ṣabātu “to seize, take; hold”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: i-ṣa-[ba-at] 7: 7’. iṣ-ṣa-[ba-at] 8: 49’. i-ṣa-bu-tu 8: 47’. i-ṣa-bu-tu-né 7: 8’’. a-ṣa-bat 8: 36’.

 

D MA BATSH 4/1: ú-ṣa-ba!(NA)-at 12: 37 (uncertain). [úṣ]-ṣa-bi-tu-né-šu-nu 13: 24. nu-ṣa-bi-ta-ni 18: 33. nu-ṣ[a-bi-it] 18: 32.

 

Š MA BATSH 4/1: ul-ta-aṣ-bi-it 2: 7, 10; 14: 12. ša-aṣ-bu-te 2: 26. ul-ta-a[ṣ-b]i-it 5: 14’. [ul-ta-aṣ-b]i-it 5: 7.

SB AfO Bh. 32:  [ú-ša]-aṣ-bi-it WBC ix 52. ú-ša-aṣ-bi-it-si-na-a-ti WBC viii 31.

 

ṣabaʾu

 

See zabaʾu.

 

ṣabāʾu “to take the field”

 

D (not in AHw and CAD, but cf. CDA): OAkk. PN šar GN u-ṣa-bi-ŕm-ma RIME 2, 104 i 13’ “PN, king of GN, took the field”. u-ṣa-b[i]-ŕm-ma ib. 107 v 9’. OB ú-ṣa-ab-bé-em-ma Haul 2009, 332: 6’ (cf. also l. 8’, broken) “I took the field”. 9 ṣu-ub-bi-[i]m? [uša]tbīšunūšim ib. 3’’ “[I ra]ised 9 expeditions against them”.

MPS

 

ṣabītānu “like a gazelle (designation of a snake)”

not in the dictionaries

 

Emar: [muš-maš]- = ṣa-bi-ta-nu Emar 551: 4. Corresponds to Ḫḫ XIV 32 ṣabītu (AHw. ṣabītu 6), see MSL 8/2, 8. See DCCLT MB Ura 9.

MPS

 

ṣabītu “gazelle”

 

1. OA ṣa-bi4-tam āmurma OA Sarg. 13 “I saw a gazelle”. ṣa-bi4-tám aṣbat ib. 17 “I caught the gazelle”.

 

2. SB MAŠ.DŔ esrat šāri Westenholz 1997, 44: 52 (Sg. Birth Legend) “gazelle, enclosed by the wind”. Uncl. iṣ-rat without transl. CAD L 241 lulīmu 1 and “driven by the wind” Westenholz ib. p. 45.

MPS

 

ṣabru “blinker; twittering”

 

MB lit. in the mng. “twittering”: u]ršī kīma ṣa-ab-[ra-]tim ALL no. 11: 10 “my [bed]room is like twittering (birds)”.

MPS

 

ṣabtu “captured; taken”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ṣa-bu-tu-tu 2: 19. ṣa-ab-bu-tu-[ni] 8: 39’.

 

ṣābu, ṣabʾu(?) “people; troops”

 

Uncertain: MA NAGAR ů ṣab-ʾa ka-na-ma-ri ar-ḫíš lu-ub-lu-né “One carpenter and a workman(?) bring quickly here in the morning!” Chuera 1: 4–6. S. Jakob, ib. p. 41, reads pír-ʾu “sprout” which he understands as “Lehrling”. The reading ṣabʾu is based on the hypothesis of a MA variant ṣabʾu, such as kūṣu “winter” has an OA variant kuṣʾu.

MPS

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ERÍN.MEŠ 2: 4, 6, 12, 15, 18, 19, 22, 55, 57, 59; 3: 10, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33; 4: 9; 7: 17’’; 10: 17, 20, 25; 11: 7; 15: 18; 17: 11, 12, 13; 18: 30, 32; 22: 5; 25: 2’; 28: 6’; 8: 25’, 34’, 38’, 54’; 26: 2’. [ER]ÍN.MEŠ 28: 5’’. ERÍN.MEŠ-ia 13: 23. ERÍN.MEŠ-šu-nu 6: 34’.

 

ṣāʾidu “roaming, restless, hunter”

 

Denoting a hunter (cf. ṣayyādu): OB ṣa-ʾě-di UET 7, 73 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) iv 170 “hunter” (following entries denoting trappers and hunters).

MPS

 

ṣalāʾu “to throw, lay (down)”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ta-ṣa-al-li 9: 38.

 

ṣallal(l)u (a night bird; name of a snake)

 

1. OB: First OB ref.: ṣa-al-la-lu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 57 (in list of birds).

 

2. Emar: As name of a snake: [MIN (= muš)?-]nú-a = ṣa-la-lu Emar 551 p. 117 D 6 ( Ḫḫ XIV) “sleeping, lurking”.

MPS

 

ṣalmāt qaqqadi the black-headed ones, people

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: a-al-ma-at qá-qá-du WBC x 39.

 

ṣalmu II “effigy, image

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣa-lam WBC x 7. [ṣ]a-lam ib. ix 51.

 

ṣamāru to wish, strive for

 

Indices

 

D SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-ṣa-am-ma-ar WBC ib 3*. ú-ṣa-ma-a[r] WBA iii 32.

 

Ṣammuratu, pl. Ṣummurātu (a type of sheep); WSem lw.; Early Mari

not in the dictionaries; s. also Ṣamru

 

1. Mari: 1 U8a-mu-ra-tum (ARM 24, 45: 4); 98 UDU ḫa-la-atu-mu-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 1); 94 SILA4.GA šau-mu-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 4); 2 ME 7 Ṣu-mu-ra-tum (ARM 24, 51: 5); 1 me-at 4 UDU.NÍTAḫi.a šau-mu-ra-tum (ARM 24, 51: 6); 72 ḫa-la-atu-mu-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 18). For further ref. s. Krebernik 2003, 306.

 

2. There are two f. pl. forms from the root Ṣmr in Mari: Ṣa-ma-ra-tum and Ṣu-mu-ra-tum, which Krebernik 2003, 308 explains as nominal paras-āt and purrus-āt forms from G- and D-stems respectively (for Ṣa-ma-ra-tum s. Ṣamru below). The f. sg. Ṣa-mu-ra-tum could be the old version of the nominal form purrus, parrus, and therefore, present the sg. form to Ṣu-mu-ra-tum.  An alternative explanation is that Ṣu-mu-ra-tum is a phonetic variant of Ṣamratu and belongs under Ṣamru (Krebernik 2003, 311). After Krebernik, id. 307f. Ṣu-mu-ra-tum is either an Adjective or a Substantive. He understands it as a loanword from Amorite (id. 308). For possible etymological connections s. Ṣamru. S. also Streck 2000, 116.

NR

 

Ṣamru; f. amratu(m), pl. Ṣamarātu (a type of sheep); WSem lw.; OAkk Tuttul, Early Mari

not in the dictionaries; s. also Ṣammuratu

 

1. Tuttul: 2 UDU Ṣa-am-ra-tum úa-am-ru-um Studies Fronzaroli 312, 2: 3a, b; 1 UDU Ṣa-am-ru-um id., 313, 3: 2, 6; 4: 5, 6; 1 UDU Ṣu!-am-ra-am id., 315, 7: 4, 6; 1 UDU Ṣu-am-ra-tum id., 315, 7: 18; 1 UDU [Ṣu]-am!-ra-ta-am id., 315, 7: 12; 2 UDU Ṣa-am-ra-tá-an id., 314, 5: 7; Ṣu-am!-ra-ta-in id., 315, 7: 1; 77 UDU Ṣa-ma-ra-tum id., 314, 6: 1.

 

2. Mari: 76 UDU ḫa-la-ata-ma-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 2); 74 SILA4.GA <ša?> Ṣa-ma-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 3); 1 me-at 76 UDU.NÍTAḫi.a ša a-ma-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 7); 1 me-at 91 Ṣa-ma-ra-tum (ARM 24, 51: 8); 2 ME 70 Ṣa-ma-ra-tumḫi.a (ARM 24, 51: 16); 79 ḫa-la-ata-ma-ra-tim (ARM 24, 51: 20). For further ref. s. Krebernik 2003, 306.

 

3. Ṣamrum, a loanword from Amorite, is after Krebernik 2003, 309 either a Substantive or a subst. Adjective. The f. forms differ from Akkadian (id. 309f.): cf. e.g. a-ma-ra-tum with expected in Akk. *Ṣamrātu. Etymologically Krebernik, id. 312, connects Ṣmr with Semitic *ḍamr- “wool” (Gəʾəz ḍamr, Hebr. *ṣamr, syr. ʿamrā). Note also Hebr. *zamr “caprid” (Zadok via Krebernik 2003, 312, note 39). ḏmr “to protect” and Arab. ʾasmaru “brown, yellow” (Krebernik id.) seem barely connected to Ṣmr. S. also Streck 2000, 116f.

NR

 

ṣapsu (a garment)

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣa-ap-šu WBC vii 13.

 

ṣapű II “to soak, drench”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: li-iṣ-pu-ú 8: 29’.

 

ṣarāpu “to burn”

 

OB lit. ina ṣēriya ṣú-ru-up lalâka YOS 11, 24 i 24 “burn your craven upon me!” The ref. with lalű listed in AHw. s. v. ṣarāpu II “laut äußern” also belong to ṣarāpu “to burn”, and the verb is probably to be deleted altogether.

MPS

 

ṣarbu poplar

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: gišṣa-ar-ba-ti-[o]- WBC ix 46.

 

ṣāripu “dyer”

not in the dictionaries

 

OBṣa-ri-pi UET 7, 73 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) iii 98 “dyers” *. For the participle cf. also AHw 1084 ṣarāpu I 2b and 5b.

MPS

 

ṣāriru flashing red (a gold alloy; a star)

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: a-ri-ri WBA vii 37; WBC ib 12*, iiia 5. a-ri-[ri] WBA iii 44. [ṣa]-ri-ri ib. v 24.

 

ṣarriḫtum “wailing woman”

not in the dict.

 

Cf. CAD M/2, 241 s. v. muṣarriḫtu “wailing woman” and AHw. 1086 s. v. ṣarriḫu “strahlend” (wrong).

MPS

 

ṣayyāḫu “laughing (name of a bird)”

 

First OB ref.: ṣa-ya-ḫu-ummeš Edubba’a 7, 100: 66 (in list of birds). Black/Al-Rawi 1987, 124 and Al-Rawi/Dalley 2000, 106 correct the clear ya to aḫ which is unneccesary. Veldhuis 2004, 304 reads za-pi-ḫu-um and connects it with zŕ-pi-ḫu-ummušen attested twice in Sum. context.

MPS

 

ṣeḫru I “small; young”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ṣe-eḫ-ra 16: 22. TUR 17: 12.

 

ṣēlu, ṣēru “rib”

 

The by-form ṣēru is attested twice in an OB text: 30 ṣe-ri ina libbiša a[d] “I erected in it (the ship) 30 ribs” Finkel 2014: 13 and birīt ṣē-e-ri-ša “between its ribs” ib. 29. For the ribs of a ship see AHw. 1090 ṣēlu 3f and see the disc. in Finkel 2014 p. 167f.

MPS

 

ṣerretu I “leading rope”

 

After Borger 2008, 444f. ṣerrēt šamāmi means “the udder(s) of heaven” instead of “lead-rope of heaven” (s. his disc. in JCS 18, 55f. and BiOr 22, 166 to p. 135b.). According to this interpretation, all the instances in CAD Ṣ 135, 4a belong to ṣertu “udder”, s. here below. S. also ṣerrēt šamāmi petű under petű II “to open”.

NR

 

ṣēru, ṣerru, OA and SB ṣarʾu “snake”

 

1) ṣa-ar-a-am aštakanma OA Sarg. 16 “I provided myself with a snake” (as replacement for a girdle).

 

2) Colors: peṣű “white”, ṣalmu “black”, sāmu “red”, b[urr]umu “multicolored” Emar 551 p. 117 D 6–10 (Ḫḫ XIV).

MPS

 

ṣertu, ṣerretu II “nipple teat, udder”

 

According to Borger 2008, 444f., the passages from CAD Ṣ 135, 4a belong to ṣertu (s. also ṣerretu and petű II here): ṣer-re-it šamę rapšūti lippetâ-šú 5R 33 vii 18 (Agum-kakrime) “the udders of vast heaven shall be opened for him (and the clouds […] rain)”; [muša]znin nalši ina ṣer-ret šamāmi AfO 19, 61: 9 (LB) “he (Marduk) lets dew fall down from the udder of heaven”; ištu ṣé-re-et šamę urdūni JCS 9, 10: 10 (OB) “(the diseases) have come down from the udders of heaven”; etc. S. also the new passage ṣerrēt šamę ippattīʾā-ma zunnū ina šamę ibbaššű RA 67, 42: 18 (OB ext., s. CAD P 356b, 10a2’ and petű II here) “the udders of heaven will be opened and rain from heaven will descend”. S. also Horowitz 2011, 262f. (with similar expressions in Sumerian with ubur an-na “teat of heaven”).

NR

 

ṣēru “back, upperside; steppe, open country”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ṣe-ri 8: 55’.

 

ṣiāḫu, ṣiāku “to laugh”

 

OB lit. Form with k instead of : libbī i-ṣí-ik CUSAS 10, 8: 2 “my heart laughed”. tammaršuma libbaka i-ṣa-ak RA 101, 64: 24 “you will see him and your heart will laugh”. The form probably has nothing to do with “spirantization” but reflects a root variant also known from Aram. (d/gḥk) and Arab. (ḍḥk); see also Ug. and Hebr. //śḥq, Eth. šḥq. Note that CUSAS 10, 8 has ṣí-ḫa-at l. 3 and ṣí-ḫa-as-sŕ l. 13.

MPS

 

+ṣibbitu (golden decorative element); OB Mari

 

ṣ. occurs in OB Mari only in context of goldsmithing. It was used for ceremonial weapons and luxury vases (Guichard, ARM 31, p. 137f.):

… KŮ.SIG17 SŮ.A ana iḫzi ša GÍR GN ša ṣí-bi-tim M. 5284 (ARM 31, p. 138) “… of fine gold for plating of  GN dagger, of .-element”. 1 nēmettum muḫḫaša u išissa KŮ.SIG17 uḫḫuz lišānša ṣí-ib-bi-it KŮ.SIG17 M.5291 (ARM 31, p. 138) “a n.-lance, whose top and base are inlayed with gold and whose blade (is) golden ṣ.”. For . as a decorative element of a vase s. ARM 31, 203: 7 under baḫiltu. For disc. and further ref.s s. Guichard, ARM 31, 137ff.

NR

 

ṣīḫtu “laughter”

 

OB birqum ša ṣí-ḫa-tim ALL 1 i 12f. “lightning of love-making”, see ḫašḫūru. anaṭṭal šapāram ša ṣi-ḫa-ti-ia ib. 11f. “I am looking for a message of my delight”.

MPS

 

ṣillu “shade, shadow; protection

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣi-il-li-šu  WBC viii 34. GISSU-šu-nu WBA iii 19.

 

ṣimdu I “binding; (yoke-)team; fixed plan

 

OB lit. kakkī irnitti[m] [..]. limḫurā ṣi-im-di-i[š] Westenholz 1997, 192: 12 “may [your hands(?)] hold the weapons of victory like a yoke team”.

MPS

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32:  ṣi-in-du-ú-a WBC x 17.

 

ṣippatu “fruit orchard

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣip-pa-ti WBA vii 12 ; NeKA ii 13’. ṣi-ip-pa-a-tim WBC vii 23. ṣi-[i]p-p[a-ti] WBA iv 43. ṣi-[ip-pa-ti] NeKC1: 2’. [ṣi]-ip-pa-a-tim WBC iva 19. [ṣi-ip]-pa-a-ti WBA xii 5’.

 

ṣīru I exalted, supreme, splendid, outstanding

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣi-i-ri WBC ia 4, vii 2; NeKC2: 1. ṣi-ri WBA i 4. ṣi-i-[r]i WBC vi 1. ṣi-i-[ri] ib. ix 9. ṣi-[i-ri] WBA ix 7. [ṣi-i]-ri ib. vi 6. ṣi-ir-ti WBC iiia 16, vi 9. ṣi-i[r-ti] WBA v 35. ir-[ti] ib. ix 34. ir-[ti] ib. ix 14. ṣi-[ir-ti] WBC vi 35. []i-ir-ti ib. vi 6. ṣi-ra-a-ti ib. vi 23. ṣi-i-ru-ti ib. ix 16.

 

ṣītu exit; (sun-)rise; issue

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32 (in ṣīt šamši): dUTU.Č WBC v 27, vi 52. dUTU.Č WBA viii 34. [d]UTU.Č WBC ivb 13*; NeKA ii 40’. dUTU.Č NeKA i 5’.

 

ṣubātu “textile, garment”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: TÚG 6: 10’ (uncertain).

 

ṣūḫu “laugther”

 

Note the terminative in MB lit. lubāʾma ṣú-ú-ḫi- ALL no. 11 r. 3 “may I walk along with laughter”.

MPS

 

ṣuḫurtu “the young; young woman(?)”

 

MB lit., prob. in the mng. “young woman”: ṣú-uḫ-ra-ti-im? ALL no. 11: 14.

MPS

 

ṣulūlu roof, canopy

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣu-lu-lu WBC iiib 28*. ṣú-lu-lu WBA vi 21. ṣú-lu-lu ib. vi 45. ṣú-lu-li NeKA iv 17’. [ṣu-lu]-lu WBC iiib 10*. ṣú-lu-li-ši-na WBA vi 26. ṣú-lu-l[i-ši-na] WBC iiib 13*. ṣú-l[u-li-ši-na] WBA iv 17. ṣ[u-ul-li-ša] WBC viii 63.

 

ṣumāmu thirst

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ṣu-ma-me WBA iii 14.

 

ṣupru “(finger/toe-)nail; claw; hoof; (also name of an aromatic)”

 

ṣupru, literally “claw”, or ṣupur tâmti, literally “claw of the sea”, occurs as an aromatic

in three NB texts, two prescriptions for making incense and an administrative text: ˝ MA.NA ṣu-pur A.AB.BA (BM 54060 ii 7’); šimṣu-pur (BM 77429: 24); ˝ MA.NA ṣu-pur a-na 1 ˝(?) GÍN KŮ.BABBAR (CT 55, 382: 10).

            Jursa 2009, 154 identifies ṣupru in these texts as “Räucherklaue” (= onycha), which is also known as an aromatic for making incense from other Semitic languages: see Syriac ṭeprā “onycha, aromatic substance” (Sokoloff 2009, 548a, meaning 5.) and Arabic ẓufr- or aẓfār- “a certain odoriferous substance <…> resembling <…> finger-nails <…> put into incense” (Lane 2003, 1913). In Hebrew the corresponding word is normally šəḥelet. Jursa 2009, 154f. refers, however, to Hebrew ṣipporen “claw”, which was used after the Palestinian Talmud for making incense for the Temple in Jerusalem. For the identification of onycha with Unguis odoratus s. Jursa 2009, 154 and Lane 2003, 1913.

NR

 

ṣurru II “heart”

 

OB lit. nūḫ ṣú-ur-ri kīn išdīka YOS 11, 21: 26 “calm down, my heart, make firm your base!”

MPS