wabālu “to carry, bring”

G ba-bil pani ⌈x x⌉ […] ⌈x⌉ ṣēlip dīnimma FAOS 22, p. 52: 39 (fable of the fox) “(who is) merciful […] (who) distorts justice”. S. Kienast id. p. 69 ad. 37-39.


D “to juggle (with weapons)”, cf. bibbulu:

OB mubabbilūtum ana pan bēliya ú-ba-ba-[lu] FM 1 p. 138 A.486+M.5319: 29 “the acrobats will juggle before my lord”; mubabbilūtum urramma li-ba-bi-lu ib. 33 “may the acrobats juggle tomorrow”; Ḫanű kalűšu ina kirîm maḫrīšu [ip]tun u mubabbilūtum ina kirîmma [ú-b]a-bi-lu mādiš ana kašād Ḫanę ḫadī ib. p. 140: 40 “all the Ḫanű [di]ned before him in the garden and the acrobats juggled in that garden and he was much delighted by the arrival of the Ḫaneans”. Villard ib. p. 147f. postulates a special mng. for this text “to parade ceremoniously” because bubbulu was performed by elite troups. This interpretation seems, however, not compelling; the performance in connection with a meal in a garden and the expression “was delighted” may well point to an acrobatic entertainment, perhaps performed with weapons.



wadű “to know”, D “to identify, to assign”

G NA in oaths, s. Deller 1966, 309f. (ad CAD B 151 bašű 1m):

a) DINGIRmeš-ka lu-di-iu-u* ABL 59 r. 6 (SAA 10, 285);

b) dEN u dA[G l]u-ú-d[u] X DINGIR GAL š[u]-tu-ma lu-ú-da ND 2438 r. 1-3 (Iraq 21, pl. XLIV, NL 54).

c) Cf. similar passages with missing wadű: dA-num dEN.LÍL u dÉ-a ša ina SAG.DU ša LUGAL EN-ia kun-nu-ni ABL 1285 r. 26f.; [DINGIRmeš ša LU]GAL EN-a ND 2655 r. 11 (Iraq 20, pl. XL, NL 42).

D 1. OB PN bāb bītišuma wu-du-ú “PN is confined to the gate of his house” ARM 26/2 p. 84 no. 319: 10f., s. Charpin, ib. 85 n. b and cf. the expression abullātim šūdű CAD I/J 34 idű 6c and AHw. 188 edű Š 2b; s. also cf. Heimpel 2003, 300.

2. SB [m]u-ud-da idātukarassu ORA 7, 318: 14 “his mind is the one who makes known the ominous signs”.

NR (G), MPS (D)


+ Wag- “to lead away”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

ni---nu \ WA-ga-nu-ša10-še-na-an QS 3, 3: 18 “(the ones) that we dispersed”.



+ warubade “not good”; Hurr. word in MB Qana

mannummę ālānī ana muḫḫi bēliya lā DŮG.GA-ni7 \ wa-a-ru-pa-te-na QS 3, 5: 51 “whoever makes the cities non complacent (?) towards our lord”, cf. Hurr. warubade.



+ waḫű “a bird”; OB

OB wa-ḫu-ú-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 24 (in list of birds). Since the text comes from Sippar a reading waḫű is more probable than a reading piḫű.



walādu “to give birth”

D ūmum ana pašārim kīma wu-lu-di⌉-im inakkir⌉ ALL no. 1 ii 8f.the day is difficult for appeasing (the interior) like giving birth”.



(w)ālidu “one who begets/begot; progenitor”


+ walluḫi “an offering, a ritual(?)”; Emar

1. ana wa-al-lu-ḫi ina ITI SAG.MU Emar 6, 454: 7’ “([…]) for w., in the month of the beginning of the year”; n UDU ana wa-al-lu-ḫi ib. 8’ “n sheep for w.”.

2. [dIŠK]UR ina ūmi wa-lu-ḫi ša dIŠKUR Emar 6, 461: 8’ “[Ad]ad on the day of w. of Adad”.

For disc. s. Flemming 1992, 284 (lw. from Hurr. walli?), Huehnergard apud Pentiuc 2001, 138f. (related to Arabic waliʿa “to catch fire”; D “to kindle”?)



(w)apű “to be(come) visible, appear”

G OA ina awātim i-pu-ma 10 MA.NA kaspamišqul AKT 6a, 75: 42 // 76: 44 “PN appeared(?) in a lawsuit and paid 10 minas of silver”; [ana? kasp]im ina awātim i-pu-a-ni-ma [kasp]am ippal ib. 137: 16 “[concerning(?) the silv]er he appeared(?) before me in a lawsuit and he will pay the [silv]er”. Cf. M. T. Larsen, ib. p. 243, suggesting a new verb with a radical b meaning “to give in” or “be defeated”.

Št OB tu-uš-te-pe ramanuk AnSt. 33, 148: 26 “You (Girra) will become visible/shine by yourself”.



+ warāšu “to inherit”; Emar, WSem. lw.

Two verbal forms of this verb occur at Emar in the legal context: turiš (tu-ri-iš) for 3 f. s. and turšā (-ur-ša-šu-nu) for 3 du. Pentiuc 2001, 183 transcribes these forms as /turiṯ/ and /turṯā/, respectively, and connects them with the West Semitic root w/yrṯ “to inherit”, which is realized in Hebrew as yāraš, in Aramaic as yəret, in Syriac as (ʾ)iret, in Arabic as wariṯa, in Ethopian as warasa and in Sabaic as wrṯ. From the same root is derived, most likely, the word warrāšu (or warrašu) “heir, inheritor”, which appears three times in Emar texts too as PI-ra-ša ( s. warrāšu).

Because of the forms with the first vowel /u/ we consider warāšu as a basic form of this word, although w must become y, if this word is of Northwest Semitic origin (that seems most possible).



wardu “slave, servant”


warḫu “the moon; month”


(w)arkī “after, behind”

OA spellings with b-signs, e.g., bar(war)-ki-šu-nu Innāya 78: 14. ba-ar-ki-a ib. 240: 17.



warkītu “posterity”

Note the b-spelling in OA bar-ki-tim Prag 678: 10.



warkū “afterwards; according to”

OB lit. wa-ar-ku libbiki CUSAS 10, 10: 23 “according to your wish (lit. heart)”.



warkű “rear, later”

Note the b-spelling in OA bar-ki-ú-tim Prag 746: 17.



warkum s. warkū


(w)arqu “yellow, green”, pl. “vegetables”

OB lit. nūnim wa-ar-qí-im ZA 75, 198: 23 “of green fish”, s. nūnu.



+ warrāšu (or warrašu) “heir, inheritor”; Emar, WSem. lw.

Pentiuc 2001, 140f. discusses the possible relation of PI-ra-ša (()PI-ra-ša; PI-ra-šu; for new attestation s. also Ikeda 2003, 271a) from Emar texts to the West Semitic root w/yrṯ “to inherite”, which is known from Hebrew yāraš, Aramaic yəret, Syriac (ʾ)iret, Arabic wariṯa, Ethopian warasa and Sabaic wrṯ (all these words mean “to inherit”). The verb from this root occurs, most likely, also in two juridical documents from Emar as turiš (tu-ri-iš) for 3 f. s. and turšā (-ur-ša-šu-nu) for 3 du. (s. turiš).

Since the sign PI can stand for both w and y at Emar, the reading of PI-ra-ša remains questionable. If this word is of Northwest Semitic origin, the reading /y/ would be more likely, according to the rule by which w must become y in the Northwest Semitic languages. s. the similar case of the Emar yardānu “river flowing downward”, which is once written with the sign PI (Emar 6, 137: 1). On the other hand, the verbal forms turiš and turšā with the first vowel /u/ speak for w as a first consonant of this word. Hence the possible normalisation /w/yarrāṯu/ or /w/yarraṯu/, among which warrāšu is chosen for this dictionary as the most probable variant.



warű II “to lead”

MB lit. [an]a? bīti ru-ʾ-a-am KAR 158 ii 8 “lead (me) [t]o(?) the house!”



wâru, węru “to go (up to)”

Var. węru: SB šalṭiš te-mir-am-ma Jiménez 2017, 250: 28 “you triumphantly confronted me”.


+ waruzzi “arrow head (?)”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

8 me GÍRzabar \ wa-ru-uz-za QS 3, 28: 1 “800 arrow heads (?)”, from Hurr. wari “arrow” (Richter, ib. p. 107).



wasāmu “to be suitable”

1. SB as-mat illūr ṣēri KAL 3, 75 iii 11’! “she is fitting like an illūru-flower on the field”.

2. SB ⌈as-ma-akqimmatu Jiménez 2017, 248: 4 “I (the arḫanű-palm) am suitable regarding (my) crown”. Cf. as-ma-ku-ma ib. 254: 52.



+ waš- “to enter”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

ina GN erub \ wa-a-ša10 QS 3, 5: 30 “he entered GN”.



wašābu “to sit”

Gtn perf. SB [t]a-at-ta-taš-šab Jiménez 2017, 385 (= SAA 3, 51): 8, cf. tattatallak ib. 4.



wašṭu “stiff”

SB aš-ṭu saparru ORA 7, 320: 49 “stiff net”.



wašbūtu “presence”

OB ina GN … wašbūssu iqbűnim AbB 13, 21: 13 “(Now,) they have told me that he is staying in GN…”. For the context s. balṭūtu.



wašḫazu “a piece of jewelry”

A silver wašḫazu (PI--ḫa-ZU), which weighs fifteen shekels, occurs once in the inventory list Emar 6, 284: 5. Since the sign PI has also the reading yV in Emar, PI--ḫa-ZU could be read ya-aš-ḫa-zu. Pentiuc 2001, 139 proposes a relation between yašḫazu and Hittite išḫuzzi “belt”, although “Hitt. words never start with y-”.



wašru “submissive”

OB lit. wa-aš-ra-tu u a-ma-[tu] elīk[a] CUSAS 10, 9: 21 “submissive (f.) and slave [girl] towards you”.



wašṭu “difficult”

SB ešâ u maš-ṭa Jiménez 2017, 384: 12 “they are confusing and difficult”.


wattu “dove; pigeon”

MIN (ms. K: TU) su-um-ma-tu : PI-at-tu4 (ms. K: su!-ma-tu4) Emar 6, 555: 71’, cf. summatu “dove”. On etym. s. Arnaud 1985-86, 268; Fleming 1992, 149 n262; Pentiuc 2001, 139 (/w/yattu/ < *w/yan/t/d-t-).



watű “to find”

Št “to meet/confront each other”:

MB lit. [nīr] imittika u nīr šumēlika šu-ta-ta-a ALL no. 11: 13 “[the yoke] of your right side and the yoke of your left side confront each other”.



(w)erű “copper, bronze”

Instead of masṣar we-ri-im AHw 1495 (lex. sect.) read, with CAD P 419 pīru A lex. sect., maṣṣar pi-ri-im “elephant warden”.



+ wirwiri “a type of wool or woolen object (?)”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

1-en-nu-tu4 \ wi-ir-wi-ir-e-na QS 3, 12: 33 “1 set of w.”, cf. perhaps Hurr. wirwirišt- “to loosen” (Richter, ib., p. 87), among types of wool.



+ wiziwemng. unkn.”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

[…] \ wi--we-na QS 3, 18: 15 (broken context). Cf. giš ša wi-iz-za-e-na AlT 227: 13 (Richter/Lange 2012, 97).



+ wur- “to see”; Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

1. lū immarkunu \ wu-ri-ta-áš-šu11 QS 3, 2: 55 “you will truly see him” (with interchange of subject and object, s. Richter ib. p. 40.).

2. tammarkunu \ wu-ri-da-áš-šu11 QS 3, 4: 38 “you will see”, s. Richter ib. p. 63 and 40.

3. bēliya tammarannimi…\ wu-ri-it-u-ta-an QS 3, 5: 65 “my lord, you will see”, s. Richter ib. p. 74



wuṣṣuṣu “to interrogate”

OB lit. uṣ-ṣi-i-ṣi pānīʾātim CUSAS 10, 10: 27 “interrogate the previous (women)!”