ṣabaʾu s. zabaʾu

 

ṣabāʾu “to take the field”

D 1. OAkk. PN šar GN u-ṣa-bi-ŕm-ma RIME 2, 104 i 13’ “PN, king of GN, took the field”. u-ṣa-b[i]-ŕm-ma ib. 107 v 9’.

2. OB ú-ṣa-ab-bé-em-ma Haul 2009, 332: 6’ (cf. also l. 8’, broken) “I took the field”; 9 ṣu-ub-bi-[i]m? [uša]tbīšunūšim ib. 3’’ “[I ra]ised 9 expeditions against them”.

MPS

 

ṣabāru “to prattle”

G SB ša elītī iṣ-bu-ru ORA 7, 320: 63 “he who prattled insincerity against me”.

N SB [šap?-ta?]-a it-taṣ-ba-ra ana mušadbibī ORA 7, 322: 71 “my [lips(?)] prattled against my slanderer”; cf. it-ta-aṣ⌉-ba-r[u?] ib. 64.

MPS

 

+ ṣabītānu “like a gazelle (designation of a snake)”

Emar [muš-maš]- = ṣa-bi-ta-nu Emar 551: 4. Corresponds to Ḫḫ XIV 32 ṣabītu (AHw. ṣabītu 6), s. MSL 8/2, 8. s. DCCLT MB Ura 9.

MPS

 

ṣabītu “gazelle”

1. OA ṣa-bi4-tam āmurma OA Sarg. 13 “I saw a gazelle”; ṣa-bi4-tám aṣbat ib. 17 “I caught the gazelle”.

2. SB MAŠ.DŔ esrat šāri Westenholz 1997, 44: 52 (Sg. Birth Legend) “gazelle, enclosed by the wind”. Uncl. iṣ-rat without transl. CAD L 241 lulīmu 1 and “driven by the wind” Westenholz ib. p. 45.

MPS

 

ṣabru “blinker; twittering”

MB lit. ⌈uršī kīma ṣa-ab-[ra-]tim ALL no. 11: 10 “my [bed]room is like twittering (birds)”.

MPS

 

ṣabtu “captured; taken”

 

ṣābu, ṣabʾu(?) “people; troops”

Uncertain: MA NAGAR ů ṣab-ʾa ka-na-ma-ri ar-ḫíš lu-ub-lu-né “One carpenter and a workman(?) bring quickly here in the morning!” Chuera 1: 4–6. S. Jakob, ib. p. 41, reads pír-ʾu “sprout” which he understands as “Lehrling”. The reading ṣabʾu is based on the hypothesis of a MA variant ṣabʾu, such as kūṣu “winter” has an OA variant kuṣʾu.

MPS

 

ṣāʾidu “roaming, restless, hunter”

Denoting a hunter (cf. ṣayyādu): OB ṣa-ʾě-di UET 7, 73 iv 170 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) “hunter” (following entries denoting trappers and hunters).

MPS

 

ṣallal(l)u “a night bird; name of a snake”; + OB

1. OB ṣa-al-la-lu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 57 (in list of birds).

2. Emar, as name of a snake: [MIN (= muš)?-]nú-a = ṣa-la-lu Emar 551 p. 117 D 6 (Ḫḫ XIV) “sleeping, lurking”.

MPS

 

+ ṣallātu “time of sleeping”

SB [i]na muṣlālu ina ṣal-la-a-ti ORA 7, 318: 19 “during siesta time, during the time of sleeping”. Cf. ṣallūtu “sleep” and for context šimētān.

MPS

 

ṣalmāt qaqqadi the black-headed ones, people

 

ṣalmu II “effigy, image

 

+ Ṣammuratu, pl. Ṣummurātu “a type of sheep”; Early Mari; WSem lw.;

s. also Ṣamru

1. Mari 1 U8a-mu-ra-tum ARM 24, 45: 4; 98 UDU ḫa-la-atu-mu-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 1; 94 SILA4.GA šau-mu-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 4; 2 ME 7 Ṣu-mu-ra-tum ARM 24, 51: 5; 1 me-at 4 UDU.NÍTAḫi.a šau-mu-ra-tum ARM 24, 51: 6; 72 ḫa-la-atu-mu-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 18. For further ref. s. Krebernik 2003, 306.

2. There are two f. pl. forms from the root Ṣmr in Mari: Ṣa-ma-ra-tum and Ṣu-mu-ra-tum, which Krebernik 2003, 308 explains as nominal paras-āt and purrus-āt forms from G- and D-stems respectively (for Ṣa-ma-ra-tum s. Ṣamru below). The f. sg. Ṣa-mu-ra-tum could be the old version of the nominal form purrus, parrus, and therefore, present the sg. form to Ṣu-mu-ra-tum. An alternative explanation is that Ṣu-mu-ra-tum is a phonetic variant of Ṣamratu and belongs under Ṣamru (Krebernik 2003, 311). After Krebernik, id. 307f. Ṣu-mu-ra-tum is either an Adjective or a Substantive. He understands it as a loanword from Amorite (id. 308). For possible etymological connections s. Ṣamru. S. also Streck 2000, 116.

NR

 

+ Ṣamru; f. amratu(m), pl. Ṣamarātu (a type of sheep); OAkk Tuttul, Early Mari; WSem lw.

s. also Ṣammuratu

1. Tuttul 2 UDU Ṣa-am-ra-tum úa-am-ru-um Studies Fronzaroli 312, 2: 3a, b; 1 UDU Ṣa-am-ru-um id., 313, 3: 2, 6; 4: 5, 6; 1 UDU Ṣu!-am-ra-am id., 315, 7: 4, 6; 1 UDU Ṣu-am-ra-tum id., 315, 7: 18; 1 UDU [Ṣu]-am!-ra-ta-am id., 315, 7: 12; 2 UDU Ṣa-am-ra-tá-an id., 314, 5: 7; Ṣu-am!-ra-ta-in id., 315, 7: 1; 77 UDU Ṣa-ma-ra-tum id., 314, 6: 1.

2. Mari 76 UDU ḫa-la-ata-ma-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 2; 74 SILA4.GA <ša?> Ṣa-ma-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 3; 1 me-at 76 UDU.NÍTAḫi.a ša a-ma-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 7; 1 me-at 91 Ṣa-ma-ra-tum ARM 24, 51: 8; 2 ME 70 Ṣa-ma-ra-tumḫi.a ARM 24, 51: 16; 79 ḫa-la-ata-ma-ra-tim ARM 24, 51: 20. For further ref. s. Krebernik 2003, 306.

3. Amor. lw., after Krebernik 2003, 309 either a substantive or a subst. adjective. The f. forms differ from Akkadian (id. 309f.): cf. e.g. a-ma-ra-tum with expected in Akk. *Ṣamrātu. Etymologically Krebernik, id. 312, connects Ṣmr with Semitic *ḍamr- “wool” (Gəʾəz ḍamr, Hebr. *ṣamr, syr. ʿamrā). Note also Hebr. *zamr “caprid” (Zadok via Krebernik 2003, 312, note 39). ḏmr “to protect” and Arab. ʾasmaru “brown, yellow” (Krebernik id.) seem barely connected to Ṣmr. S. also Streck 2000, 116f.

NR

 

ṣapru “squinting”

1. SB ana īni ṣa-pi-ir-ti ikkelemma GN ORA 7, 318: 9 “GN looks angrily at the squinting eye”.

2. Cf. CAD ṣabāru A and ṣapāru A, AHw ṣabāru I and ṣabru.

MPS

 

ṣarāpu I“to burn”

OB lit. ina ṣēriya ṣú-ru-up lalâka YOS 11, 24 i 24 “burn your craven upon me!” The ref. with lalű listed in AHw. s. v. ṣarāpu II “laut äußern” also belong to ṣarāpu “to burn”, and the verb is probably to be deleted altogether.

 

ṣarāpu II “to become loud”

D SB (lamentation priest) ša ṣur-ru-pu //-up nubűšu Jiménez 2017, 254: 46 “whose wailing had been made loud”.

 

ṣarbatu “Euphrates poplar(?)”

SB kīma bīni [gišÁSA]L ul šīr ilū[ti? atta?] [kīm]a gišimmari šar iṣ[ṣī] iniib[ka? ul? innakkal?] Jiménez 2017, 174 II 16f. “(un)like tamarisk, [o popla]r, [you(?) are] not divin[e(?)] flesh. (Un)like that of date palm, [your(?)] fruit is [not(?) edible(?)]”.

Disc.: On the botanical identification with Euphrates poplar cf. Jiménez 2017, 213–217.

 

+ ṣāripu “dyer”; OB

OBṣa-ri-pi UET 7, 73 iii 98 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) “dyers”. For the participle cf. also AHw 1084 ṣarāpu I 2b and 5b.

MPS

 

ṣāriru flashing red (a gold alloy; a star)

SB AfO Bh. 32: a-ri-ri WBA vii 37; WBC ib 12*, iiia 5. a-⌈ri⌉-[ri] WBA iii 44. [ṣa]-ri-ri ib. v 24.

 

+ ṣarriḫtum “wailing woman”

Cf. CAD M/2, 241 s. v. muṣarriḫtu “wailing woman” and AHw. 1086 s. v. ṣarriḫu “strahlend” (wrong).

MPS

 

ṣayyaḫu “enjoyable”

SB ana inbīya ṣa-a-a-ḫu- i-ri-iš apâtu Jiménez 2017, 248: 9 “humanity exults(!) at my enjoyable fruits”.

 

ṣayyāḫu “laughing (name of a bird)”; + OB

OB ṣa-ya-ḫu-ummeš Edubba’a 7, 100: 66 (in list of birds). Black/Al-Rawi 1987, 124 and Al-Rawi/Dalley 2000, 106 correct the clear ya to aḫ which is unneccesary. Veldhuis 2004, 304 reads za-pi-ḫu-um and connects it with zŕ-pi-ḫu-ummušen attested twice in Sum. context.

MPS

 

ṣeḫru I “small; young”

 

ṣēlu, ṣēru “rib”

OB 30 ṣe-ri ina libbiša a[d] Finkel 2014: 13 “I erected in it (the ship) 30 ribs”; birīt ṣē-e-ri⌉-ša “between its ribs” ib. 29. For the ribs of a ship s. AHw. 1090 ṣēlu 3f and s. the disc. in Finkel 2014 p. 167f.

MPS

 

ṣerretu I “leading rope”

After Borger 2008, 444f. ṣerrēt šamāmi means “the udder(s) of heaven” instead of “lead-rope of heaven” (s. his disc. in JCS 18, 55f. and BiOr 22, 166 to p. 135b.). According to this interpretation, all the instances in CAD Ṣ 135, 4a belong to ṣertu “udder”, s. here below. S. also ṣerrēt šamāmi petű under petű II “to open”.

NR

 

ṣēru, ṣerru, OA, SB ṣarʾu “snake”

1. ṣa-ar-a-am aštakanma OA Sarg. 16 “I provided myself with a snake” (as replacement for a girdle).

2. Colors: peṣű “white”, ṣalmu “black”, sāmu “red”, b[urr]umu “multicolored” Emar 551 p. 117 D 6–10 (Ḫḫ XIV).

MPS

 

ṣertu, ṣerretu II “nipple teat, udder”

According to Borger 2008, 444f., the passages from CAD Ṣ 135, 4a belong to ṣertu (s. also ṣerretu and petű II here): ṣer-re-it šamę rapšūti lippetâ-šú 5R 33 vii 18 (Agum-kakrime) “the udders of vast heaven shall be opened for him (and the clouds […] rain)”; [muša]znin nalši ina ṣer-ret šamāmi AfO 19, 61: 9 (LB) “he (Marduk) lets dew fall down from the udder of heaven”; ištu ṣé-re-et šamę urdūni JCS 9, 10: 10 (OB) “(the diseases) have come down from the udders of heaven”; etc. S. also the new passage ṣerrēt šamę ippattīʾā-ma zunnū ina šamę ibbaššű RA 67, 42: 18 (OB ext., s. CAD P 356b, 10a2’ and petű II here) “the udders of heaven will be opened and rain from heaven will descend”. S. also Horowitz 2011, 262f. (with similar expressions in Sumerian with ubur an-na “teat of heaven”).

NR

 

ṣēru “back, upperside; steppe, open country”

S. also ṣēlu.

 

ṣiāḫu, ṣiāku “to laugh”

1. Variant ṣiāku in OB lit.:

a) libbī i-ṣí-ik CUSAS 10, 8: 2 “my heart laughed”.

b) tammaršuma libbaka i-ṣa-ak RA 101, 64: 24 “you will s. him and your heart will laugh”.

c) The form probably has nothing to do with “spirantization” but reflects a root variant also known from Aram. (d/gḥk) and Arab. (ḍḥk);  s. also Ug. and Hebr. //śḥq, Eth. šḥq. Note that CUSAS 10, 8 has ṣí-ḫa-at l. 3 and ṣí-ḫa-as-sŕ l. 13.

MPS

 

+ṣibbitu “golden decorative element”; OB Mari

1. KŮ.SIG17 SŮ.A ana iḫzi ša GÍR GN ša ṣí-bi-tim ARM 31, p. 138 M. 5284 “(…) of fine gold for plating of GN dagger, of .-element”.

2. 1 nēmettum muḫḫaša u išissa KŮ.SIG17 uḫḫuz lišānša ṣí-ib-bi-it KŮ.SIG17 ARM 31, p. 138 M.5291 “a n.-lance, whose top and base are inlayed with gold and whose blade (is) golden ṣ.”.

For . as a decorative element of a vase s. ARM 31, 203: 7 s.v. baḫiltu. For disc. and further ref.s s. Guichard, ARM 31, 137ff.

NR

 

ṣīḫtu “laughter”

OB birqum ša ṣí-ḫa-tim ALL no. 1 i 12f. “lightning of love-making”, s. ḫašḫūru; anaṭṭal šapāram ša ṣi-ḫa-ti-ia ib. 11f. “I am looking for a message of my delight”.

MPS

 

ṣillu “shade, shadow; protection

 

ṣimdu I “binding; (yoke-)team; fixed plan

OB lit. kakkī irnitti[m] […] limḫurā ṣi-im-di-i[š] Westenholz 1997, 192: 12 “may [your hands(?)] hold the weapons of victory like a yoke team”.

MPS

 

+ ṣimű “thirst, desire”

SB ṣi-me-e libbišu zaqīqumma ORA 7, 320: 61 “may the thirst of his heart be wind”.

MPS

 

ṣuḫāru “boy”

Said of insects: SB 2 ṣu-ḫa-re-e attalad Jiménez 2017, 302: 9 “I hereby create 2 pipsqueaks”.

 

ṣūḫu “laugther”

MB lit. lubāʾma ṣú-ú-ḫi-⌉ ALL no. 11 r. 3 “may I walk along with laughter”.

MPS

 

ṣuḫurtu “the young; young woman(?)”

MB lit. ṣú-uḫ-ra-ti-im?⌉ ALL no. 11: 14 “young woman (?)”

MPS

 

ṣulūlu roof, canopy

 

ṣupru “(finger/toe-)nail; claw; hoof; (also name of an aromatic)”

NB as an aromatic, also ṣupur tâmti “claw of the sea”:

a) ˝ MA.NA ṣu-pur A.AB.BA BM 54060 ii 7’

b) šimṣu-pur BM 77429: 24); ˝ MA.NA ṣu-pur a-na ⌈1 ˝(?) GÍN⌉ KŮ.BABBAR (CT 55, 382: 10). For disc. and etym. s. Jursa 2009, 154.

NR

 

ṣurru II “heart”

OB lit. nūḫ ṣú-ur-ri kīn išdīka YOS 11, 21: 26 “calm down, my heart, make firm your base!”

MPS