAŠ S[IG]5 ib. 19 (coll. Durand 1987d) “~ of good quality beer”.

2. […] ka-aš-ši-il5 ARM 23, 546 no. 580: 25.

3. 6 ka-aš-ši-lu ARM 23, 576 no. 609: 19.

4. PN ka-aš-ši-il OBTR 206 r. 13, cf. 207 iv 17.

5. KAŠ.ÍL ša GĚR-šu marṣat CUSAS 15, 158: 6 “the k. whose foot is wounded”.

Disc.: S. Durand 1987d. The logogr. KAŠ.ÍL suggests Sum. origin (cf. UET 3, 1401 r. 3).

JW

 

Kaššu I “official”; OA

A general term designating officials in Anatolian towns and week eponyms in Kaneš (the latter only in the phrase ḫamuštum ša kŕ-ší-im ša qāti PN “the ḫamuštum-week of the official who took over from PN”. Note also ištū ḫamuštim ša Ga-«GA»-ší-im -né-ší-im PN u PN2 ilqeʾu kt c/k 782: 10–12 “from the ḫamuštum-week of the Kanešite official (who) took over from PN and PN2” (quoted in Dercksen 2011, 236).

Lit.: Larsen 1976, 359f.; Kryszat 2004, 162f.; Veenhof 2008a, 226f.

NJCK

 

Kaššu II s. qaššu

 

kašű II “to increase”

G Cf. D, below.

D 1. OB agrum ša inūma ebūrim ú⸣-ka-aš-šu-ma ikkalu takšītum ana eṣēdim ina ḫalṣim [i-k]a?-aš-ši ... ana GN [ana ku-úš]-ši-im ittalak ARM 27, 26: 22 “the hired man who makes profit at the time of the harvest – profit increases(?) at harvest time in the district – he left for GN [to make pro]fit”; s. CAD T 88 takšītu.

2. OB kasapka liqēma il–libbim ku--ši CUSAS 36, 36: 19 “take your silver and get your profit from it”.

MPS (D 1), JW (D 2)

 

kâšu “to be late; to be merciful”

AHw. kâšu III, CAD kâšu A and B

D NA [atâ?] adu akanni -ú-ki-[] SAA 1, 233: 13 “[why(?)] did you dela[y (it) until now?”

Š MB ul -ki-is-su-ma CUSAS 17, 61: 19 “(DN) allowed him no pardon (but spilled his life-(blood) like water)”.

MPS (D), JW (Š)

 

kâšunu “you” (pl. obl. case)

1. NA also in letter: ana ka-a-šu⸣-nu SAA 5, 34: 20.

2. LB ana ka-šú-nu dubsar 3, 75: 17 “for you”.

 

kâta s. kâti

 

katammu “cover”; + NA

4 giš?ka-tam-a-ti teppaš SAA 19, 156: 13 “you shall make 4 wooden(?) covers”. S. kadammu.

 

katāmu “to cover”

G 1. OB with seed: eqlam zēram ak-tu-um ... aššum eqlim ša zēram ak-tu-mu FM 7, p. 130 no. 36: 44–46 “I sowed the field (lit. covered it with seed) ... regarding the field that I had sown”. A mng. “to harrow”, suggested by J.-M. Durand, ib. p. 132, is unlikely, s. eqlam ša azrű ib. 49 “the field that I had sown”.

2. OB ālī ina NA4 ka-ta-mi-im izzīzamma ARM 28, 44: 18 “my city stood up in order to cover (me) with stone(s)”, s. FM 8 p. 107, and correct SAD 2, 64 tamű II G 1.

3. OB “to apply metal decorations to wood”, s. Arkhipov 2012, 62f. with refs.

D 1. OB (oil) ana ku-ut-tu-um ṣalmi FM 3, 245 no. 95: 8 “for covering (= polishing?) a statue”.

2. OB panūki lā ku-[t]u-mu AbB 7, 36: 5 “is your face not covered?” (perhaps indicating shame or grief, s. Kraus ib. n. b).

3. OB [in]a bēlišunu [l]ā ú-ka-⸢ta⸣-mu-šu RATL L.-T. 1 v 18'' “I shall not hide him (= the runaway slave) from their master”.

Ntn SB [it-t]a-na-ak-tam StBoT 36, 62 J2: 10' “is constantly covered”, s. Wilhelm ib. 62: The logogr. spelling DUL.DUL-tam in TDP 40: 25, 70: 1 is likely also Ntn, pace AHw. 465 (D?) and CAD K 302 (Dt).

MPS (G 1–2, D 1); JW (G 3, D 2–3)

 

katanšarātu s. kanasarru

 

**katappu s. katāpu

 

katāpu “a ceremonial weapon”

1. OB 1 giška-ta-pu-um KŮ.GI muḫḫašu u išissu KŮ.GI ARM 25, 608: 9 “1 k. made of gold, its top and its base made of gold”.

2. OB 1 giška-ta-pu ZABAR īnātūšu KŮ.BABBAR ARM 25, 608 ed. 1 “1 k. made of bronze, its eyes are of silver”.

3. OB pādū ša ka-ta- FM 7, p. 114 no. 30: 20 “handles for k. weapons”.

4. OB 1 kŕ-tá-pum KTT 53: 5, 15; 54: 10 (in lists of weapons and other objects).

5. OB Ebla PN wakil meš ka-ta- Akkadica 126, 46: 3 “PN, overseer of the k.-bearers”, also in unpubl. OB Ebla text cit. RA 98, 123 n. 6. S. Kupper 2006.

6. For add. refs. and disc. s. Arkhipov 2012, 113f.

JW

 

katāru II “to wait(?)”

NA ina libbi ni-ik-te-ti-[ir] SAA 5, 249: 5 “we waited(?) there”.

 

katātu “to quiver, vibrate”; + OA

N(?) OA “to be annulled (of tablet)”: (Silver will pass overland in the name of the Zuzu firm. When it arrives in the City) tuppašu i-Ga-ta-at CTMMA 1, 123 no. 86A: 14 “his tablet will be annulled(?)”, transl. M. T. Larsen.

NJCK/MPS

 

kâti, kâta, kâtu “you (fem./masc. sg. obl.)”

1. OB after prepositionally used u: inūma ina GN anāku u abīya ka-ta nuštātű AbB 14, 155: 12 “when I and you, my father, met in GN”. Cf. AbB 1, 21: 13; AbB 9, 108: 10, 76: 12, 129: 8, 125: 5; AbB 14, 85: 8 (Veenhof 2005, 209f.). In ARM 26/2 260, 404: 46 it is preferable to read

2. OB also for nom.: šumma eqlum ka-a[-um] ka-ta ṣabat u šumma yaʾum anāku aṣabbassu “if the field is yours, you take it! If it’s mine, I will take it” (a reading at!-ta is excluded by the photograph at https://archibab.fr/T7603).

JW

 

katinnu “an implement; a weapon”

AHw. kattinnu.

1. MB Emar (Pentiuc 2001, 145: qaṭinnu): ga-di-nu ZABAR Emar 48: 2 pass., cf. ka-ti-in-nu Emar 59: 4, 44: 10, 47:8, ka-di-nu URUDU RE 69: 11.

2. MB ka-di-nu-[ma?me]š PRU 6, 157: 11.

Disc.: Huehnergard 1987, 398: “The writing with medial DI may reflect Hurrian intervocalic voicing.” Pentiuc 2001, 145 parses the word as qaṭinnu, but note that none of the refs. are spelled with qa₁. The interpretation as a weapon, perhaps “sickle-blade sword” has been suggested by Heltzer 1989 (cf. Hebr. kīdōn). For add. lit. s. Richter 2012, 197.

JW

 

+ katkattu “a box or chest”; MB

1. MB Qaṭna: 4 kat-kat-temeš ša ZÚ.GUL 3 kat-kat-temeš ša taskarinnim QS 3, 12: 26f. “4 k. of ivory, 3 k. of boxwood”.

2. MB Alalaḫ (Niedorf 2008, 107 n. 403):

a) 6 kat-kat- gišTASKARIN AlT 441: 1 “6 k. of boxwood”.

b) giška-at-ga-tu AlT 421: 6, 8, 11; giška-at-ga!(TA)-at- ib. 3.

c) ka-at-ka-at-te AlT 438: 11.

d) kat-kat-tum AlT 417: 5, cf. 435: 21.

Disc.: Inventories list the object among vessels or furniture, often made from wood. The ref. in AlT 417 was erroneously read pa-pa-tum in AHw. 824.

JW

 

kattű “guarantor”

1. Del. TIM 2 (= AbB 8) 101: 7 and TLB 4 (= AbB 3) 83: 20, both cit. CAD K 307 (Veenhof 2005, 210).

 

kâtu s. kâti

 

katű “to distrain, to take as security”

New OA refs.:

G: Prag I 537: 18; AKT 6B, 337b: 20; AKT 7A, 276: 9; kt 92/k 293: 11, 14 and 328: 5 (s. Bayram 2000, 44–46); kt 92/k 543: 31 (s. Bayram 2001, 3);

Gtn: kt 88/k 507b: 7 (s. Çeçen 1995, 53).

D: AKT 6A, 86: 13.

Lit.: Veenhof 2001, 154–155.

Disc.: For aq--i (kt j/k 97: 57), s. qatű G; the meaning of ik-ta-ma (ATHE 35: 36 (= OAA 1, 69)) and ak- (TC 2, 36: 39) is unclear.

NJCK

 

/ātu, gayyātu “a type of barley”

1. SB úka-a-t[u] KAL 9, 52 l. e. 7 (list of medicinal ingredients).

2. CAD G s.v. gajātu. Cf. Hurr. kade, Hatt. kait-, Hebr. gatāi “barley bread” etc. It is disputed whether the word is originally Akk., Hurr., or other. S. Richter 2012, 197f. for lit. and disc.

S. also qayyātu.

JW

 

+ kawarḫu “an animal”; OB

1. ina panītim aššum ka-wa-ar-ḫi ašpurakkumma ka-wa-ar-ḫi šunūti ul tušābilam annītam bēlī išpuram mimma aššum ka-wa-ar-ḫi ina panītim bēlī ul išpuram ... PN illikamma 4 ka-wa-ar-ḫi ša maškī ḫa-ar-mu ilqē inanna anūmma 3 ka-wa-ar-ḫu(sic) ša maškī ḫa-ar-mu u 2 ka-wa-ar-ḫi ša [š]ārtim ana qāt PN [...] ARM 27, 51: 5–13 “‘earlier, I wrote you about k. but you did not send me those k.’ This my lord wrote me. Earlier, my lord did not write me anything about k. ... PN came and took 4 k. enveloped in (their) skin. Now then I [entrusted] 3 k. enveloped in (their) skin and 2 k. with hair to PN”.

2. M. Birot, ib. p. 112f., relates the word to the fish kamāru III. However, the words kawarḫu and kamāru are different, the det. ku6 is missing, and skin and hair rather favor an animal with hide.

 

kawāru “enclosure wall; edging”

AHw. 430 kamar(r)u, CAD K 111 kamaru A.

1. OB ammat u ūṭ uššū ana ka-wa-ar bītim mitḫāriš šuplam illikū FM 8, 159 no. 45: 10 “the foundations for the enclosure wall of the temple uniformly went one and a half cubits deep”.

2. OB as part of metalwork: 1 GAL ḫamrušḫu ka-wa-ar-šu KŮ.GI ARM 31, 258: 3 “1 ḫamrušḫu-cup, its edging of gold”. S. Guichard 2015, 136–139.

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

kawű, kamű “outer, outside”; + OAkk

1. ištūm dūrim -wi!-im ana dūrim dannim FAOS 7, Nar C 5 BS b “from the outer wall to the strong wall”, cf. ib. BS e, f.

2. OB DN ša ka-we-tim FM 12, 230 M.18084: 4 “outside (the city, opposition libbi ālim ib. 2 “inside the city”)”.

JW (1), MPS (2)

 

kayyamānu, fem. kayyamāntu “normal, regular, trustworthy”

1. OB [in]a rēš erbîmma [in]a ka-ia-ma-an-ti-ia [k]amsāku ARM 27, 29: 17 “I [was] kneeling(?) all the time in front of the locusts”.

2. NA (may good news) ka-a-a-ma-ni-u ... ana šarre [b]ēliya liqribāni SAA 10, 251 r. 3 “constantly reach the king, my lord”.

3. LB iltēn mannu ka-ma-a-nu AOAT 414/1, 221: 8 “somebody trustworthy” (cf. mamma ka-a-a-ma-nu-u CT 22, 141: 10).

 

kayyāniš “constantly”; + OA

OA -a-a-ni-iš ana šēp bēlini nimtanaqqut Günbattı 2014, 89 kt 01/k 217: 28 “we constantly kept falling at the feet of our lord”; -a-a-ni-iš ša ūmēni ib. 51 “constantly in (lit. of) our days”, i.e. “every day of our life”; s. also AKT 5, 13: 49.

NJCK

 

kayyānu “constant, regular”

1. OB [a!]-na ka-a-ia-an-tim udabbabū FM 7, 105 no. 28: 37 “they shall talk constantly”.

2. In commentaries “literal meaning” (Cavigneaux 1982, 237; George 1991, 154f. and Frahm 2011, 38 n. 137 for add. refs.).

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

+ KayyanZu (?) “a designation of property”; MB Emar

1. eqlī KA-ia-an-ZA ša abišu (…) ittadin AuOrS 36: 13; cf. 83: 15 “he gave (PN) the fields (and?) K. of his father (instead of a debt of silver)”.

2. KA-ia-an-ZI-ia ša ālim u ṣēri Iraq 54 1: 9 “my K. belong to the city and the open country”, cf. Emar 91: 18; 128: 3–7; ASJ 6 1: 7; RE 10:7; 13:9.

3. mīnummę būšu<šu> bāšītušu u KA-ia-an-ZU-šú Emar 117: 19 “all of his belongings, property and K.” (inheritance, cf. Emar 5: 9, AuOrS 83: 10–12, 18).

4. šumma mamma tuppa ša bītim šâšu qadū KA-ia-an-ZI-šu ušellâ SMEA 30, 203 no. 6: 7 “if anyone produces a tablet concerning this house with its K.”; cf. ib. 205 no. 7: 24.

Disc.: S. Pentiuc 2001, 93f. with prev. lit.; etym. unkn.

JW

 

kazābu I “to be attractive”, D “to fawn, flatter”

D 1. OB lit. ku-uz-zi-ba-an-ni k[īma ]rānim ZA 75, 204: 106 “wag your tail at me l[ike a p]uppy!”

2. OB lit. ul uk-ta-zi-ib ZA 110, 43 iii 6 in broken context.

 

+ kaZaššu “a food”; MA; Hurr. lw.?

[n DUG].kallī GIŠ.ŠE ša ka-ZA-áš-še MARV 3 16 = SAAB 18, p. 4 i 23 “[n] kallu-bowls with sticks of k.”. S. Llop ib. p. 24.

JW

 

kazbu, OA kuzbu “charming, alluring; nice, friendly”

OA atta ana awīle awātam ku-zu-ub-tám ištēt qarrib kt b/k 95: 14 “you, put in a friendly word to the gentleman (‑men?)”, s. Balkan 1967, 410.

Disc.: Ass. kuzbu corresponds to Bab. kazbu (GOA § 7.2.3); not from kuzzubu, pace CAD K 617a s.v. kuzzubu adj., as this would be *kazzubu in Ass.

NJCK ʾ

 

kazbittu s. ṣibittu

 

+ kaziru “plucking(?)”; EA; NWSem. word.

u lāmi nileʾʾu ZÚ.SI.GA ba-qa-ni : ka-zi-ra EA 244: 14 “and we are thus not able to do the sheep-plucking : k.”. Cf. Hebr. and Ugar. GZR “to cut off, pinch off” (s. Dietrich/Loretz 1977). Diff. Moran 1992, 298 n. 1 (-ṣí-ra “harvesting”?)

JW

 

+ kazuḫḫu “a designation of shoes”; OB; Hurr. lw.?

1. 1 mešēn ka-zu-uḫ-ḫi ARM 30, 387 M.11311 = ARM 25, 17 “on (pair of?) k.-shoes”.

2. 1 mešēnu ka-zu-ḫu ARM 23, 569: 2. S. Durand 2009, 167 for add. refs. and 165 for disc.

JW

 

kazű s. kizű

 

kazzu s. gazzu

 

keldi s. keltu

 

keldu s. keltu

 

+ keltu, keldu “health, well-being”; OB; Hurr. word

OB 1 SILA₄ ana ilī … ana ke-el-ti-šu-nu tanaqqī AlT 126: 23 “you sacrifice 1 lamb to the gods … for their well-being”; cf. SILA₄ ke-el-di-ia ib. 37.

Disc.: < Hurr. keldi (= Akk. šulmu). S. Schwemer 1995 for use in Hurr. and Hitt. sources; Richter 2012, 203f. with add. lit.

JW

 

keltuḫlu, + keltuḫul “bowyer”; + OB; Hurr. word

OB […] ke-el-tu-ḫu-ul Shemshara 2, 46: 23. S. Richter 2012, 206 for lit.

JW

 

kepű “to bend, blunt”

D Del. ref. Hinke Kudurru i 13 (CAD K 313 ad 2): read šur-bu-ú instead of kůp-pu-ú (Borger 1975, 71b).

JW

 

kerānu s. karānu

 

kedru s. kadāru

 

kerḫu “citadel, upper city, inner city; enclosure wall, enclosed area; a vessel”; + MA; + MB; Hurr. lw.

1. OB ⸢Ištar bēlet ke⸣-er-ḫi-im RATL 79: 6 “Ištar, lady of the inner city”.

2. OB nišīšunu ana ke-e[r]-ḫi-i[m]ki ušērib ARM 14, 66: 19 “I let their people enter the enclosed area”. S. Durand 1997, 51: the area of the palace, distinct from the city.

3. MA dūru ša ker₆-ḫe ša GN Numoto 2009, 94: 2 “the wall of the inner city of GN” (Mayer 2016, 226).

4. MB adī balṭu ker-ḫa lizammī Sumer 38, 124 iv 20 “he shall become deprived of life in the inner city” (Mayer 2016, 226).

5. A vessel:

a) OB 2 GAL ki-ir-ḫu (of 1 1/3 mina and 2 shekel of silver, with an engraved AN-sign) ARM 31, 95: 1, s. Guichard 205, 214.

b) MB Qaṭna 1 kir10-ḫi ZABAR QS 3, 17: 11 “1 bronze k.”

Lit.: Richter 2012, 212 with lit.

JW (1, 3–5), MPS (2)

 

kerku, kirku “roll (of papyrus, cloth)”; Aram. lw.

LB ištēn kír-ku ša ina bīti maḫṣu TBER 93f.: 16 “one roll of cloth which was woven in the house”

Disc.: Kogan/Krebernik 2021, 440 (cf. Syr. kerkā); Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 37 (loan from Aram. KRK, not Akk. karāku).

JW

 

kerru I, Mari karru, kāru “male sheep”

EOB 1 UDU 2 ke-ru ARM 19, 182: 2 “1 (female) sheep, 2 male sheep”.

JW

 

kezertu s. kezretu

 

kezretu, kezertu, kazratu “a type of cultic prostitute”

1. OB lit. šumma ⸢ke⸣-ez-re-et liqabbir (or likappir?) aštammaša elīya limqu[t] CUSAS 10, 11: 14 “if she is a k. may she ‘bury(?)’ (or “clean”?) her tavern (and) fall upon me”. Note the parallelism with qadištu and nadītu ib. 12f.

2. OB 44 fke-ez-r[e]-tum FM 4, 216 no. 37: 3 (in list of musicians). Cf. N. Ziegler, ib. p. 87f.

3. OB lit. ka-az-ra-a-tum-ma UET 6/3, 889 ii 8.

Disc.: Gallery 1980; Yoffee 1998.

 

“like; how; as; if”

1. OA , s. GOA § 12.7.

2. MB lit. adverb (AHw. 469 B): ki lūdirka ki lurāmki ALL no. 11: 1 “how I want to embrace you! – How I want to love you!”

3. NB kī adī introducing a positive promissory oath: DN u DN2 mamm[a] bīt abīka īteṭ[ru] u ki-i a-di-i ina šībūtu u littūtu bīt abīka tulabbaru SAA 17, 5: 7 “I swear by DN and DN2 that nobody will take away the house of your father and that you indeed will make last the house of your father a long time in old age and in senility”.

4. LB kī ... kī “either ... or” (s. CAD K 325 d): ki-[i] kibtu u ki-isaḫlę bēlu lušēbilaššu AOAT 414/1, 103:8f. “may the lord send him either wheat or cress”.

5. For + noun “in the way of” s. Mayer 2009, 431f., 439 with refs.

S. also kīkī.

NJCK (1), MPS (2–4), JW (5)

 

kīʾam “thus”

1. OA s. GOA § 13.5.4 s.v.

2. With ša: OB ki-a-am ša uwaʾʾerukaʿ FM 7, 38 no. 13: 8 “that is what I wrote you”.

3. With pronom. suffix “to be suitable” (Mayer 2016, 226):

a) ṣuḫārum ... ul ki-a-šu AbB 14, 18: 25 “the servant is not suitable”, cf. ib. 140: 33.

b) awīltum ul ki-a-ša AbB 2, 145: 19 “the woman is not suitable”.

c) awīlū annuttum ul ki-a-šu-nu MHEO 1, 105 Di 985: 9 “these men are not suitable”.

4. kīʾamma “just, simply”: OB (“a woman … whose status of married wife is known to your ward”) ki-a-am-ma ittallak CT 45, 86: 33 “is she to depart simply like that?” S. Veenhof 1976, 156f. with disc. and add. refs.

NJCK (1), MPS (2), JW (3)

 

kīʾāšu, kâšu II “to help”

SB nir-da šu-bar-zi-aka- : awīlam ina šērtu ka-a-ša SpTU III, 67 ii 23 (bīt rimki) “to help a man in punishment” (Mayer 2016, 226).

JW

 

kiāšum “to wrap up” (OA) s. Kaʾāšu

 

**kibarru “boat made of inflated skins” (CAD K 329)

Read kušmaš!-ki!-ri (Stol 1980–1983, 538).

JW

 

kibbu I “an object made of metal or wood”

S. kippu.

 

kibbu II, gibbu “burning; flame; a sacrifice”; + OB

1. OB lit. ki-ib!-bu! RA 86, 81: 5, s. arāru II.

2. Oil: a) OB ana ki-ib-bi-im ša ilī MARI 3, 38: 3 “for the k. sacrifice of the gods”.

b) OB ana gi-bi-im ša DN ARM 7, 79: 4 “for the g. sacrifice of DN”.

c) OB ana ki-ib-bi-im [š]a elūnūm ālim u šaplān ālim MARI 3, 39: 2 “for the k. sacrifice from above the city and below the city”.

3. Animals: a) OB 1 kalūmum gi-bu-um ARM 21, 17: 9 “1 lamb, g. sacrifice”.

b) OB 1 immerum gi-bu-um ARM 21, 48: 11 “1 sheep, g. sacrifice”.

4. Disc. with further refs.: Jacquet 2011, 38f. gibbu represents an assimilation of k to b.

 

kibittu “full force, full strength”

ina ki-bi-it-te!(text: E) ṣābim ARM 10, 5: 8 “with troops in full force”.

JW

 

kibrītusulphur”; + OB; + MA

1. OB without case ending:

a) ki-ib-re-e-et UET 6/2, 193: 11 (= ZA 71, 55 no. 20) among ingredients.

b) ki-ib-ri-it UET 6/3, 895: 24.

c) ki-bi-ir-i-it ARM 22/2, 323: 24.

2. MA kib-ri-tume[š] StAT 5, 1: 5.

Disc.: The OB spellings illustrate a popular etymology < kibir Ēt/Īt (“bank of Ḥīt”), s. Stol 2009. Cf. Hurr. kibridi, Heth. kibriti- (Richter 2012, 209f. with lit.).

JW

 

kibru, pl. kibrātu “border, rim”

MB lex. kiš = ki-ib-ra-tum Emar 6/4, 537: 712 (Sa), Sjöberg 1998, 276.

JW

 

kibsātu “deduction, compensation (for impurities)”

1. New OA refs.: AKT 6B, 395: 7; 6C, 671: 14; CUSAS 34, 35: 2.

2. VAT 9219: 4 (CAD K 339a s.v. 3) is published as VS 26, 47; in kt j/k 76: 4 (quoted ib.), read ṣa-ḫu-ur ‘deducted’ rather than -ḫu-ur.

NJCK

 

kibsu I “step, path”

1. OB alkā kuššidā ki-bi-is šēpīšunu liqę⸣ FM 2, 68 no. 34: 13 “go, chase (them), track them (lit. take the step of their feet)!”

2. LB ina kib-si anāku dubsar 3, 160: 19 “I am on the way”.

 

kibsu II, kibasu “a garment”

1. LB (1 linen tunic) ana kib-su nadī Zawadzki 2013, 332 r. 4 “has been deposited for k.”; cf. 359: 8.

2. LB (1 linen tunic – instead of a tunic for (covering) the throne) ša ana ki-ba-su nadna ana PN mukabbî ana kussî nadin Zawadzki 2013, 365: 4 “was given to PN, the mender, for (making) k. for the throne.” 

JW

 

kibšu “a half-pack of a specific shape to be carried by a donkey”; OA

1. 4 ANŠE ki-ib-šu-um 1 upqum AKT 2, 34: 24 “4 donkeys with a k.-load and 1 with an upqum-load”; sim. TC 3, 192 pass.

2. ANŠE ki-ib!-šu!-um ištēka lizzīz BIN 4, 56: 25 “let the k.-donkey stay with you”.

3. 20 muttātum ša ki-ib-šé-em 8 muttātum ša upqem TC 1, 16: 4 “20 half-packs of the k.-type and 8 half-packs of the upqum-type”; sim. CCT 5, 29a: 4.

Disc.: k. is typically used in apposition and contrasts with upqu. S. Veenhof 1972, 2–4; Dercksen 2004a, 279–282.

NJCK

 

kīdānu, + gīdānu “outside”; + NA

1. EOB [x] maršidātum [x n]aki-da-nu ARM 19, 460: 15 “[x] foundation stones; [x] outer stones”.

2. BŔD ša gi-da-a-⸢ni ga⸣mmur sē⸢re SAA 15, 94 r. 6 “the outer city-wall is finished and plastered”.

JW

 

kidinnű II “a fabric or textile”

LB 10 MA.NA sígki-din-nu (...) kūmu SÍGḫi.a CT 55, 834: 1 “10 minas of k. (for a ṣibtu of DN’s bed) instead of wool” (S. Zawadzki 2006, 26. Kleber 2011, 88f. suggests