G

 

 

gabadibbu “parapet, crenellation”

MA d > p: ištū uššēšu adī ga-ba-dip-pe-šú BBVOT 2 p. 24 no. 1: 9 “from its foundations to its crenellations”, s. Maul ib. 32.

JW

 

gabagallu “an object made from leather or fabric; part of a wagon”; Sum. lw.

1. EOB GABA.GÁL BIN 9, 75, 463 (of leather, van de Mieroop 1987, 136 with Charpin 1990a, 90).

2. OB gaba-gal-lu ARM 7, 243: 4; túggaba-gál-lu ARM 22, 324 ii 11; s. Durand 2009, 34 with add. Mari refs.

3. SB DIŠ gišgaba-gál-la : pitnu ereqqi ša ištēn parű ū lū ištēn ANŠE.x […] RA 85, 152: 49a “(If he sees a g.): the box of a cart, which a single mule or a single donkey (?) […]; gaba-gál-la : pitnu ib. c “g. = a box”. Sim. RA 73, 167: 19 (comm. to TDP I, 42’).

Disc.: Arkhipov 2012a, 7f. The SB commentary and lex. attestations suggest the floor or body of a small cart, rather than a front part (George 1991, 162). In OB, the word describes an object made from leather or fabric that could have served multiple purposes (Durand 2009, 34).

A Ur III text concerning funerary objects mentions gaba-gál ků-sig17, perhaps a pectoral or breast-plate (UET 3, 335: 2, s. Sallaberger 1995, 17).

JW

 

+ gab/pānu “?”; OB

D 1. ú-ga-ab/p-bi/pí-nu-ma it[t]allakū FM 9, 71: 26 “they … and were departing”.

2. gu-ub/p-bi/pí-in-ma alik A.559, cited FM 9 p. 285. Ziegler ib.: “se préparer au voyage”, “séquiper”, “se ravitailler”.

 

g/kabaraḫḫu “rebellion; distress”; Sum. lw.

1. In Sum. lit. as an Akk. lw., indicated by syllabic spellings: ga-ba-ra-ḫum MC 1: 65, cf. ga-ba-ra-ḫu-um/ḫum Inninšagura 22 (Michalowski 1989, 78).

2. OB lit. pasāqum!? ga-ba-ra-a[-ka] AML 100: 1 “[your] distress is choking(!?)”.

JW (1), MPS (2)

 

gabarű “copy”; + OB

OB (oil) ša ana PN ina ga-ba-re-e-em tamű AbB 14, 74: 25 “that had been assigned to PN under oath according to a duplicate (tablet)” (s. Veenhof ib. p. 67 n. e.).

JW

 

gabāšu s. kapāšu

 

gabbu II, gappu “back, pedestal”; + OB

1. OB “pedestal”: a) inūma DN ina gáb(KAB)-bi-ša uzzīzū FM 3 p. 238 no. 73: 9 “when they installed DN on her pedestal”.

b) ina gáb-bi-ša ušzīzū! ib. p. 248 no. 95: 31.

c) S. the disc. of  Durand 2005, 144f. The word is to be connected with Hebr. gab I HAL I 163. S. also Ugar. gb I (Olmo Lete/Sanmartín 2004, 291). However, some of the Ugar. refs. might rather belong to gubbu “cistern” (= Hebr. gēb I HAL I 163).

2. Var. gappu: [inan]na ga-ap-pa-am [g]apšam ša ṣalmim [an]a talbīš napād mešetti [up]atteḫ ARM 13, 11: 23 “now I have drilled through the large pedestal of a statue (in order to make) cladding of the fastener of the m.-lance” (s. Durand 1997, 281f., cf. M.13259).

3. Here might belong the LB refs. for a piece of meat, understood in both CAD and AHw. as “brain”. S. also the disc. Jursa 1999, 67.

 

+ gabdi/u “next to, adjoining to”; NA, Aram. lw.(?)

1. (an estate) gab-di PNf gab-di PN gab-di eqli ša PN2 gab-di eqli ša PN3 SAA 6, 22: 4–7 “adjoining PNf, adjoining PN, adjoining the field of PN2, adjoining the field of PN3”.

2. (a house) gab-du bīt PN gab-du bīt PN2 gab-du ḫarrān šarre mušēṣīʾu gab-du ḫi[rīṣi š]a āli StaT 2, 207: 7–11 “adjoining the house of PN, adjoining the house of PN2, adjoining the king’s road leading out, adjoining the m[oat o]f the city”.

3. Many more refs. and disc. in Cherry 2017, 103–106. Lw. from Aram. gb(ʾ) “side” + pronoun /ū?

 

gabidu “liver”

1. OB ka-bi-da-am YOS 11, 26 i 62 (among ingredients). Reading after Stol 2006, 112 (pace Bottéro 1995, 76: qŕ-qá-da-am).

2 LB naṣrapi ša ga⸣-bi-d[u] Jusa 1999, 81 BM 4+: 5 “a n. piece of meat of the liver”. S. Jursa ib. p. 67; Stol 2006, 112.

 

gabīn s. gabīnu

 

+ gabīnu (?) “hillock; hunchback”; Ugar.; LB; NWSem. lw

1. MB [A.ŠŔ]ḫi.a : ga-bi-ni [qadū d]imtišu PRU 3, 119f.: 12 “’hillock(?) field’ with its tower” (for etym. s. Huehnergard 1987, 115).

2. LB “hunchback” gabīnu mārū ša ga-bi-inEGIR TCL 13, 228: 4 “sons of the hunchback” = Aram. gəbīn (McEwan 1986, 188).

JW

 

gābištu s. kāpišu

 

gablu s. qablu III

 

gabʾu “mountain peak”; + OB, + MB; NWSem. lw.

1. OB [in]a ga-ab-i-im ša GN akkalīma ARM 26/2 p. 215 no. 388: 12 “I was held back [o]n the hill of GN”.

2. OB aššum na-re-e-am ša ga-ba-i [x] napālim ARM 26/2, 414: 25 “concerning the stela to be broken (out of?) the mountain peak” (s. Streck 2000, 88).

3. MB Emar ana bēl ga-ab-a Emar 373: 104 “to the Lord of the hill” (s. Pentiuc 2001, 49).

4. NA [ū]mu u mūšu ina pani gab-ʾi ša nēši šarru uṣal[la] SAA 10, 294: 39 “day and night I pray to the king in front of the lion’s hill(?)”. S. Cherry 2016, 101f. with disc.

JW

 

gabű I, gabbű “alum”

1. OB ga-bi-im pass. in ARM 23, nos. 139–170 for dying and tanning (s. Degraeve 1996, 25–28).

2. LB CT 57, 255: 16, 29; CT 55, 353: 2; 862: 3; 259: 6–7, 865: 5.

Disc.: For dying and tanning S. Zawadzki 2006, 44.

JW

 

+ gabű II “to gather” (?); OB; Amor. lw.

D ištū ḫalaṣ GN nawâm ug-da-ab-bi-im ARM 26/1 p. 160 A.915: 8 “I gathered (the inhabitants of) the steppe from the district of GN” (s. Streck 2000, 88).

S. also gibętu.

JW

 

gadāru s. kadāru

 

gaddāya s. gaṭṭāʾa

 

+ gaddu “fortune”; NWSem. lw.; MB Emar

bīt ga-ad-dá Emar 369: 36 “temple of fortune”, bīt dga[-ad-dá] ib. 34; ga14-ad[-da] Emar 461: 5, 4; gad-dá Emar 373: 165. S. Pentiuc 2001, 50. The deity corresponds to Papsukkal, s. Beckman 2002, 43; Dietrich 1990, 36.

JW

 

+ gadittu “tattered(?)”; LB

šittā gammidātu ištēt eššetu ištēt ga-di-it-tum Zawadzki 2010, 415 BM 76136: 4 “2 gammidu-garments, one (of which is?) new, one (of which is?) tattered(?)”. Apparently < gadādu “to cut off” (AHw. 273).

JW

 

+ gadru “a precious stone, a jewel”

NB 2 na₄ga-ad-ru KŮ.GI OIP 122, 120 ii 10 “2 g. (with) gold (mounting)”.

JW

 

gadű “kid”

NA (may they [slaughter] you) kī ḫurāpi ga-de-e SAA 2, 6: 636C “like a spring lamb, a kid”; s. already AHw. 1555.

Disc.: Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 30 (a cognate rather than lw.).

 

gāgu “(neck) ring, torc”

NA 2 ga-gi KŮ.BABBAR FNALD 14: 11. S. Postgate 1994a, 244.

JW

 

+ gaḫḫibu “cough”; OB

kīma ga-a-i-bu-ma ana [ašrišu] lā iturru RATL L.T. 3 v 12 “like a cough does not return to its place (of origin)”, cf. the parallel L.T. 2 iv 9'' (s. Ziegler apud Charpin 2016, 175). Diff. Eidem in RATL p. 394 (ga-a-i-im!-ma).

Cf. guḫḫubu “cough”.

JW

 

g/kaʾiššu “traveling merchant”

Logogr. RAŠ:GA for GA.EŠ8 in Pre-Sargonic Mari (FAOS 7, MP 10: 7, 33: 3).

JW

 

gajāte s. kātu

 

+ galābu “to shave”

CAD, AHw. gullubu.

+ G OA (expenses made when) a-ḫa-<at>-ni qaqqassa ana DN ta-ag-lu-ub Albayrak 2002, 3 kt 88/k 71: 61 “our sister shaved her head for Ištar”.

D 1. OB as punishment: qaqqassu ana gu-lu-bi-im iddinū Haradum 2, 23: 7 “they (= the judges) gave his head to be shaved”.

2. Said of field (AHw. 297 g. 3a): eṣṣid ú-ga-lap CTN 6, 108: 4 “he will harvest and ‘shave’ it”. 

+ Dt OB abuttašu ug-da-la-ab ARM 26/1 p. 282 no. 115: 5’ “his slave-hairstyle will be shorn off” (Streck 2003a, 111).

š 1. OA lit. ša GN qabalti qaqqadātīšunu ú-ša-ag-li-ib OA Sarg. 61 “I shaved the middle of the heads of (the men of) GN”.

2. OB s. AHw. 1557.

MPS (D 2, Š), JW (D 1, Dt), NJCK (G 1, Š)

 

galālu I “building stone, gravel”

Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 30: Borrowed into, not from Aram.; possibly originally from a third language.

 

galālu II “to roll”

NA a-ga-lal⸣ SAA 9, 2 iii 4’ “I will roll” (in broken context).

 

+ galammű “trickery, deception”; Sum. lw.

1. SB ga-la-ma-a-šú eli pātiqu zārűʾa ORA 7, 322: 66 “his trickery lasts upon the creator, my begetter”.

2. SB ibnű ga-la-[ma-a] ORA 7, 322: 65 “they created trick[ery]”; cf. []nű ga-la-ma-a ib. 75 “he who [crea]ts trickery”.

3. SB šimē ga-la-ma-a ša erimmīya ORA 7, 322: 72 “hear the trickery of my enemies!”.

4. SB š[u?-bil] šāru meḫű ga-la-ma-a-šú zaqīqū lipaṭṭirū riksīšu ORA 7, 322: 73 “[make(?)] the tempest, the storm, [carry away(?)] his trickery, may the winds loosen his fetters”.

5. Cf. also SB galam-me-e ORA 7, 322: 64 and ga-la-ma-a ib. 67, both ref. in broken and unclear context.

6. For a loan from Sum. galam cf. Finkel 1999, 324. Oshima’s (2011, 326) etymology (cognate of Hebr. kəlimmah “shame, abnominable thing”) is unlikely.

 

galātu, NA galādu “to tremble, be afraid”

1. NA /gt/ preserved: GN ig-ta-al-du SAA 5, 202 r. 8 “GN became afraid”.

2. NA a-class: GN ig-la!-du-u-ni SAA 5, 202 r. 12 “when GN became afraid”.

 

galāšu “to darken, obscure(?)”; SB

SB Sîn ina tāmartišu ana imitti ga-liš // (blank) // ina imittišu a-dir Borger, Fs. Böhl, LB 1321: 23 (var. ana šumēli l. 24) “(if) the moon is obscured in its appearance on the right side”. Cf. 81-2-4, 281: 14–15 (cit. Borger ib., 42) and VAT 9901 (quot. Weidner 1959–1960, 156a).

JW

 

galgallu s. qalqālu

 

galītu “deportation”

NA ga-li-te SAA 5, 203 s. 1 in broken context.

 

gallābu “barber”; + OA

1. OA a) ṣuḫāram PN ga-lá-ba-am ana 1/2 MA.NA kaspim (…) taddinam UF 7, 316 no. 2: 5, 13 “you gave the servant PN, the barber, to me for 1/2 mina of silver”.

b) ṣuḫāram ga-lá-ba-am AKT 8, 213: 4.

c)  šinā ṣuḫārē ga-lá-be <<IM>> emqūtim šāmāne kt k/k 47: 7 “buy for me two young competent barbers”, quoted by Hecker 2003, 184 n. 3.

2. Ugar. ga5-la-b[u] PRU 6, 136: 10 (list of professions). S. Huehnergard 1987, 116.

3. OB bīt g.: bīt ga-la-bi pitēma tīnātim u ša-qí-di šūṣęma Fs. Veenhof, 130 T.135: 8 “open the house of the barbers and bring out figs and almonds!”.

JW (1–3), NJCK (1)

 

gallabūtu “the function of barber”

OA (he will give the servant) ana ga-lá-bu-tim KTK 19: 24.

JW

 

gallu “rolling”

SB [tiʾām]at gal-la-at Jiménez 2017, 170 Ic 30, s. ḫamṭussu.

 

gallű “a type of demon”

Mayer 2016, 209:

1. OB lit. u gal-lu-šu/ku-nu [En]nugi Atr. I 10, 127 “and their/your (= the gods) g. was DN”. Note that Ennugi is otherwise titled gugallu “canal inspector” (s. Shehata 2001, 27).

2. OB lit. ūmum lemnum ga-lu-um šipir DN UET 6/2, 395: 12 “an evil spirit, a g., messenger of DN”; ga-al-la-šu ib. 16; ana g[a-li-im] ib. 17; GNf ga-la-i-iš-šu tasaqqaršum ib. r. 14 “GNf speaks to his g.” (ed. Lambert 1990, 291–3).

3. SB ušāḫizki kalba ṣalma gal-la-ki/ka Lamaštu I 14 (Farber 2014, 71, 146–7) “I have made you seize a black dog as your g.”

JW

 

*galmar (CAD G 20) s. kalmarḫu

 

galtabbu, galtappu “a (fat-tailed) sheep”; Ur III

1. 1 u8 gal-tab-bu-um niga Torino 1, 291: 1 “1 g.-ewe for fattening”, cf. 305: 6.

2. n sila4 gal-tab-bu-um niga FAOS 16, 1052 iii 7 “n g.-lambs for fattening”, s. iii 20, iv 6 3, iv 14 (in groups with udu kun-gíd and gukkal “fat-tailed sheep”); cf. 1067: 3, 1086: 3.

Disc.: AHw. 286 s.v. gerṣeppu considers this word a variant of kaltappu "footstool", which is only attested in NA. g. clearly denotes a sheep in Ur III, suggesting that the two words are not connected (Steinkeller 1995, 51).

 

galű II “to be deported, to go into exile”

G NA ina libbi ūme ša ig-lu-u-ni SAA 1, 194: 18 “the day they went into exile”.

Š 1. NA PN u rabűtīšu ana GN ul-te-eg-lu TCS 5, 1 ii 28 “he led PN and his officers away to GN”.

2. NA lu-šag-li-a-šú SAA 15, 169: 10 “I will deport him”.

3. NA ⸢ú?-še-eg-la-áš-šú SAA 10, 112 r. 5 (context unclear).

Disc.: Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 30.                                                  

MPS (G, Š 3), JW (Š 1–2)

 

gamālu “to be obliging”

G Stative: OB lit. ga-am-lu-ni-ik-ka OECT 11, 1: 4 “they please you”.

+ D NB tagmīlti ša P[N] u PN2 DUMU-šú ša dīnu itti aḫāmiš ú-gam-me-lu Fs. Klein, 624 (BM 26523, 87281): 4 “agreement, which P[N] and PN2, his son, have mutually reached”.

MPS (G), JW (D)

 

gamāmu “to cut”; + OB

1. OB lit. ga-am-ma-ši-im abbunata[m] UET 6/3, 889 ii 7 “they have cut for her the umbilical cor[d …]”, cf. Streck/Wasserman 2012, 200.

2. For a lex. ref. (now MSL 14, 345: 78) s. AHw. 276 and CAD Q 76 s. v. qamāmu “to dress hair”. The latter verb and gamāmu are probably to be distinguished.

 

gamartu “totality; a grammatical term”; + OA

1. OA “final settlement; completion”: n URUDU rubāʾum Waḫšušanayyum ana ga-ma-ar-tim ēpulka AKT 5, 71: 6 “the ruler of Waḫšušana promised to pay you n (minas of) copper for a final settlement”, s. Veenhof 2010, 186;

2. OA anāku u šūt ina ga-marx(BAR)-tí ḫarrānim nimmeḫer(ma) AKT 6B, 451: 5 “he and I met at the completion of the journey”.

S. also gamirtu.

NJCK

 

gamāru “to complete”

G 1. MB lex. til = ga14-ma-rum Emar 6/4, 537: 604 (Sa), cf. [t]il = ga-ma-rum Ugaritica 5, 137: 22 (Sjöberg 1998, 273).

2. OB PN? [i]k-sú!-ma qadūm mārim u mārti [i]g-mu-ur-ma FM 2, 260 no. 126: 9 “he bound PN(?) and finished (him) off together with (his) son and daughter”.

3. panum ga-mi-ir JCS 58, 78: 46 “the surface (of the original tablet) is complete” (copyist’s notation).

D OB bēlī ana PN li-ga-am-me-er-ma FM 7, 105 no. 28: 36 (s. also 32) “may my lord fully report(?) to PN”. J.-M. Durand, ib. p. 109f. suggests an abbreviation for libba gummuru ana “to come to an understanding with”.

N SB nag-mir išdiḫu ZA 61 p. 50: 36 “fulfill the profit (?)”, mng. of N unclear.

MPS (G 2, D), JW (G 1, 3, N)

 

+ gamāzu? “to press”; NA; Aram. lw.

D NA (horses) ga-mu-zu! SAA 5, 64 r. 4 “are pressed(?)”, s. SAD B/P 46 s. v. burbānu.

 

game/irtu “totality”

1. OA “full share (in a common fund)” (s. Dercksen 2004a, 203–6):

a) PN ana ga-me-er-tim izzāz BIN 4, 37: 20 “PN will stand for a full share” (sim. ib. 14; CTMMA 1, 92 no. 71: 39).

b) ana nikkassē ana gám-ra-tim-ma nuštazzizka KTS 1, 11: 19 (= OAA 1, 100) “at the settlement of accounts we have made you stand for full shares” (Dercksen 2004a, 209: “for the entire settlement”).

c) ana ga-me-er-tim lā kašdāku AKT 5, 5: 20 “I am not able (to participate) for a full share” (sim. ib. 38 and BIN 4, 37: 9; also AKT 5, 5: 24 with gi5-me-er-tem in the same expression).

2. A grammatical term for Sumerian verbal forms with ba-/-ma- (var. of gamartu): NA [ně]-til-la-a // ga-mir-ta ZA 64, 142: 16 (examtext A), cf. MSL 4, 151 (gamartu). S. Sjöberg 1975, 157f.; Black 1991, 95–98.

S. also gimertu.

NJCK (1), JW (2)

 

gamgammu “a bird”

S. Salonen 1973, 166f. (a sea bird?); on Sem. cognates s. Militarev/Kogan 2005, 115f.

 

gāmilu “sparing”

NA ina patrišu lā ga-me-li SAA 2, 6: 455 “with his merciless sword”.

 

gamlu, + gammalu; pl. gamlātu “crook”; + OA (?)

1. OA adī eblim u sikkatim ga-⸢am-li⸣-im u mimma šumšu Fs. Larsen, 257 ii 17 “(you shall pay the full amount for any losses that occur) including a rope and bent-stick(?) and anything (else)”. The known instances of g. do not show any parallels of this use, so perhaps OA g/k/qamlu is a different word.

2. OB ṣalam dMAR.TU ga-am-la-am našī FM 8, 132 no. 38: 20 “the image of Amurru bears a curved staff”.

3. Fem. gender: OB lit. ga-am-la-am elletam OECT 11, 1: 7 “holy crook” (of Amurru). For the gamlu of Amurru s. also ll. 8, 9 and 11 etc. of the text.

4. Fem. pl.: OB IGI Šamaš Ninsianna u ga-am-la-ti-šu-nu Fs. Kupper, 35 no. 1: 5 “before DN, DNf, and their crooks”.

5. SB as magical tool: GŔM siparri SpTU I, 56: 3 “sickle of bronze”; cf. of gold (l. 2), tin (l. 4), tamarisk wood (l. 5), boxwood (l. 6), musukkanu-wood (l. 7); cf. SpTU I, 57.

6. Var. gammalu: SB šīḫa lānšu gam-ma-la-ma ikappap Fs. Kraus, 194 ii 12 “he bent his lofty stature like a crook (resting his head beside his feet)”.

7. For add. Mari refs. s. Arkhipov 2012, 106.

8. Refs. cit. in AHw. s.v. gamlu 1 c read pilšu (s. AHw. s.v.).

MPS (2–3), JW (1, 4–8), NJCK (1)

 

gammalu II “camel”

1. NA immerē anše!gam!-⸢mal!⸣mešiḫabbutū nišē iḫabbutū SAA 1, 82 s. 1 “they do not plunder sheep or camels, they plunder people”.

2. NB 2 ANŠE.A.A[BAmeš] SAA 17, 4: 4 (broken context, but in l. 5 the Arab. tribe Sabaʾ is mentioned).

3. NB. a) ANŠE.A.AB.BA suluppī indamma OIP 114, 39: 16 “load a camel with dates”.

b) rēʾi ⸢ANŠE⸣.A.AB.BA ib. 62: 21 “camel herd”.

c) ANŠE.A.AB.BAmeš-šú-nu ḫabtū ib. 32: 5 “their camels were plundered”.

d) For further ref.s s. ib. p. 310.

4. For the reading of ANŠE.A.AB.BA (more likely gammalu than ibilu) s. Heide 2010, 351.

S. also ibilu 2.

 

gammidatu s. gammidu

 

gammidu “a garment”

1. NA 81 túgga-me-da-te StAT 1, 39: 3; StAT 3, 1: 14.

2. NA 1 túgšupālītu ḫalluptu ša túgga-me-de-te StAT 1, 39: 10 “1 reinforced undergarment for a g.-garment”.

3. LB šittā túggam-mi-da-⸢tum⸣ Zawadzki 2010, 415, BM 76136: 3 “2 g.”, s. gadittu.

4. LB 10-tatúggam-mid-da-a-ta ša tabarri ebbeti ṣu-pa-a-ta dubsar 3, 43: 31 “10 g. garments of red, clean and combed wool”.

JW (1, 3), JK (2), MPS (4)

 

gammiš s. ṣumlalű.

 

+ gammuru “complete, completion (?)”; MB Emar

[anumm]a tuppu ša ga-mu-ri [in]a pisanni ša PN šakin AuOr 5, 5: 32 “now the completed (?) tablet is placed in the basket of PN”; cf. tuppu ga-mu-ru AuOr 5, 9: 18; ga-mu-rů AuOrS 1, 55: 23; [g]a14-mu-ru Emar 194: 9; gam-mu-ru Emar 207: 34; ša gám-mu-ri Emar 90: 16. S. Pentiuc 2001, 51 and Durand 1990b, 50. All known instances describe a tablet, possibly referring to a completed transaction.

JW

 

gamru “complete”

Unique spelling(?): OB PN qadūm awīlī ga-aw(PI)-ri-šu-n[u] ARM 27, 63: 12 “PN together with all(?) the men”.

 

gana “come on”

Note the plene spelling in MB lit. ga-a-na ALL no. 11: 15.

 

gandu s. kamdu

 

ganūnu, ganīnu “storeroom”

1. OA lit. e-BA-ki mala ga-ni-nim kt 91/k 502: 3 “your capacity(?) is equal to a storeroom”, s. Kouwenberg forthc., incantation concerning a diqārum-vessel.

2. OA (the kārum passed a verdict that) Éga-nu-nu ša PN mamman merā Aššur ulā išaʾʾamšu AKT 7A, 296: 2 “no Assyrian will buy PN’s storeroom (from him?)”.

For OA s. also kanūnu.

NJCK

 

ganzir, ganṣir “underworld; part of a temple where damaged statues are kept”; Sum. word

Mayer 2016, 209–10:

1. SB mēlīt šamāmī simmilat ga-an-zěr/ṣir Iraq 47, 4 ii 15 “(Imgur-Enlil, great wall of Babylon,) stairway to heaven, stairs to the underworld”.

2. [m]arkas ermi Anu u ga-an-zěr/ṣir Iraq 48, 133 B 5 “(tablet of destiny), which connects Anu’s canopy with the underworld”.

3. [š]a ina ga-an-zěr/ṣir nadű [...] [ša] ina karašę nadű BM 68031: 9 “who is thrown into the underworld, who is headed for disaster”.

4. ušaṣbissunūtu ga-an-zěr/ṣir MesCiv 16, 328: 12b “(DN) let them (= the ‘dead gods’) take their place in G.”, referring to a room in Eturkalamma (s. Lambert ib. 49f.).

JW

 

gapaḫšu “proud, overbearing”

The hapax ga-pa-aḫ-šu (TMH 12, 4: 7) has been interpreted as a by-form of gapšu “proud, overbearing” by Kilmer 1991, 18 and Zomer in TMH 12. The spelling remains, however, unexplained. It

JW

 

gapānu s. gab/pānu

 

gapāru “to overpower”

Dt For VS 10, 214 iii 1 (AHw. 281) s. kapāru Dt.

 

gappu “pedestal” s. gabbu

 

gappu “wing” s. kappu I

 

garābu “a (skin-)disease”

Disc.: The conventional identification with leprosy (cf. Syr. garbā) is inaccurate, as g. affects sheep and cattle as well. It decribes skin conditions like those caused by leprosy, but also other conditions (Scurlock/Anderson 2005, 232). S. also Stol 1989, 29f. (a fungal infection?).

S. also garību.

JW

 

gar(a)bānu “leprous”; + NB

1. ga-ra-ba-nu SAA 17, 110 r. 9 (broken context).

2. Del. refs. from UET 4 (AHw. 282), read LÚ šá ba-nu-ú-tu (Joannčs 1995).

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

+ garāḫu “to copulate”

1. garāḫu = na-[a-ku] cit. AHw. 282 s.v. garāś/šu

2. MB ag-ra-aḫ-ki Nanāya ag-ra-aḫ-ki Nanāya kīma immeri KBo. 36, 27: 15f. “I am copulating with you, oh Nanāya, I am copulating with you like with a sheep”. The a-class of the verb is further proof that garāḫu is not a variant of garāś/šu since the latter has u in the pret.

 

garāru s. qarāru

 

garāṣu s. karāṣu

 

garāšu “to move towards; to copulate”

G 1. OAkk a) KN ig-ru-śa-am MesCiv 7, 226: 7 “KN approached”.

b) idiššu ig-ru-úś RIME 2, p. 108 v 35 “he went to his side”, also ib. 221 i 9; 224 iv 3; 226 x 2 (Mayer 2016, 210).

2. OB “to consort”(?): (brother made brother declare a sacred oath and they sat down to drink) ištū ig-ru-šu u kāsam ištű ARM 26/2, 263 no. 404: 63 “after they consorted(?) and drank from the goblet (brother brought a gift to brother)”, cf. Heimpel 2003, 345 n. 204.

+ N Mayer 2016, 210:

1. “to set off”: SB ig-dar-šu-ú-ni illakūni bābiš Iraq 58, 160: 59 “they set off and went towards the gate”, cf. ig-gar-šu-nim-ma illa[kūni] Ee III 129.

2. “to be made love to”:

a) SB aššāt amēlī i-gar-ru-šá-ma arkī zikarī idullā CunMon. 11, p. 48 VAT 10218 iii 15 “men’s wives will commit adultery and run after men”, var. ig-gar-ri-šá-ma p. 72 BM 40111: 17, p. 180 K.229 r. 23.

b) SB nišū ig-gir-ra-šá CunMon. 11, p. 106 K.3632: 25 “people will have intercourse”.

JW

 

garāšu II s. qarāšu

 

gardu “worker”; LB

Disc.: Stolper 1985, 56–59.

 

gardumu “a profession”

S. also gurdimu.

 

+ garību “affected with garābu-disease”; OB

(cedar oil) ana ÁBḫi.a ga-ri-ba-tim JMC 10, 42, M.12765 “for the cows with garābu-disease”.

JW

 

garinnu s. agarinnu

 

+ gārišu “a type of messenger”; OA

1. ištē PN ulā ištē ga-ri-ší-im ša ibattuquni šēbil Prag I 744 r. 3 “send […] with PN or with a g. who travels separately”.

2. ṣuḫāram ištēn ga-ri-ša-am ašapparakkum Prag I 598: 22 “I will send you a single servant as g.”

Disc.: S. Veenhof 2008, 216. Probably <garāšu.

JW/NJCK

 

+ GarZu “a textile or a qualification of a textile”; OA

TÚG Ga-ar-Za-am kabram PN našʾakkum Prag I 487: 4 “PN is bringing you a thick g.-textile”. Cf. OB qaršu?

NJCK/JW

 

gaṣṣatu “firewood”

1. NA šá gišgaṣ-ṣa-te-šú CTN 6, 3: 32 “firewood-supplier”.

2. LB 60-šu dibbīya ša ṣarbatu ME gišga-aṣ-ṣa-a-ta ... PAP 70 dibbīya 1 ME ga-aṣ-ṣa-a-ta dubsar 3, 146: 18, 24 “60 boards of poplar, 100 of g. tree(?) ... together 70 planks, 100 g. trees(?)”.

 

gašāru “to be(come) strong”

Said of dog bite: OB lit. ga-še-er nišikšu AML 64: 4 “strong is his bite”.

 

gašīsu, + gišīšu “stake, pole”

OB ina gišgi-ši-ši-im iškunšu RATL 117: 8 “he impaled him”, cf. gišga-[ši-ši-im] ib. 186: 20.

JW

 

gaššu “an official” (OA) s. Kaššu.

 

gaššu “part of the temple of Aššur” s. qaššu.

 

gattu “stature, build”; + OA

ša! GU4 ša ga-tám e-li-ú-ni (...) šēriʾam kt j/k 623: 15 “have (one) of the oxen that are tall in stature brought here!”, s. Dercksen 2003. Perhaps also GU4 ša ga(! sign BI)-tám rabīʾu KTS 1, 3a: 5 “an ox that is big in stature”.

NJCK

 

gaṭṭāʾa, qaṭṭāʾa “cane or wood cutter”; + NA; Aram. lw.

1. NA gaṭ-ṭa-a-a BagM 24, 221, BM 36711 r. 9 (among professions).

2. NA PN ga-a-[a] StAT 2, 141: 13.

3. LB ga-aṭ-ṭa-a-a CT 55, 426: 3; YOS 19, 142: 2; gaṭ-ṭa-a-a VS 20, 49: 20.

Disc.: Pace CAD G not Old Pers. (Zadok 1981, 198). Cf. Aram. qaṭṭāʿā “cane cutter, wood cutter” (Zadok 1984, 34, cf. AHw. qāṭű, qettāʾu, CAD gaddāja,).

JK (2), JW (1, 3)

 

**gaʾű (AHw. 1556)

The passage reads i-BI-ú, now AbB 11, 85 (Streck 2000, 89).

JW

 

gāʾu s. gayyu

 

gâʾu s. gayyu

 

+ gayyišam “clan for clan”; OB; Amor. lw.

tęrētim ana mārī ālim ga-yi-ša-am ušēpišma ARM 26/1 p. 15 n. 42 A.3993: 38’ “I had omens taken for the inhabitants of the city, clan by clan” (Anbar 1991, 78; Streck 2000, 89; < gayyu).

JW

 

gayyu “clan”; Amor. lw.

1. Spellings indicate gayyu rather than gāʾ/wu s. Streck 2000, 89, 321 Anm. 6. Cf. Hebr gôy, Sabaic GWY. S. also gayyišam.

2. In AbB 4, 69: 41 (cit. AHw. 1556) read a-na-ga-ḫi-im, s. Streck 2000, 89).

JW

 

gazāzu “to shear”

1. Object “wool”: NB šīpāti ig-zu-zu OIP 114, 46: 12; šīpāti … ag-zu-zu ib. 24 “he/I sheared the wool”.

2. NB ni-ig-zu-zu ib. 47 “let us do the shearing”.

 

gazzu, + f. gaziztu “shorn”; + OA

1. OA as a designation of fabric:

a) 2 TÚG ga-zi-iz-ti-in Prag I 428: 33 “2 shorn textiles”. Note that the partial duplicate JCS 41, 40: 28 has kusītēn.

b) 1 išram ga-zi-iz-tám damiqtam kt c/k 710: 15 “a shorn sash of good quality” (cit. Dercksen apud Michel/Veenhof 2010, 233).

c) 5 TÚG ga-zu-tů-um kt c/k 488: 8 (courtesy J. G. Dercksen).

Disc.: In OA denoting a type of low-pile fabric, presumably made by cutting the nap of the pile to achieve a uniform surface. This process is also called shearing in european textile manufacturing since the middle ages. The Bab. equivalent is gizzu. Another option is g/kaṣṣu “trimmed” (mostly said of body parts).

S. also kazzu.

JW (1 a–b, 2, disc.), NJCK (1 c, disc)

 

gegunnű s. gigunnű

 

geldulu s. keltulu

 

+ gennu “a musicological term”; OB; Sum. lw.(?)

zennum u ge-en-nu-um JCS 48, 52 r. i 4 and pass. The term always co-occurs with zennu and both are repeated multiple times in the music instruction texts. Kilmer/Tinney propose a tentative translation “tune and test” and derive the word from Sum. ge-en (s. OB Proto-Lu 622–627 and cf. Kilmer 1995, 477 §5.2).

JW

 

gerdu “wool or fur that has been removed from a hide”

S. AHw. 915a; CAD Q 227f. s.v. qerdu.

NA sikige-er-du Nimrud 43 (cit. Deller 1992b), cf. Aram./Hebr. grd “to scrape off” and s. gurrudu.

JW

 

gergīlu “a bird”

OB ge-er-gi-lummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 55 (in list of birds).

 

gergiššu a red skin complaint

OB šipat ge-er-gi-iš-ši-im KTT 379: 12 incantation against g..

 

germadű s. gir(i)madű

 

gerru I, kerru “way; journey; military campaign”

1. EOB ana PN gi-ra-am ittabal RIME 4, p. 708: 10 “(GN) waged war against PN”.

2. OB awīlī ša ke-er-ri-i[m š]a eqlim ARM 28, 171: 18 the men of the troop on campaign in the countryside.

3. OB ṣuḫārūya ina ke-er-ri-i[m] lišbū ARM 28, 39 r. 5 let my servants stay on (their) trip.

4. SB ger-ru Tiʾāmat akbusa SAA 3, 19: 3 “I trod the sea route”.

5. NA ge-ri ramanika SAA 1, 181: 17 “by (way of) yourself”, s. CAD R 125 ramanu f7'.

JW (1), MPS (2–5)

 

gerseqqű “a palace or temple attendant”

MB new logogr.: šutāpū ša mārī KI.IR.SI.GA CT 51, 41: 4 “the associates of the attendants” (Sassmannshausen 2001, 28 n. 418).

JW

 

gerṣeppu, kilzappu, kaltappu; + girtappu “a footstool, also as part of a threshing sledge”

CAD K s.v. kilzappu.

1. OB girtappu: 8 KUŠ UDU.GAL iš gěr-tab-ba-těm ARM 19, 104: 2 “8 skins of big sheep for footstools”.

Disc.: 1. Pace AHw. 286, Ur III galtabbu (a sheep, s. above) is not identical with NA kaltappu.

2. The (gold) ornament kaltappu is considered a separate word by AHw. 427a.

3. S. Streck 2009–2011b, 229 for the threshing sledge.

JW

 

gerű “to be hostile to, attack; to exert pressure”

G 1. OA tamkārī (…) ag-ri-ma CCT 6, 35a r. 11 “I aggressively approached merchants (with offers)”.

2. OA ippanītim ig-ri-ú!-ni-ma umma šunūma ūmē ṣibīšum Prag I 714: 12 “before, they put pressure on me saying: ‘extend (fem.) his term!’”.

3. OA annākam malā u šinēšu ag-ri-šu‑ma kaspam laqāʾam lā imūʾa RSM 10: 21 “here I pressed him several times but he refuses to accept the silver”.

4. OA ḫusārī mamman ig-ri-a-ni-ma TC 3, 49: 37 “someone has put pressure on me for my lapis lazuli”; for add. refs. s. Veenhof 2015, 247–249.

5. LB PN: Ig-ra-a ROMCT 2, 52: 1 (cf. CAD G 63 s.v. gerű 4a’, Oelsner in Deller/Mayer/Oelsner 1989, 281).

Gtn OA ig-da-na-ri-ú-ni umma šunūma šumma ašīʾum ayyākamma ibaššī šupurma [PN] u PN2 iltanaqqēʾū BIN 4, 45: 10 “they keep pressing me saying: ‘if anywhere ašīʾum-iron is available, send a written order that PN1 and PN2 keep trying to get it”.

N “to quarrel”: OA annākam ištē PN a-ge5-ri(‑ma) BIN 4, 79: 9 “here I have quarrelled with PN”; for further instancs, s. Veenhof 2015, 247–249.

JW (G 1, 5), NJCK (G 2–4, Gtn, N)

 

gērű, gārű “foe, adversary, rebel”

1. MB Emar ge-ri-šu Emar 778: 77 “his foe” (?) in broken context (Steinkeller apud Pentiuc 2001, 53).

2. SB ge-ru-šu ul ibbašši ša ina adęšu ibbalkitu?⸣ SAA 3, 22 r. 12 “no rebel will emerge who rebels against his treaty”.

JW (1), MPS (2)

 

+ gęsu “mng. unkn.”; LB

gabű ana ge-e-su ša DN CT 57, 255: 16 “alum for the g. of DN”.

JW

 

**gęšu “to spend the night”

Streck 2017, 598: malku = šarru III 46 reads bâtu = utūlu (Hrůša 2010, 362).

JW

 

gibbu s. kibbu II

 

+ gibętu (?) “recruits” (?), fem. pl. tantum(?); OB; Amor. lw.

1. ṣābum kalűšu gi-bé-tum ARM 26/1, 27: 10 “the whole troop is (made up of) g.”; gi-bé-e-tum ARM 26/2, 145 n. 39.

2. warkat ṣābim anāku parsāku ša ina ṣābim gi-⸢bé-tim⸣ bēlī illakma FM 2 p. 206: 43f. “I myself inspected the troops, so that my lord may go with the help of a troop of g.”

Disc.: Possibly to be derived from the rare verb gabű (Durand 1988, 94). In spite of this suggestion, the word is transcribed gipętum in ARM 26/1 p. 609 and 26/2 p. 145 n. 39. S. a Streck 2000, 89­–90.

JW

 

gibillű “tinder”; + NB

1. MB lex. ki = GIBIL = gi5-bil-lu Emar 6/4, 537: 311 (Sa), Sjöberg 1998, 261.

2. nagāru [..]. gi-bil-li-ka idīka lū TUKU SAA 17, 27 r. 15 “let the carpenter ... have your tinder as your wages”.

 

+ gibʾu “red truffle”; OB

1. gi-ib-i, gi-ib-ú ARM 27, 54: 12–16, s. kamʾatu.

2. Heimpel 1997; id. 2003, 429: “toadstools”, “specifically perhaps agaricus xanthoderma”; Stol 2014, 149: arab. ǧebaʿ “red truffles”.

 

+ gību “a locust(?)”

OB lex. ... (broken and unclear) = [g]i-bu UET 7, 93 r. 3, between lamṣatu “dust fly” and kurṣiptu “butterfly”. Sjöberg 1996, 229 connects the word with hebr. gēbīm, aram. gōb, arab. ğābīʾ “locust(s)”.

 

gidlu, gidlű + gidalu (?) “plaited string, rope; a door curtain”

1. LB ⸢gid⸣-di-ilina šūmi ešrű ša DN CT 22, 8 (= AOAT 414/1, 3): 5 “a plait of garlic, tithe of DN”.

2. LB gada!gi-id-lu-ú CT 55, 439: 10; gada!gi-<id>-lu-ú ša DN CT 55, 858: 7.

3. LB gi-id-lu šakk[ūtu] ša SUM.HUŠ.SAR CBS 88: 1-2, 8-9 (cit. Stol 1987b, 74) “strung bundles of (red?) onions”.

4. LB (wool) ana nīri ša gada!gi-da-lu-ú u šiddānu CT 4, 27 Bu 88-5-12, 336: 14 “for ropes for door curtains and covers”, cf. gi-da-lu YOS 6, 146: 11; gada!gi-da-lu-ú GCCI 2, 360: 25 (both cited in CAD K, 148 s.v. kandalu).

5. LB ⸢kuš⸣šiddānu ana gi-di-il-ʾ ša PN CT 56, 10: 2 “covers for the door curtains of PN” (s. Beaulieu 2003, 381f. with add. refs.).

Disc.: For the variant gidalu s. Stol 1983, 299 and Oelsner in Deller/Mayer/Oelsner 1989, 278). The LB refs. read bulű in CAD B 313 and AHw. 138 belong here (Beaulieu 2003, 381f.). Cf. túggadalű (CAD G 8)

MPS (1), JW (2–5, disc.)

 

gīdu “sinew, gristle”

Uncert.: LB 5 MA.NA kidinnę ana PN ana gi-i-di nadin Zawadzki 2013, 572: 3 “5 minas of k. for PN for g.” Cf. kītu “mat” (?).

JW

 

gigallu s. kigallu

 

g/ki/ugamlu “paddock”

OA ina ki-ga-a[m-lim] anāku u att[a] ninnamerma KTS 2, 16: 3 “we, me and you, met in the paddock”.

JW

 

gigun(n)ű, kikun(n)ű “temple tower”

1. OB lit. ullūtam ki-ku-na AfO 50, 16 r. i 11 “(Mama) high of temple tower”.

2. OB lit. ki-ku-un-na-a-ak lušalbiš warqam MesCiv. 7, 13: 29 “let me clothe your temple tower in green!”

MPS (1), JW (2)

 

+ gillu “roll of leather”; NA; Aram. lw.

LB kušgi-il-lu CT 56, 18: 1; cf. 12: 1. S. van Driel 1995, 241, who considers the word a var. of gildu “animal hide”. Cf. magallatu “parchment scroll”.

JW

 

gilšu, gi/eššu “hip, flank”; in Emar also “kidney”

SB qaqqada uzuge5-eš-ša 1/2 errī alpi šarri māti ilaqqī Emar 388: 62 “the king of the land receives the head, the kidney and one half of the intestines of an ox”, sim. uzuge-eš-šu Emar 447: 3. Other texts mentioning the king’s portion have uzuELLÁG (“kidney”), once uzuELLÁG-šu (Emar 406: 2). This would suggest that geššu has taken on the mng. “kidney” in these text (Fleming 1992, 153; Pentiuc 2001, 52f.).

JW

 

gimillu “favor”

Cf. gumālu.

 

+ gimku “a ritual(?)”; OB

OB lit. ūm gi-im-ki-im qersū iššakkanū FM 3, 68 no. 4 ii 7 “on the day of the g.-ritual(?) the tent frames will be installed” (// ūm biblim ib. 1 “on the day of the new moon”).

 

gimillu s. also gumlu and gumālu

 

gimirtu, + gimartu “totality”, OA: full share”

1. OA said of (part of) a temple:

a) RN (...) ana DN bēlīšu (...) bīti gi-me-er-ti i-Za-re ana DN īpuš RIMA 1, 28: 13 “for DN, his lord, RN built a temple (and?/in the form of?) a complete iZārum for DN” (sim. ib. 22: 7 and 25: 13; cf. also ib. 20: 11 with gi5-me-<er>-tí and 27: 10 with ⸢ga-me-er-ti). Replaced by siḫertu “circumference, totality” in RN ana DN bēlīšu (...) sí-ḫe-er-ti i-Za-re ša bēt DN (...) īpuš RIMA 1, 26: 12.

b) OA RN (...) bīt DN gi-me-er-tů-šu īpuš RIMA 1, 38: 11 “RN built a temple for DN (in) its totality(?)”.

2. OA “full share” (cf. gamertu):

a) ana nikkassē a-gi5-me-er-tim u mišlē lā kašdāku AKT 5, 5: 24 “for the accounting I am not able (to participate) for a full share or (even) a half share” (cf. ib. 20 and 38 with ana gamertim).

b) ana šazzuzātīka [g]i-me-er-tám šuprāšunūti ana 30 MA.NA KŮ.BABBAR lū ana 40 MA.NA KŮ.BABBAR awīlam a-na gi-me-er-tim-ma lissuḫūšu KBo. 28, 158: 4’ and 7’ “send/order (pl.) a g. to your representatives that they ... the man for 30 or 40 minas of silver for precisely this g.” (in fragmentary context, unclear).

3. OB ina gi-ma-ar-ti-šu ARM 27, 148: 15 “the entire (troup)”.

MPS (3), NJCK (1–2)

 

gimru “totality, costs, expenses”

1. OA g. gamārum “to reach a settlement” (cf. awātam gamārum “to settle a case”): ana PN niṭḫēma gi5-im-ra-am nigmur(ma) VS 26, 72: 6 “we approached PN and reached a settlement”.

2. On N/LB g. “transport costs” s. van Driel 2002, 171f.

NJCK

 

ginindanakku s. nindanakku

 

ginnu “a mark on or form of silver”

Disc. s. Jursa 2010, 480–485.

 

ginű “regular offering”

In MB s. Sassmannshausen 2001, 166f.

 

gipű “baked dates”

1. LB 20 gi-pu-u AOAT 414/1, 81: 11 “20 (plaits of) baked dates”.

2. LB tuḫallāta g[i-p]e-e u lurindu AOAT 414/1, 95: 11 “palm-leaf baskets, baked dates and pomegranates”.

 

**gipű II (CAD G 86 g. B, AHw. 291) s. kibbu.

 

girratu s. kirratu

 

+ girribu “a bird”; MB Emar

Lex. tu-maḫ (mušen) = tů-ma-ḫu : gir-ri-bu Emar 555: 72 “big dove : crow(?)”. The word may be connected to ā/ēribu “crow” with reflex of the original initial ġ (Y. Cohen 2010, 818).

JW

 

gir(i)madű “pole for the slipway”

60 nāḫam ana ⸢gi-ri-ma-de-e Finkel 2014: 57 “60 (kor of) lard for the poles of the slipway”.

 

girītu “an aquatic animal”

1. Lex. a) gi-ri-tuma-dar-ḫábku₆ OB Hh. IV 333 (among fish).

b) mi-si-ku₆ = gi-ri-tum, uḫ naĝ-eku₆ = MIN taʾî, a-ta-gur₄ku₆ = MIN UET 6/2, 406 r. 17–19 (Hh. XV-XVIII) “m.-fish = g., turtle-like animal that drinks = foraging g., azaggur-fish = foraging g.”

c) mu-ur-ra⸢ku₆⸣ = gi-ri-⸢tum⸣, uḫ?-gu₇⸢ku₆⸣ = MIN, ⸢a-da?-gur₅ku₆⸣ = MIN AOAT 275, 607, BM 73313 r. 10­–12 (Hh.).

2. SB […šu ša g]i-ri-tú Fs. Walker, 220: 9 “[its … is that of a] g.” (= BM 55551, description of the body of a god).

JW

 

**girmaduššu

The ref. Hh. IV 393 belongs to gir(i)madű (s. MSL 9, 172).

 

girűtu “hostility”

NA gír-ru-tú memēni laššu SAA 5, 113: 18 “there is no hostility at all”.

 

gisallu “reed fence or screen (on the roof)”

OB gi-sa-al-lu ša mūtim ina muḫḫiya ḫariṣ AbB 1, 52: 19 “the reed fence (holding back) death is broken above me” (metaphorical).

JW

 

**gisanda/udű “reed effigy”

1. The Sum. reading is to be corrected according to a gloss: gi-saĝ-du-DIsa-a = ŠU Hh. IX 294 (MSL 9, 183).

2. The Akk. explanation is to be corrected to qa-[an an-d]u-na-nu “reed substitute” (MSL 9, 186 L6 1).

JW

 

gisandussű s. gisanda/udű

 

giskimmu “sign, omen”

SB DNf muzakkirat gis-ki-me nišī šadî u māti[tān] BM 75974 r. 5 (Mayer 2016, 211) “DNf, who proclaims the signs for the people of the mountains and all lands”; cf. gis-ki-[im-mu] BM 65617 ii 11'.

JW

 

gišḫūru “plan”

1. SB [ina GI]Š.ḪUR-ia izzazzū ilu u šarru Jiménez 2017, 170 Ic 27 “god and king stand [in] my (poplar’s) magic circle”.

2. The writing GIŠ.ḪUR-r- is half logographic and does not point to a form **gišḫurru, which is not attested.

 

gišimmaru “date palm”

LB ḫepę ⸢giš⸣GIŠIMMAR[meš] AOAT 414/1, 189: 12 “cutting down of date palms”.

 

gišparru “trap, snare”

1. OB lit. ge6-eš-pa!-ar pūtim qarnī īšū AML 86: 3 “the snare of the forehead has horns” (referring to a scorpion).

2. SB ušandű ana giš-par-ri-šú iṭam eblu Jiménez 2017, 250: 21 “the bird-catcher plaits the rope for his trap”.

 

gišrinnu, + kišrinnu “balance”

OB lit. našīma zikru ki-iš-⸢ri⸣-nam-ma qātiššu Or. 87, 19 ii 5 “the man carries a balance in his hand”.

JW

 

gišru “bridge”

NA gi-iš-r[u] ša [el]eppēte SAA 10, 364: 8 “bridge of ships”.

 

gištallu?, gištalű “a joist”

1. OB a) ḪAR ŠU (…) gi-iš7-ta-lu ARM 22, 290 ii 12, cf. gi-iš-ta-lu-ú M.6495 ii 16 and Arkhipov 2012, 97 for add. refs. and disc.

b) gišGU.ZA gi-iš-ta-li-tim ARM 31, 494 no. 196: 5 “a chair with braces(?)”, either a fem. pl. of the form gištalű (gištalętim, Guichard 2005, 204) or a fem. adj. (Arkhipov 2012, 494).

2. NB gušūrī giš-tal-li gišSAG.KUL BABBAR šīpī u ṣupru OIP 114, 89: 15 “beams, joists, a white(?) bolt, rafters and a ‘claw’” (for roofing houses).

3. Perhaps to be read gištallu.

JW (1), MPS (2–3)

 

+ gištašalu(?) “part of a vessel”; OB

[…] gi-ěš-ta-ša-lu ARM 31, 351 no. 14 r. 20. S. Guichard 2005, 130 (mistake for gištallu?).

JW

 

gištű “a joist”

OB iḫzi ša gišgi-iš-ti-im arkim ARM 25, 540: 3 “setting for long joists” (reading with Guichard 2005, 204).

JW

 

**gištuppu s. nišduppu

 

gišnugallu, ašnugallu “alabaster”

NB [GABA.R]I tuppi ša NA4.GIŠ.NU11.GAL ša PN BM 54060: 2 “copy of the alabaster tablet of PN”, s. Jursa 2009, 150.

JW

 

**gištalgiddű s. talgiddű

With Borger 2010, 345 to be deleted.

 

gitmālu “equal; noble, perfect”

1. OB lit. gi-it-ma-la-ku AML 126: 3 “I am perfect”.

2. SB gít-ma-lu ina ilānī SpTU 5, 247 r. iv 8 “perfect among the gods”.

3. SB aplu gít-[ma-l]u AOAT 275, 459 r. 1, cf. 483 r. 1 “perfect heir”.

MPS (1), JW (2–3)

 

gizillű “torch, brand”

MB Emar lex. MIN(= gi).izi-lá = gi-zi-lu-u = šab-bu-ṭu Emar 546: 9, s. šabbiṭu “staff”.

JW

 

gizinakku “offering for the moon god Sîn”

OB (fat) inūma gi-zi-na-ki ARM 21, 105: 3 “at the occasion of the offering for Sîn”.

 

+ gizű? “a sort of cane”; OB; Sum. lw.

OB lit. malkū wāšib kussīʾāt g[i?]-zi-im dadnī ibēlū ina gamlika OECT 11, 1: 9 “the kings sitting on thrones of gizi-cane(?) ruled the inhabited world with your crook”. Von Soden 1989 and 1989/90, 118 suggests s[í]-sí-im from sissimu “granary” (hapax, s. CAD S 325) and translates “Thronen der Schatzkammern(?) der Wohnstätten”. For the tentative interpretation as thrones of gizi-cane cf. gu-za-lá gi-zi “gizi-chair-carrier” Wilcke 1998, 50: 25.

 

gizzatu s. also gizzutu

 

gizzu “shearing; shearling; shorn (of fabric)”

1. OB a low-pile textile (cf. OA gazzu): 2 TÚG gi-zu BAR.KAR.R[A] ARM 22, 119: 1 (coll. ARM 30, p. 195) “2 shorn garments of barkarrű-quality”. The word corresponds to túgGUZ.ZA in parallel texts. S. Durand 2009, 34f. for add. refs. and disc.

2. NA “shearling(?)”: 1 GUD 25 gi-zi (…) 1 ANŠE 20 gi-zi CTN 2, 222 A 1–2 “1 ox, 25 g. (…), 1 donkey, 20 g.” S. Postgate ib. p. 216 (a type of goat?).

3. LB (van Driel 1995, 228):

a) (wool) gi-zi CT 55, 761: 1.

b) serpī parzilli ana gi-iz-zi CT 55, 252: 2 “(13 new) iron shearing knives for shearing”.

c) bīt gi-iz-zi CT 57, 162: 4 “shearing shed”.

4. Pl. gizzā:

a) NA [adi] remēšunu adi gi-za-ni-šú-nu BATSH 6/2, 20 r. 4 “(sheep) together with their young and their shearlings” (diff. Radner ib.: “fleeces”).

b) NA (300 sheep) ana lid(d)ā[nīšunu] ana gi-za-ni-šú-nu SAAS 5, 51: 5 “to bear young and to be sheared”; sim. BATSH 6/2, 110: 8–9.

JW (1–4), JK (4)

 

gizzatu “shearing, wool yield; metal shaving; a textile”

1. (2 sekel gold) issu libbi gi-za-a-ti ana kirkī ša tamlīt ša urki ša-ku?-ri? CTN 2, 145: 2 “out of the shavings, for rolls for the inlay of the back of the šukurru-emblem(?)”, s. Postgate ib.

2. Mng. “gold shaving” also applies to ABL 1458 (now SAA 1, 52) cit. AHw. 295 and ADD 676 (both sg. gi-zu-tú).

JW

 

+ gubbatu “reed pipes(?)”; LB; Aram. Lw.

[x] GUN gu-ub-ba-tum NBC 6140: 1 (Fs. Klein, 652). Cf. Syr. gwbtʿ (hapax).

JW

 

gubbu “cistern”

NA ⸢bītu?⸣ gu-ub-bu ŠE.NU[MUNmeš] SAA 5, 15: 12 “house(?), cistern, arab[le land]”.

 

+ gubību “mng. unkn.”; NA

tudittu KŮ.GI ⸢gu⸣-bi-bi KŮ.GI kasūsu ina muḫḫi SAA 7, 81: 3 “a golden dress-pin with a golden g. and a falcon on it”.

JW

 

gublāyu “from Byblos”

OB 1 TÚG gu-ub-la-ju ARM 30, 353 M.5260 “1 Byblos-style garment”. S. Durand 2009, 100 with add. refs.

JW

 

+ gudappu “a commodity”; OB

1 MA.NA gu-da-ap-pu CT 45, 99: 5 (von Soden 1980a, 274).

JW

 

**gudilű (CAD G 119b)

Read ḪA.A = gu-di-id?-⸢du?⸣-um MSL 14, 131.

 

gudūdu “patrol, band”

1. SB 20 gu-du-du ša Aramu BagM 21, 345 iii 14 “a patrol of 20 (men) of the Arameans”.

2. NB gu-du-du ša Bīt-Yakīn … iḫtabtū OIP 114, 18: 4 “the patrol of the Bīt-Jakīn robbed (people and donkeys)”.

 

+ gudūdu? II “part of a bed, a textile?”; LB

LB ištēt gišia-a-nu-mi-ʾ-tum adī ṣiprīti ištēn gu-du-di-šú AOAT 222, 38: 13 (CT 49, 165) “1 bed of y.-type together with dyed linens, 1 (of) its(?) g.”.

JW

 

gugūtu “a designation of sheep”; Ur III

SILA₄ gu-gu-tum MVN 3, 344: 32; AUCT 2, 375: 10; ASJ 15, 136: 2.

Likely a type of meal or ritual designation (Steinkeller 1995, 56).

JW

 

guḫaṣṣu s. guḫaššu

 

guḫaššu, guḫaṣṣu, guḫalṣu “braided wire, torque”; + NA

1. OB šarḫullu GAL KŮ.GI ⸢ŠŔ.BA⸣ 1 gu-ḫa-šu ARM 32, 244 M.12668 ii 18 “a large golden š.-ornament with g. in its center”, Arkhipov 2012, 75 with add. refs; Guichard 2005, 135; S. also kirādu.

2. NA (the tip of a thornbush) kī gu-ḫa-ṣu epiš SAA 10, 382: 10 “is made like a wire”.

JW

 

guḫlu “kohl, bdellium (?)”

LB še rebītu gu-uḫ-li AOAT 414/1, 80: 16 “bdellium(?) for 1/4 shekel” (next to murru).

Disc. Potts et al. 1996, 291–305. g. is not “antymony” but rather bdellium (gum of Commiphora mukul); Sanskrit guggulu is borrowed from Akk. into Sanskrit. Cf., however, the traditional identification of bdellium with Akkadian budulḫu (see budulḫu): s. Jursa 2009, 158, n. 51.

 

gulēnu, gulānu “a garment”

NB 200 túggu-la-a-ni SAA 17, 69 r. 21 “200 g. garments”. S. also Zawadzki 2010, 419.

 

gulgultu s. qulqultu

 

gullu, pl. gullātu “a bowl, ewer; a golden décor element (Qaṭna); a column base”; + MB Emar

(CAD gullatu A, B, and C).

1. OB : S. Guichard 2015, 189–193 for add. refs.

2. MB Emar “ewer”:

a) 4 gu-la-tů ZABAR CunMon. 13, 27: 2 (cult inventory).

b) 3 gu-ul-la-a-ta ZABAR Emar 186: 9, cf. ib.: 15; 187: 9; 283: 14.

JW

 

gullubu s. galābu

 

gullubūtu “barber service”; + LB

LB pappasu ša gul-lu-bu-tu dubsar 3, 47 (= YOS 3, 80): 10 “prebendary payment for the barber service”, cf. CAD G 129 and AHw. 297 s. v. gullubu.

 

gullultu “sin”

OB u aššum ṭēmim annîm ittī PN gu-ul-lu-ul-tum ittabšī FM 8, 69 no. 15: 26 “and because of that matter a sin occurred on the part of PN”.

 

gullulu I “to commit a sin, crime”

OB ana nawęm ana gu-lu-li-im p[anūš]u[nu ša]knū AbB 8, 38: 13 “(500 soldiers) are planning to attack the meadow”. Alternatively qullulu “to diminish”.

JW/MPS

 

+ gullulu II “to blind”

CAD Q s.v. qullulu; CAD G s.v. gullulu adj.

1. MA gal-lu-le KAV 1 viii 56 (inf., Deller in Deller/Mayer/Oelsner 1989, 264).

2. NA PN: IGa-lu-lu ADD 218 r. 4 (cit. CAD G 131b).

3. In Ass. instead of Bab. napālu (Watanabe 1987, 206b).

JW

 

gul(u)būtu “a legume”

S. Postgate 1987, 94f.: Perhaps Lathyrus sativus (cf. Aram. gilbōna, Arab. jilbān).

JW

 

gumāḫu “choice bull”

The rare word qumaḫḫu (CAD Q 304) is perhaps a phonetic variant (Sommerfeld 1990, 32).

JW

 

+ gumakil(l)u “a wooden object”

NA bēlī udda ummeʾānū [i]ssu panīya ittūṣīʾū lā ana batqi [] ana gišgu-ma-ki-li epāši ... lurammīšunu SAA 1, 179 r. 20 “my lord knows that the artisans have run away from me. May he not set them free for repairing or making g.s”.

 

+ gumālu “mercy, clemency, salvation”; SB

lušalmidma nišī qitruba gu-ma-al-šin Iraq 60, 193: 39 (Ludlul 1) “let me teach the people how close their salvation is”, with var. gi-[mil-…] (Oshima 2014, 384).

JW

 

+ gumlu “mercy, clemency”; OB

In Mari PNN (Stol 1991, 195):

1. Gu-mu-ul-DN FM 9, 13: 11 (and pass.).

2. Ě-lí-gu-um-li-ia ARM 13, 1 viii 45; Ě-lí-gu-um-la-ia ARM 21, 403 viii 6.

3. DN-gu-um-li ARM 13, 1 iv 39

4. Gu-mu-lum ARM 22, 14 ii’ 17’; 38: 3’.

JW

 

**gum(m)urtum (kt 88/k 487: 9, see Kuzuoǧlu 2016, 36–37): see kumurtum.

 

gummuru s. gammuru

 

gunakku “a garment”; LB

1. ištēn túggu-nak-ku BM 76968/72: 13 (Roth 1989/1990, 30).

2. 2 túggu-nak-ku Zawadzki 2010, 415 BM 76136: 2 and comm. ib. 418.

JW

 

guninnu s. kuninnu

 

gunű, gunnu “a storage container for tablets(?)”

1. SB (he wrote this tablet and placed it in the temple of Nabű-of-Accounting, the house of his great lordship) anaana kan[akki] ša Esagil CTMMA 2, 65 r. 8 “in the g., in the kanakku of Esagil”, s. Gesche ib. 260.

2. SB (dug)gu-un-nu pass. in Nabu ša harę, s. Cavigneaux 1981, 123f.

JW

 

gupāru “neck, necklace”: + NB

GÚ.BAR ḫurāṣi SAA 17, 58: 4 “a golden necklace”.

 

guqqű, pl. guqqānű “an offering”; + MB

1. MB (flour) gu-qá-nu-ú BE 14, 148: 24. S. Sassmannshausen 2001, 155 and 167.

2. NB gu-uq-qu CT 55, 34: 8; cf. CT 56, 142: 3; 261: 3, 11; 268: 5; 274 r. 3; 607: 3, CT 57, 269: 13, 774: 7; 798: 7; gu-uq-qa-né-e CT 55, 415: 5; cf. 756: 6, 9; CT 57, 799: 14; 247: 5; 325: 12, r. 8; 470: 2; 595: 4; 309 r. 20; CT 56, 35: 4; 136: 3; 170 r. 5.

3. Lit.: McEwan 1981a, 166f.; Joannčs 1982, 214; MacGinnis 1995, 156ff.; Bongenaar 1997, 145f.; Da Riva 2002, 268ff.; Linssen 2004, 163f.

JW

 

**gurābu B (CAD G 136)

Read gu-lu-bu in OB Lu Ser. A. 409 (MSL 12, 243).

JW

 

+ guramīru “mng. unkn.”; MB Emar

Lex. ḪAR = gu-ra-mi-rum (Sjöberg 1998, 245).

JW

 

guraštu s. kuraštu

 

gurbizu s. q/gurpisu

 

+ gurdimu “an axe”; MB Emar

1. Lex. a-ga = agax(ÍL) = a-gu = gur-di-[mu] Emar 545: 345.

2. Cf. Ebla gišŕga = gur-du-mu-um MEE 4, 2 xiii 44; 13 xiv 2’’; 65+ xii 27’.

S. Pentiuc 2001, 54; Cohen Y. 2010, 818.

JW

 

gurištu “vulva”

The ref. CT 19, 45 + (list of diseases) belongs to kuraštu. The only remaining ref. (Nabnitu i) has ku-.

JW

 

+ gurnatu? “a wooden object”; OB

gišgur-na-[tum a/in]a? mātim nadnat[(...)] ARM 26/1 p. 417 no. 194: 11 “a g. is given [fo]r/[i]n the land”. The interpretation as pyre, var. of gurunnu, by Durand ib. p. 418f. and 2005, 105, is doubtful, as already stated by Heimpel 2003, 249.

 

gurnu “of average quality”; + OA(?); + NA

1. OA lit. nuḫitimmī gu5-ur-na-am urrir(ma) OA Sarg. 37 “my cook let g.(-meat?) burn”. In view of the occurrence of kursinnu “lower leg, shank” in l. 27, it is possible that here, too, we should read ku-ur-<sí>-na-am.

2. OB of wool: 18 GÚ TÚG gur-nu ARM 30, 447 M.6700: 4, cf. 10, 16, 22. Cf. Durand 2009, 1f. with a diff. interpretation.

3. ⸢KAŠ?⸣ gur-nu SAA 12, 48: 14 “beer of medium quality”.

MPS (1), JW (2–3), NJCK (1)

 

+ gurru II (?) “mng. unkn.”

NA [ana] mīni [p]ān gur-ra-te tallak StAT 1, 57: 16 = StAT 2, 248 r. 4 “why are you going to …” (coll. in StAT 2).

JK

 

gurrubu “a color designation(?)”

LB 1 MA.NA SÍG.ZA.GĚN.KUR.RA gu-ru-ub-tum ana nēbeḫu ša DN Zawadzki 2013, 479: 2 “1 mina of blue-purple wool of g.-quality (?) for the n.-belt of DN”.

JW

 

gurrudu “bald”

CAD Q s.v. qurrudu and qarādu B; s. also gerdu.

 

g/quršu I “a (ritual) meal”

1. NA kappī ḫurāṣi ša ina gur-še ušēlűni CTN 6, 58: 2 “golden k. bowls which they dedicated during the g.”.

2. NA gur-šu ša DN šākin māti ušakkal Ass. Tempel II, T 44 r. 18 “the governor will serve the g.-meal of DN”; cf. ib. T 54 8 and RA 69, 183: 36.

3. NA qur-šu marʾēk[a] SAA 10, 185: 24 “wedding night(?) of your sons”.

4. NA (on the 4th day) gur-šu ša DN SAA 13, 78: 10 “the g. of DN (takes place)”.

5. bīt g/q/ḫurši means “abattoir, kitchen” (Deller in Deller/Mayer/Oelsner 1989, 265–6, < q/garāšu).

Disc.: On the mng. s. Postgate 1974, 70 (“feast, meal”, < qarāšu “to trim meat”); Parpola 1983a, 119 n. 251 (“wedding night, marriage”, < garāšu “to copulate”); Deller in Deller/Mayer/Oelsner 1989, 265 (“Hochzeitsmahl”, cf. Arab. ʿurs). The mng. “Hauskapelle” proposed in AHw. 299 is not supported by the known refs.

MPS (1, 3), JW (2, 4–5, disc.)

 

**gurummad/ḫu (AHw. 299) s. gurummaru (already AHw. 1557).

 

gurummaru “a tree”

OB tuppam šanęm aššum gišgu-ru-um-ma!-ri-im ana ṣēr šarrim uštābilam ARM 13, 48: 6 “I have sent a second letter to the king regarding the g.”, cf. ARM 13, 45: 5, 11.

JW

 

gūru “foliage (of reed plants)”

S. Fincke 2011, 197f.

 

gurunnu I “heap” s. q/gurunnu

 

+ gurunnu II “fruit-shaped decoration”; OB; Sum. lw.

(150 grains of gold for) 18 gu-ru-ni ša ḫubūsim ARM 32, 371 A.4670: 2 “18 g.-ornaments on a .-weapon”. The same implement is said to have inbu decoration, s. Arkhipov 2012, 45, 109 (< Sum. gurun “fruit”).

JW

 

gusānu “a leather bag”

S. Durand 2009, 175 for add. Mari refs.

S. also kursānu.

 

+ guššu “a textile”; OB

1.gu-úš-šu ARM 30, 185 M.12030: 4 (among other textiles).

2. túggu-úš-šu-um ARM 24, 190: 1; túggu-úš-šum SAG ARM 25, 120: 1; (5 minas of wool for) túggu-šum ARM 24, 177: 2; túggu-uš-šu ARM 21, 257: 21.

S. Durand 2009, 36. The term has been misread as gunušu is several Mari publications. Cg. AHw. / CAD s.v. gušű.

JW

 

gušű “a garment” s. guššu

 

gušurrāʾu s. kušurrāʾu

 

gušūru “tree-trunk, log”

1. OB lit. ḫur[bāš]u ṣillu [iṣṣ]ī qīštim gu-šu-r[i!-šu-nu] azzīmma lā ḫerű lišān pāšim FM 14 ii 42 “shivers of fear is the shade of the trees of the forest, as long as the blade of the ax has not felled its logs”.

2. OB 170 gišŮR[ḫi.a] ša 10 am-maŕm FM 2, 69 no. 35: 14 “170 tree-trunks, which are each 10 cubits (long)”; cf. ib. 5, 9.

3. [i]na mātim [el]ītim nukurtumma [i]štū mātim elītim gišŮRḫi.a leqęm ul eleʾʾī gišŮRḫi.a ina qīšātim ša GN ibaššű 100 gišŮRḫi.a ša 1 1/2 NINDA 4 KŮŠŕm u elīšma adī 2 NINDAŕm FM 2, 162 no. 87: 4–8 “there is hostility in the upper land, therefore I cannot fetch tree-trunks from the upper land. There are tree-trunks in the forests of GN, which are 1 1/2 NINDA 4 cubits (ca. 11 m) (long) or even more up to 12 m (long)”.

4. On N/LB s. van Driel 1992, 173 (use in building work).

MPS (1–3), JW (4)

 

gutappű “part of a donkey harness”

1. Lex. [kuš-gú-tab-ba]-anše = gú-tap-pu-u MSL 9, 199 (130 B₂ 2').

2. OB 15 !-tap-pu ARM 7, 161: 11 (coll. MARI 2, p. 82). S. ARM 30, 182 for add. refs.

JW

 

+ guw(w)a/ālu “circuit” (?); Ugar.; Ugar. lw.

(royal fields) ša eqlī gu-wa-⸢li⸣ PRU 3, 151f.: 12 “in ‘circuit (?) fields’”. Cf. the Hebr. GN gôlān, s. Huehnergard 1987, 116.

JW

 

guzalű “chair bearer”

OB ina panī GU.ZA.LÁ qaqqadī attanabbal AbB 14, 123: 29 “I have to constantly excuse myself in front of the chair bearer”; cf. AbB 206: 12.

Disc.: Veenhof 2014, 207; Westenholz / Westenholz 2003, 123–127 with add. refs. and disc.

JW

 

guzullu s. kuzullu