U

u “and, but, also”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ů 2: 19, 30, 55; 3: 22, 29; 4: 6’, 11’, 14’; 6: 10’, 17’, 20’; 7: 10’’, 24’’; 8: 15’, 17’, 21’, 26’, 27’, 33’, 38’, 40’, 46’, 50’, 51’, 56’, 60’, 63’; 9: 5, 38; 10: 9, 32; 11: 5, 7; 12: 33, 37; 17: 11, 13; 21: 8, 6’; 22: 6, 27; 23: 5, 8’; 27: 6’; 29: 8’; 35: 3.

SB AfO Bh. 32: ů WBA i 8, 18, 20, ii 12, iv 24, v 18, 23, vi 3, 54, vii 18, 26, 38, 52, viii 1, 14, 36; WBC ib 6*, iia 12’, iib 21*, iiia 2, 4, iiib 23*, iiib 31*, iva 3, 4, ivb 10*, v 3, 6, 1’, 10’, 9’’, vi 27, 55, 76, vii 4, 7, 14, 30, 60, viii 42, 49, ix 11, 26, 29, x 30 ; NeKC2: 1. ⌈ů⌉

WBA iv 56, v 20, vi 38, viii 5, 10, 19, 21, 44, xiii 1’; WBC ia 17, 19, iib 1*, iiib 22*, ivb 16*, v 11, 6’, 29, vi 54, 66, vii 57, viii 45. u WBA vi 39, viii 48, ix 13, 19, x 2’; WBC vi 1, vii 53, viii 4; NeKA i 10’, 21’, iii 11’. ⌈u⌉ WBA x 4’.

 

uatnannu “carriage”?

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: gišut-na-na-a-tu 10: 14.

 

ubiyannu “mule”

not in the dictionaries

 

Emar: [MIN (= anše)-gěr-nun]-na = ku-da-nu = ú-bi-ia-an-nu Emar 6/4, 550: 224’ (Pentiuc 2001, 187f.).

MPS

 

uddakam “all day; for ever”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ud-da-kam WBA ii 12.

 

uddam “today”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: U4-⌈am⌉ WBA iii 21.

 

udru “camel”, Iran. lw.

 

The more specific transl. “bactrian camel” is most probably wrong (court. M. Heide). The alleged spelling ta-ma-ra-te RIMA 3, 9: 39 (Shalmaneser III, cf. Mayer 2009, 428; a single ex. with no published copy or photo) is conspicious: in Iraq 25, 52: 18 (Shalmaneser III) and in RINAP 4, 20: 51 (Esarhaddon, several ex. of the inscription!) we read clear ú-du-ri. Moreover, a reading udru but not tam(a)ru fits the Iran. etymon Old Pers. ušša-, Old Ind. utra- (J. Tavernier, OLA 158 [2007] 566). Mistake of the scribe who did not understand the foreign word udru in a vorlage and misread ú-du- as ta-ma-?

MPS

 

uDDuru I, uD (emmer); (11th month of Nippur calendar and festival with the same name (?)); Sum. lw.

 

CAD U distinguishes between two words with unkn. mng., udduru (CAD U 20b) and utrű (CAD U 337b), which are known, after CAD, only from LL. AHw 1401a knows only udduru and derives it from adāru “to be dark”. In addition CAD U 359b has uwaru “eleventh month and festival” with two instances from Mari (s. also AHw 1447a under uwurum).

            After Cohen 1993, 118f., udduru, utrű and uwaru could belong together with uDDuru and uD as two variants of one word and uwaru as misreading for uD.

The two entries from the lists of terms, referring to human beings, quoted under udduru in CAD and AHw, should be left out of consideration, since they do not seem to belong here (s. uDDuru II here). The rest of references in CAD and some other entries from LL, cited in context, demonstrate that udduru and utrű are two variants of the same word, loaned from Sumerian udra/udduru, which denotes a sort of emmer and 11th month of Nippur calendar:

 

1. Emmer:

a) Diri V 221f. (MSL 15, 174f.):

ud-ra = ZÍZ.ŔM = zi-iz a-a-nak-ku = uD-ru-ú (var. ut-tu-ru-[…])

im-gá-gá = ZÍZ.ŔM = MIN MIN = ku-na-šu

 

b) Nabnitu XXII 112ff.:

zi-izZÍZ = ku-na-šu

ZÍZim-gá-gáŔM = MIN

ZÍZud-raŔM = MIN

 

c) Type of emmer broth (among other products made of emmer, s. ulušinnu “date-sweetened emmer-beer” und ḫaššu “sweet food”):

Hg. B VI 92 (MSL 11, 89):

tu7 udra(ZÍZ.ŔM) = uD-[ru]-ú = […]-ru-ú

 

See also OB list of offerings to Nusku: 6,1/2 gín ě-[nun] ana tu7-úd-duru5(ZÍZ.A) ša 13 bur-zi JCS 29, 17 ii 7f. “6,1/2 shekel oil for the emmer broth poured into 13 bowls bur-zi”.

The connection to kunāšu in the LL confirms the meaning “emmer” for ZÍZ.A/AN/ŔM = udra/udduru. CAD U 337b does not seem to connect these lexical entries with emmer, judging by its spelling and lack of translation for utrű: “ud-ra = ÁŠ.A.AN = ut-ru-ú (var. ut-tu-ru-[…]) Diri V 221; tu7.ÁŠ.A.AN = ut-[ru]-ú = [x x]-ru-ú Hg. B VI 92”.

The question remains, however, which sort of emmer was called uDDuru/uDand in which period this name was used. After Powell 1984, 51f., ZÍZ refers to zīzu down into the OB period and denotes the unprocessed form of emmer that is “the threshed, cleaned spikelets”. ZÍZ.AN, on the contrary, represents the “basic processed form of emmer”, that means “husked emmer after the kernels have been separated from the chaff” used in beer and groats making. During the OB period the reading kunāšu for ZÍZ.AN is established, which gradually replaces also the older word zīzu. Finally, about the MB period ZÍZ.AN = kunāšu comes to designate both, processed and unprocessed, forms of emmer. 

The Akkadian equivalent of ZÍZ.AN as well as the reading of the logogram in the early periods is, therefore, not entirely certain. The cited references suggest that the reading of ZÍZ.AN (with var. ZÍZ.ŔM and ZÍZ.A) “emmer” could be udra with semitized equivalent uD or uDDuru.

 

2. 11th month (“emmer-month”):

a) OB Diri Nippur Sec. 9: 37f. (MSL 15, 32):

u4-ud-ru = ZÍZ.A = uD-Du-ru-ú

= den-líl

 

b) NA RA 17, 119 (K 00945 r. 3):

[iti]x-li-li-ti = itiudra (ZÍZ.ŔM)

 

Note also the texts from Ur III with (partly) syllabic spelling, which confirm the reading uDru/uDDuru for the 11th month of Nippur calendar:

 

1. itiuD-Du-ru-u (Owen NATN 311 r. 4);

2. itiZÍZ.A-u (Çig-Kizilyay NRVN 1, 98);

3. itiů-ZÍZ (AUCT 2, 28: 5);

4. itiuD-rá (BE 3, 117 iii 44, for the collation see Cohen 1993, 119, n. 5).

 

The OB texts from Mari use the semitized month name itiú-uD-ri-im (for the collation see Cohen 1993, 119, n. 6):

 

1. inūma ú-[u]D!-ri-im ARM 9, 97: 26  “on the occasion of the U. festival (on the 20th day of the month Kiskissu, the 11th month in Mari)”.

2. ina itiú-uD-ri-im antallűm iššakkan ištānu ibb[ašši] ebūrum iššer u […] ARM 26, 248: 19’ “if in the month of U. an eclipse occurs, north wind will come, the harvest will be successful and […]”.

 

Note that Marti in NABU 2003/10 argues for the old readings ú-[w]a-ri-im ARM 9, 97 and ú-wa-ri-im ARM 26, 248 on the basis of the photos (s. also CAD 359b). He connects uwarum with Arab. uwârum “ardeur du feu, violence de la chaleur” and assumes that the month uwaru corresponds to the months July/August with their high temperatures. However, one recognizes the clear UD on the photo of ARM 26, 48. The situation of ARM 9, 97 is more ambiguous. The horizontal wedge could belong to “UD” (= WA) as well as be the beginning of the following RI. Since it would be then the only instance for uwaru, it seems better to read the sign in question as UD! with Cohen.

After Cohen 1993, 118f. the name of the eleventh month (šabāṭu) of the Nippur calendar was written systematically itiZÍZ.A in the pre-Sargonic texts, itiZÍZ in the Ur III period and itiZÍZ.ŔM in the first millennium B.C. On the basis of reading of emmer in LL, Cohen considers the reading itiúd-duru5 for itiZÍZ.A “emmer-month” (for ZÍZ = úd = ti-ik-tum s. CT 35, 7: 34). As the references above demonstrate, the spelling uDDuru in both languages, Sumerian and Akkadian, for the 11th month has lasted down into the OB period.

NR

 

uDDuru II (desig. of a person)

 

CAD U 20b and AHw 1401a quote udduru, known only from LL (for OB Diri Nippur Sec. 9: 37 see uDDuru I; it does not belong here). AHw derives it from adāru “to be dark” and interprets it as “verfinstert, finster blickend”. uDDuru occurs in two LL:

1. OB Lu A 82 (MSL 12, 160):

al-áš-a = ḫa-al-pu “accused”

al-áš-a = uD-Du-rum

áš-a = ša er-re-tim “cursed”

It seems that ḫalpu, ša erretim and uDDuru are synonyms and uDDuru designates an accused person. The connection with adāru I D “darken” is possible.

 

2. Nabnitu J (= XVII) 179 (MSL 16, 159 + DCCLT):

kar = e-ṭe-ru “to take away, save”

zag-a-du-érim-du = e-ṭi-ir-tum “saviour”

lú-šu-ta-kar-kar = eṭ-ṭe-e-rum “escaper, deserter”

lú-uš11-zag-ga-bar-bar = uD-Du-rum

This section includes the words, derived from eṭēru “to save”. Note the same pattern in the previous section (171-175):

kar = e-ke-mu “to take away”

šu-kar = MIN

ga-ab-kar = ek-ke-mu “rober”

ki-sikil-lú-šu-ud-kar-ra = ek-ke-em-tum “thief”

duk-ku-mu = ŠU-ú (ukkumu) “Seizer (?)” (one of Marduk’s dogs)

Therefore uDDuru could be the D stem from eṭēru “to take away”, even though the D stem from this verb is until now unknown. On the other hand, the logograms from the other LL, which seem to be related to lú-uš11-zag-ga-bar-bar = uD-Du-rum, are equated with Akk. alliʾayya “driveller”:

 

1. OB Lu B-C Nippur 334f. (MSL 12, 168 ):

11-zag-ga = al-li-a-a

[eme-zag]-ga-bar-bar = al-li-a-a

 

2. OB Lu B-C Seg. 10: 15:

eme-zag-ga-bar-bar = al-li-a-a

 

The picture is therefore heterogeneous.  It seems, however, there are two words, udduru (from adāru?) and uṭṭuru (from eṭēru?), the meanings of which are still not entirely clear.

NR

 

ugāru “meadow”

 

ugāru probably occurs also in EA 250: 47 as a quasi-logogram: ů yu-pa-at-ti : Ú.[GŔ]R-ri LUGAL EN-ka4 “and he cultivated the fi[el]ds of the king, your lord” (Moran 1992, 303 and 304, note 8). For the gloss marker here see petű II.

NR

 

uggű „lion“, Sum. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

Emar: ug = <ug>-gu8-ú Emar 551: 38 (Ḫḫ XIV 121; MSL 8/2, 16).

MPS

 

ukkű “to render desititute, to diminish”

CAD U 56, AHw 196 ekű II

 

OB ḫubūr māt[im] ú-te-ek-ki-ma iktabas Westenholz 1997, 276: 16’ “it dimished the clamor of the land and trampled (it) down”.

MPS

 

ul “not”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ul WBA v 4; WBC iib 8*. ⌈ul ib. iib 9*.

 

ulla II “distant time”

 

Note the first spelling with mimation: OB lit. ul-lam YOS 11, 24 i 15, see nisannu.

MPS

 

ullu, ḫullu III “collar”

 

MB lit. [dala]t? ú-li ALL no. 11 r. 14, see lâṭu.

MPS

 

ulű in ulű šamni/ḫimētim “the best oil/butter”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ul NeKA ii 18’. ú-lu WBA vii 16, 26. u-lu NeKC1: 4’. ⌈ú-lu⌉ WBC iia 3’. ú-[li] ib. iva 22. ú-l[u] WBA iv 47.

 

ūma “today, on this day; for a day”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: u4-ma 3: 39; 4: 2’; 6: 4’; 8: 28’, 30’; 10: 42; 12: 11; 16: 16.

 

ūmakkal “for one day, for the length of one day”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ú-ma-kal 2: 13.

 

umma “saying:”, ptcl. introducing dir. speech

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: um-ma 1: 3; 9: 3; 21: 3.

 

ummānu “troops”

 

Note the vowel harmony in um-mě-ni-a OA Sarg. 43.

MPS

 

ummatu “maun body, bulk”

 

CAD U 118 u. A d: For BM 47507 see JAOS 103, 26f.

MPS

 

ummu “mother”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈um-mu⌉ WBA ix 5. um-⌈ma WBC viii 7.

 

ūmtu, ūmdu “(one specific) day”

 

New by-form ūmdu MB lit. UD-um-du KAR 158 vii 36.

MPS

 

ūmu I “day”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: u4-mu 2: 24. ú-ma-te 4: 15’. u4-me 4: 16’. u4-um 12: 26. u4-mi 26:5’. ka!-⌈lu⌉-mi 22: 6. UD.MEŠ 2: 11; 3: 36; 6: 11’, 15’. 8: 31’; 12: 9; 30: 6’. UD n-KÁM 1: 20; 2: 67; 3: 44; 4: 18’; 6:2’’; 9: 47; 10: 37, 47; 11: 19; 12: 47; 13: 29; 14: 8; 15: 23; 16: 26; 20: 4’; 21: 8’; 22: 29; 37A: 1.

SB AfO Bh. 32: u4-um WBA iv 28, v 14, vi 7; WBC iib 11*, 17*. u4-mu WBA vii 3. u4-⌈umib. vi 50; WBC iiib 33*. u4-u[m] WBA iv 14; WBC iva 10. ⌈u4-um WBA ix 10. u4-[u]m WBC ivb 14*. u4-mi-šu ib. ix 13. UD.⌈MEŠ⌉ WBA v 7. UD 1-KÁM WBC iib 9*.

 

umšarḫu (a class of person)

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: um-⌈za-ar-ḫu⌉ 12: 31.

 

unūtu “tools, equipment, household utensils”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-na-tu-šú WBA v 21. ú-na-a-tu-šu WBC iiia 3.

 

upű “cloud”

 

OB lit. ú-pe-erakbātima CUSAS 10, 10: 24 “you ride the clouds”.

MPS

 

urḫu “way, path”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-ru-u[ḫ] WBC viii 11. [ú-ru-u]ḫ WBA iii 14. [ur-ḫu]-šu-nu ib. iii 16 (uncertain).

 

urriš “by day”

 

MB lit.: ú-úr-ri-iš ALL no. 11: 9, see paspasu.

MPS

 

uršu “bedroom”

 

OB lit. [in]a ur-ši-ma CUSAS 10, 8: 21 “[in] the bedroom” (see qarāru).

MPS

 

ūru I “roof”

 

OB ⌈ēlīana ú-ri “I went up the roof” (in order to pray) Finkel 2014: 45.

MPS

 

ūru II “vulva”

 

MB lit. ša tarammu ú-ri nadīkum bābum⌉ rapšum šuddulum ALL no. 11 r. 8 “that which you love, my vulva, is laid down for you: a wide, spacious gate”.

MPS

 

ūsu I “usage, custom, good practice”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-us-sa WBC viii 30.

 

usukkānu “the one with (multicolored?) cheek

only CDA 428: usukānu

 

OB ú-su-ka-nu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 60 (in list of birds). Cf. usukku B „a bird“ CAD U/W 285 where also the [usu]kkānu is mentioned. Black/Al-Rawi 1987, 126 compare azangunu and uzun qanę. Derivation from usukku “cheek” might be a popular etymology. Al-Rawi/Dalley 2000, 107 interpret it as a variant of mesukku. Note, however, that mesukku is already attested in l. 49.

MPS

 

uṣurtu, eṣirtu “drawing, plan”

 

By-form eṣirtu attested OB, see kippatu.

 

ušummu “dormouse”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-šu-um-mi WBC vii 21. ú-šu-um-⌈maWBA iv 37. ⌈ú⌉-šu-um-mu WBC iva 16. ú-šum-[mu-ú] WBA vii 9. ú-šum-[mi] NeKA ii 9’.

 

Secondary literature

 

Da Riva 2012, 66b.

 

utlu “lap”

 

OB lit. lurtâ[mam?] i-nu-ut-li-ka rabbi? PRAK 1 B 472 i 4 “I want to make lov[e with (you) in your soft(?) lap”.

MPS

 

utnēnu II “to pray”

 

References

 

G Ug. [an]a Marduk anāku at-na-ni-šu at-na-ni-šu “[t]o Marduk I pray(?), I pray(?)” ORA 7, 208: 33’.

 

utrű

only CAD 337b

See uDDuru I.

 

utuḫḫu, ituḫḫu (a kind of bread); Ur III, OB

 

1. Note the new spelling in Ur III: NINDA ů-túḫ-ḫu-um-ŠČ YBC 3637 i 14; BM 103455 r. 15, Puzriš-Dagan “(fine flour and fine kum-flour) for u.-bread”. S. Brunke 2011, 149ff.

            Ur III also in Garšana: NINDA u4-tuḫ-ḫu-um- ŠČ CUSAS 3, 1077: 3 “(60 liters of fine kum-flour, 10 liters of fine flour) for u.-bread”.

            Note with Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 358, the spelling ě-tuḫ-ḫu-um at Isin.

 

2. First OB reference with new spelling: NINDA ě-tuḫ-ḫu-um NBC 7236: 3 (BIN 10, 184). S. Brunke 2011, 149ff.

NR

 

utullu “herdsman”

 

Pl. utullānu (not in the dictionaries): LB amaš-ḫa-a-ni u ú-tu-la-ni FS W. G. Lambert 203, 46: 3 (inc.) “sheepfolds and herdsmen”. See also amašḫu.

NR

 

uwaru

only CAD 359b

See uDDuru I.

 

uznu “ear; wisdom, understanding”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: uz-na-a-šu WBA i 15. [u]z-na-a-a WBC viii 43. ú-[uz-na-a-š]u ib. ia 14.