W

wabālu “to carry, bring”

 

1. G ba-bil pani x x [… … …] x ṣēlip dīnimma FAOS 22, p. 52: 39 (fabel) “(who is) merciful […] (who) distorts justice” (about the double nature of the fox). S. Kienast id. p. 69 ad. 37-39.

NR

 

2. D “to juggle (with weapons)”: OB mubabbilūtum ana pan bēlija ú-ba-ba-[lu] FM 1 p. 138 A.486+M.5319: 29 “the acrobats will juggle before my lord”. mubabbilūtum urramma li-ba-bi-lu ib. 33 “may the acrobats juggle tomorrow”. Ḫanű kalűšu ina kirîm maḫrīšu [ip]tun u mubabbilūtum ina kirîmma [ú-b]a-bi-lu mādiš ana kašād Ḫanę ḫadī ib. p. 140: 40 “all the Ḫanű [di]ned before him in the garden and the acrobats juggled in that garden and he was much delighted by the arrival of the Ḫaneans”. Cf. bibbulu. Villard ib. p. 147f. postulates a special mng. for this text “to parade ceremoniously” because bubbulu was performed by elite troups. This interpretation seems, however, not compelling; the performance in connection with a meal in a garden and the expression “was delighted” may well point to an acrobatic entertainment, perhaps performed with weapons.

MPS

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: it-tab-lu-né 2: 24, 28. ub-ba-la 12: 11. ú-ub-bu-lu-né--šu 9: 46. bi-la 12: 26. bi-la-an!-ni 3: 23.

SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-⌈bi⌉-la-am-ma WBC iva 9.

 

Š MA BATSH 4/1: ú-še-ba-la 6: 3’; 7: 20’; 12: 43. ⌈ú-[še]-⌈ba!-la! 12: 46. [ú/tu-še]-ba-la 26: 8. [ú-še-b]i-la-šu-nu 13: 28. tu-še-bi-[la-an-ni] 13: 13. ul-te-bi-la 7: 2’’’; 22: 25; 30: 3’. ul-te⌉-bi-la 15: 8. ul-te-b[i-la] 6: 3’. [ul-te-b]i-la 19: 4’. ul-te-bi-la-ku 19: 9. ul-te-bi-⌈lak⌉-ku 9: 6. [ul-te-b]i-la-a-⌈ni7: 11’. ⌈ul-te-bi-lu-né⌉ 27: 5’’. še-bi-il 9: 16. [še-bi]-il 9: 32. še-bi-la 7: 18’; 9: 24. še-bi-la-né 19: 7. [še-bi-la]-né 7: 24’. [ú]-se-bi-la-né-ni 19: 10.

 

N  SB AfO Bh. 32: ib-⌈ba-ab-lu-ma⌉ WBC ix 18.

 

wabru “stranger, foreign resident”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ub-ru 8: 58’. ub-[ru/ri] 8: 64’.

 

*wadű “to know”

 

Indices

 

D MA BATSH 4/1: ud-da 3: 13, 16. ú-da 17: 21’. ú-ud-du-ni 6: 5’. ú-du-ú-ni 18: 29. mu-de-ú-te 7: 21’.

 

For additional references of wadű in NA oaths see Deller 1966, 309f. (ad CAD B 151 bašű 1m): DINGIRmeš-ka lu-di-iu-u* ABL 59 r. 6 (SAA 10, 285); dEN u dA[G l]u-ú-d[u] X DINGIR GAL š[u]-tu-ma lu-ú-da ND 2438 r. 1-3 (Iraq 21, pl. XLIV, NL 54). See also similar passages with missing wadű:  dA-num dEN.LÍL u dÉ-a ša ina SAG.DU ša LUGAL EN-ia kun-nu-ni ABL 1285 r. 26f.; [DINGIRmeš ša LU]GAL EN-a ND 2655 r. 11 (Iraq 20, pl. XL, NL 42).

NR

 

wadű D “to identify, to assign”

 

PN ba-ab É-šu-ma wu-du-ú “PN is confined to the gate of his house” ARM 26/2 p. 84 no. 319: 10f. (cf. Heimpel 2003, 300). See D. Charpin, ARM 26/2 p. 85 n. b and cf. the expression abullātim šūdű CAD I/J 34 idű 6c and AHw. 188 edű Š 2b.

MPS

 

waḫű (a bird)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB wa-ḫu-ú-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 24 (in list of birds). Since the text comes from Sippar a reading waḫű is more probable than a reading piḫű.

MPS

 

walādu “to give birth”

 

D ūmum ana pašārim kīma wu-lu-di⌉-im inakkir⌉ ALL 1 ii 8f.  “the day is difficult for appeasing (the interior) like giving birth”.

MPS

 

(w)ālidu “one who begets/begot ; progenitor”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: a-⌈li⌉-di WBA viii 22. [a]-⌈li⌉-du WBC v 30. a-[li-di] WBA viii 37. a-l[i-di] WBC v 14.

 

walluḫi- (mng. uncl.); Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

walluḫi occurs in two literary texts from Emar as PI-al-lu-ḫi (Emar 6, 454: 7’; 8’) and PI-lu-ḫi (Emar 6, 461: 8’): [  ] a-na wa-al-lu-ḫi i-na ITI SAG.MU (Emar 6, 454: 7’) “[            ] for …, in the month of the beginning of the year”; [        ]x 1 UDU a-na wa-al-lu-ḫi (Emar 6, 454: 8’) “[  ]x one sheep for …”; [          dIŠK]UR i-na u4-mi wa-lu-ḫi ša dIŠK]UR (Emar 6, 461: 8’) “[ Ad]ad on the day of … of Adad”.

walluḫi is a word of unknown origin. Flemming 1992, 284 connects walluḫi with the Hurrian root walli with unclear meaning. After Huehnergard (via Pentiuc 2001, 138f.), walluḫi could be related to Arabic waliʿa “to catch fire”; D “to kindle”. On the basis of the quoted passages walluḫi can perhaps be a designation of an offering (ritual).

NR

 

(w)apű “to be(come) visible, appear”

 

1. G OA ina awātim i-pu-ma 10 MA.NA kaspam ... išqul AKT 6a, 75: 42 // 76: 44 “PN appeared(?) in a lawsuit and paid 10 minas of silver”. [ana? kasp]im ina awātim i-pu-a-ni-ma [kasp]am ippal ib. 137: 16 “[concerning(?) the silv]er he appeared(?) before me in a lawsuit and he will pay the [silv]er”. Cf. M. T. Larsen, ib. p. 243, suggesting a new verb with a radical b meaning “to give in” or “be defeated”.

 

2. Št OB tu-uš-te-pe ramanuk AnSt. 33, 148: 26 “You (Girra) will become visible/shine by yourself”.

MPS

 

Indices

 

Š SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-⌈še⌉-e-pi WBC viii 37.

 

(w)arādu “to go down”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: ú-ru-du- 7: 9’’. ur-ru-du-ú- 11: 15. ur-ru-du--ni 11: 9.

 

Gtn MA BATSH 4/1: ta-ta-na-r[a-d]a-né 7: 7’’. ta-ta-na-ra!-di-né 7: 13’’.

 

Š MA BATSH 4/1: še-ru-di-ka 9: 13. še-⌈ri⌉-id 9: 13.

 

warāšu “to inherit”; Emar, WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

Two verbal forms of this verb occur at Emar in the legal context: turiš (tu-ri-iš) for 3 f. s. and turšā (-ur-ša-šu-nu) for 3 du. Pentiuc 2001, 183 transcribes these forms as /turiṯ/ and /turṯā/, respectively, and connects them with the West Semitic root w/yrṯ “to inherite”, which is realized in Hebrew as yāraš, in Aramaic as yəret, in Syriac as (ʾ)iret, in Arabic as wariṯa, in Ethopian as warasa and in Sabaic as wrṯ. From the same root is derived, most likely, the word warrāšu (or warrašu) “heir, inheritor”, which appears three times in Emar texts too as PI-ra-ša (see warrāšu).

            Because of the forms with the first vowel /u/ we consider warāšu as a basic form of this word, although w must become y, if this word is of Northwest Semitic origin (that seems most possible).

NR

 

wardu “slave, servant”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: URUD-ka 3: 2; 4: 2; 5: 2; 8: 35’, 48’; 10: 2; 11: 2; 20: 2. URUD -ka⌉ 2: 2; 25: 2. URUD-k[a] 12: 2; 17: 2; 19: 2. URUD-[k]a 14: 2. URUD-[ka] 16: 2. U[RUD-ka] 22: 2. URUD-šu 12: 20. URUD.MEŠ-šu 12: 31.

 

warḫu “the moon; month”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ITI 12: 9, 23.

 

(w)arkī “after, behind”

 

OA spellings with b-signs, e.g., bar(war)-ki-šu-nu Innāya 78: 14. ba-ar-ki-a ib. 240: 17.

MPS

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ur-ki 2: 4, 17; 3: 27. ur-ki⌉-šu-nu 2: 16.

 

(w)arkīta “later, afterwards”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ur-ki-te-šu 4: 7.

 

warkītu “posterity”

 

Note the b-spelling in OA bar-ki-tim Prag 678: 10.

MPS

 

warkū “afterwards; according to”

 

OB lit. wa-ar-ku libbiki CUSAS 10, 10: 23 “according to your wish (lit. heart)”.

MPS

 

(w)arkű “rear, later”

 

warkű “rear, later”

 

Note the b-spelling in OA bar-ki-ú-tim Prag 746: 17.

MPS

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ur-ki4: 16’. ur-ki-ia 2: 27. ur-ki-ú-tu 10: 33.

SB AfO Bh. 32: ar-ki WBC iiia 2. ⌈ar-kiWBA v 20. [a]r-⌈ku⌉-ú WBC x 10.

 

warkum

s. warkū

 

(w)arqu “yellow, green”, pl. “vegetables”

 

Said of a fish: OB lit. nūnim wa-ar-qí-im ZA 75, 198: 23, see nūnu.

MPS

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ar-qu WBA iv 40; WBC vii 22. ar-qa WBA vii 11. ár-qa NeKA ii 10’. a[r-q]u WBC iva 18.

 

warrāšu (or warrašu) “heir, inheritor”; Emar, WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

Pentiuc 2001, 140f. discusses the possible relation of PI-ra-ša (()PI-ra-ša; PI-ra-šu; for new attestation see also Ikeda 2003, 271a) from Emar texts to the West Semitic root w/yrṯ “to inherite”, which is known from Hebrew yāraš, Aramaic yəret, Syriac (ʾ)iret, Arabic wariṯa, Ethopian warasa and Sabaic wrṯ (all these words mean “to inherit”). The verb from this root occurs, most likely, also in two juridical documents from Emar as turiš (tu-ri-iš) for 3 f. s. and turšā (-ur-ša-šu-nu) for 3 du. (s. turiš).

Since the sign PI can stand for both w and y at Emar, the reading of PI-ra-ša remains questionable. If this word is of Northwest Semitic origin, the reading /y/ would be more likely, according to the rule by which w must become y in the Northwest Semitic languages. See the similar case of the Emar yardānu “river flowing downward”, which is once written with the sign PI (Emar 6, 137: 1). On the other hand, the verbal forms turiš and turšā with the first vowel /u/ speak for w as a first consonant of this word. Hence the possible normalisation /w/yarrāṯu/ or /w/yarraṯu/, among which warrāšu is chosen for this dictionary as the most probable variant.

NR

 

warű II “to lead”

 

MB lit. [an]a? bīti ru-ʾ-a-am KAR 158 ii 8 “lead (me) [t]o(?) the house!”

MPS

 

(w)âru “to go (up to)”

 

Indices

 

D SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-ma-ir-an-ni WBA ii 3. ú-ma-ir-⌈šu-nu⌉-ti-ma ib. v 16. ú-ma-ʾ-ir-⌈šu⌉-[nu-ti-ma] WBC iib 18*.

 

wasāmu “to become fitting”

 

SB as-mat illūr ṣēri KAL 3, 75 iii 11’! “she is fitting like an illūru-flower on the field”.

MPS

 

(w)asmu “fitting, suitable”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: as-mu WBC ix 41.

 

waṣābu “to add, increase”

 

Indices

 

G SB AfO Bh. 32:  it-tu⌉-ṣi-ib WBC iiia 25. [it-tu-ṣi]-⌈ib WBA v 45.

 

(w)aṣű “to go out”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: it-ta-ṣu 2: 23, 31. ú-ṣa 4: 12’. uṣ-ṣa-a 8: 51’. [ú]-ṣa-e 22: 8. li-ṣa 8: 51’.

 

Š MA BATSH 4/1: ú-še-ṣu-šu 8: 35’. ul-te-ṣi-ú-šu-ma 8: 35’. še-ṣu-e 8: 27’.

SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-[še-ṣi] WBC ix 8.

 

(w)āṣű going out, departing

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈a⌉-[ṣe]-⌈e⌉ WBA vi 47. [a-ṣ]e-e WBC iiib 31*.

 

(w)ašābu “to sit (down); dwell”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: ú-šab 2: 64 31: 5’. us-bu 2: 20; 8: 34’. us-b[u] 5: 16. us-bu-ni 12: 7. lu us-b[u] 4: 2’. ⌈us⌉-ba-a-ku 12: 29. us-bu-tu-ú-ni 7: 6’.

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈ú⌉-še!-em-ma WBC iiia 19. [ú-še-em]-⌈ma⌉ WBA v 38.

 

Š SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-še-ši-ib WBC iva 6. ú-še-ši-im-ma ib. iiia 14. ⌈ú⌉-še-ši-i[m-ma] WBA v 33.

 

(w)ašāru “to sink down”

 

Indices

 

D MA BATSH 4/1: ú-še-ra-[n]a-ši-in 22: 17. tu-ša-ra-[n]a-ši-ni 22: 16. ú-ta-še-ru 12: 35.

 

(w)ašbu “inhabited; resident, present”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: a-ši-ib WBC vii 68; NeKA iii 25’. a-[ši-ib] WBC viii 20. a-ši-ba-at WBA ix 35. a-ši-bat WBC vi 33 ; WBA x 3. a-ši-ba-a[t] WBC vi 10. ⌈a-ši-ba⌉-[at] WBA x 7.

 

wašbūtu “presence”

 

OB ina GN <…> wašbūssu iqbűnim AbB 13, 21: 13 “(Now,) they have told me that he is staying in GN <…>”. For the context s. balṭūtu.

NR

 

wašḫazu (a piece of jewelry)

only CAD

 

A silver wašḫazu (PI--ḫa-ZU), which weighs fifteen shekels, occurs once in the inventory list Emar 6, 284: 5. Since the sign PI has also the reading yV in Emar, PI--ḫa-ZU could be read ya-aš-ḫa-zu. Pentiuc 2001, 139 proposes a relation between yašḫazu and Hittite išḫuzzi “belt”, although “Hitt. words never start with y-”.

NR

 

wašru “submissive”

 

Note the first fem. form: OB lit. wa-aš-ra-tu u a-ma-[tu] elīk[a] CUSAS 10, 9: 21 “submissive and slave [girl] towards you”.

MPS

 

wattu “dove; pigeon”

only CAD

 

wattu (PI-at-tu4) occurs once in the lexical text Emar 6, 555: 71’: [          ] MIN (manuscript K: TU) su-um-ma-tu : PI-at-tu4 (manuscript K: su!-ma-tu4). Since Akkadian summatu means “dove”, the meaning of PI-at-tu4 seems to be relatively certain. The root of this word is, however, still a matter of debates. Arnaud 1985-86, 268 connects PI-at-tu4 with Hebrew yônā “dove”, presuming the assimilation of n to -tt- in the Emar word. Fleming 1992, 149, note 262 derives PI-at-tu4 from the root wnt in contrast to the Hebrew word, which he derives from ywn (compare Syriac yawnā).

Finally Pentiuc 2001, 139 discusses PI-at-tu4 as a feminine singular noun of the pattern qal-t- with an ambiguous second consonant assimilated to -t-. The first consonant remains unclear, too, since the sign PI could denote both wV and yV in Emar. A possible reconstruction would then be /w/yattu/ < *w/yan/t/d-t-. After CAD W 407 wattu is accepted here as a conventional form.

NR

 

watű “to find”

 

Št “to meet/confront each other” MB lit. [nīr] imittika u nīr šumēlika šu-ta-ta-a ALL no. 11: 13 “[the yoke] of your right side and the yoke of your left side confront each other”.

MPS

 

wēdī- + poss. suff. “(he/you etc.) alone”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ú-di-šu 2: 43.

 

(w)erű “copper, bronze”

 

Instead of masṣar we-ri-im AHw 1495 (lex. sect.) read, with CAD P 419 pīru A lex. sect., maṣṣar pi-ri-im “elephant warden”.

MPS

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: e-ri WBA vi 29. e-ri-i WBC v 10. URUDU WBA viii 18; WBC iiib 14*, vi 20.

 

wuṣṣuṣu “to interrogate”

 

OB lit. uṣ-ṣi-i-ṣi pānīʾātim CUSAS 10, 10: 27 “interrogate the previous (women)!”

MPS