Veenhof 2006, 294f. (see also AKT 6a, 56: 15; 58: 17) postulates the existence of an enclitic particle -pa (written BA = ) in OA. However, the mng. and use of this particle as described by Veenhof are more or less the same as that of the particle -ma: “used to express surprise or indignation, to give emphasis to a statement, to express a contrast, or frequently in a question ... linked to interrogatives such as mīnum, mannum and miššum”. Veenhof connects this alleged particle with Ugaritic -pa which is, however, a conjunction meaning “and (then)” (Tropper 2012 § 83.12). We may conclude that **-pa = -BA? is probably nothing more than a (graphic or phonetic?) variant of -ma, a conclusion corroborated by spellings of the type mě-nim-BA? and mi-nam-BA?, which can hardly be interpreted as mīnappa, mīnuppa(sic) as suggested by Veenhof 2006, 294 but easily as mīna/imma.



paʾāru “to search”


For OA KTS 1, 1a: 24 prob. s. bâru II.


paʾāṣu “to break up, crush”


1. For the reading i-pe-ṣ[i] (against AHw 807a i-pe-e[?!]) in Šurpu vii 6 (on K 5146+) see Lambert 1974, 83 and now also CAD P 1b.


2. Borger 2008, 438: distinction between paʾāṣu D, puṣṣű (CAD P 539a) and ḫussű (CAD Ḫ 257b) still unclear.



3. G “to separate(?)”: NA ip-ta-ṣ[u] SAA 13, 21: 14 in broken context.


4. D “to separate(?)”: NA PN ... urdē ša MÍ É.GAL ... up-te-ii-ṣi ana bēt PN2 ittidin SAA 16, 63: 11 “PN has separated(?) the servants of the queen ... (and) given (them) to the house of PN2”. For ú-pa-ṣi ib. 127: 21 cf. AHw. 807 p. D 2a “zerschlagen”, CAD P 2 p. 2b “he will crush”.



padakku (a grain storage facility)


Parpola 1979, 29 compares padakku with pitakku “a building” Nuzi (CAD P 434b).



padānu, padannu “way, path”


1. OB PN dI-šar-pa-dan-e-mu-qí “Išar-padān (‘Straight is the path’) is my strength” AbB 13, 126: 8, see CAD P 4 p. 1c for similar ref.


2. Emar: New by-form padannu: [GĚR] = pa!?-da-an-núm Emar 537: 486 (Sa Voc.).



3. Note the logogram ŠU+BAR for padānu in two OB omen texts TIM 9, 79: 8, 10 and 14; YOS 10, 17: 38, which could be understood as simplified form of usual GĚR (Mayer 2008, 94 with reference to Jeyes 1989, 54 and Glassner 2000/67).



padduga(n)nu (a cultic ceremony, meal)


Parpola 1979, 29 considers padduga(n)nu as a derivation from (ša) pān dDagan, comparing the spelling pa-an-du-ga-ni with ina É du-ga-ni DU-ku LKA 73, 8 and ina É dda-gan DU-ak CA 102, 40’.



padű “to spare, set free”


After Stol 2008, 349, translate padű with Maul 1994, 347f.: 14f.: erṣetim! limḫuranni [Í]D lip-danan-ni BM 33337 “die Erde möge (das Unheil) von mir entgegennehmen, [der Fl]uß möge mich verschonen”. See also Maul 1994, 348, note 19: “‘verschonen’ im Sinne von: Ersatz annehmen”.



pādu “handle”

not in the dictionaries


OB Mari [n] gišpa-du ša katappī FM 7, 30: 20 “[n] wooden handles for k.-weapons”. Cf. J.-M. Durand ib. p. 117 n. m–n: mistake for napādu ša katappī, attested in ARM 13, 22: 48 (coll.)? However, a substantivation of the adj. pādu “fixed, fastened” (CAD P 7) is possible.



pādű “forgiving”


Borger 2008, 438: For Iraq 29, 53: 8 and Streck Asb. 182: 49 (CAD P 7a) see now BIWA 159 C IX 8’ and 84: 49.



pâdu I “to confine, imprison”


1. Stol 2008, 349 considers pâdu A and B against CAD P 8 and 10 as one verb with the basic meaning (after AHw) “einschließen; festmachen”.


2. G, OB Mari, with two acc. objects: maškanam i-pa-du-ú-šu ARM 26/2, 70 no. 312: 9’ “they fettered him in a m.-chain”. For the expression maškanam padű in Mari see Durand ARM 26/1 p. 282f., a.


OB PN nāšpaḫallam ip-ta-as-sú FM 9 p. 270 no. 67: 26 “PN fettered him with a shackle”.



3. D, OB Mari, with two acc. objects: DUMUmeš šipri EL[AM.M]A[meš]  maškanam up-ta-i-du-šu-nu-ti  ARM 26/2 p. 165 no. 363: 27 “they have put the Elamite envoys in m.-fetters”.



pâdu II “fetter”

not in the dictionaries


GIŠ pa-di-im u maškanim ARM 26/1, 283, note 18, A. 3096 (Stol 2008, 349).



*padűtu mng. uncl. NB


padűtu is listed only in CDA 260a and corresponds probably pādūtu B “fastening” from CAD P 10. See pādūtu.



pādūtu “imprisonment, arrest”


After Stol 2008, 349 there is no difference between pādūtu A “fettering” and B “fastening” (CAD P 10).



pagalu (a libation vessel)


Borger 2008, 438 (CAD pagalu): “S. 10b pagalu) Van Driel, CA 130 V 25 und 124 I 8 auch

Menzel, Assyr. Tempel T 35 V 26’ bzw. T 32 I 8, dort bereits korrekt gelesen.


*paggallu (s. AHw 809a)

not in CDA


The reading of  MUŠEN.GAL ABL 368 r. 5 (SAA 13, 76) and SAA 7, 181: 1-4; r. 4 (CAD P 11a) is neither paggallu nor paspasu but iṣṣūru rabű (CAD I/J 214b; s. Stol 2008, 349; Borger 2008, 438). For MUŠEN.GAL-lum s. mušengallu.



pagrāʾu (a kind of sacrifice)


Disc. of etym. Streck 2000, 109.


pagru “body; corpse”


1. Note LU.BAD instead of usual LÚ.BAD in Susa (MDP 57, X (= Suse XII/4) r. 5-8). See Labat 1973, 57.


2. CAD P 12, la (Mayer 2008, 94): lu-um-ši pa-[ag-ri u ṣubātī] Gilg. Emar2 i 8’-9’ (ed. George p. 334) // [lu-um-š]i? pag-ri ů ṣu-ba-a-ti Gilg. VI 25 (ed. George p. 620) “should I neglect myself and my clothing”. As illness symptom: pagar(LÚ.BAD)-šú ma-ši “(if) he has forgotten his body (= if he is not aware of his physical condition) TDP 90: 14 // SpTU i 34: 13.

            CAD P 16a, 4, with eʾēlu: aB pa-ga-ar-ka e-il “bind yourself (by a contract)!” TCL 18, 88 = AbB 14, 142: 30.

            CAD P 15a, 3a3’: read in Streck Asb. 24 iii 9 iddű instead of iddűšu with BIWA 35 A III 9 and Borger 2008, 438.

            CAD P 15a, 3b1’ and 16a, 3b2’: The same passage is quoted twice on p. 15a and on p. 16a as Bauer Asb. 2, 87 r.7 and as Streck Asb. 214 r. 9, respectively (Borger 2008, 438). See for this passage also BIWA 330, K 2867 + …, Rs.

            CAD P 16a, 4: For naṣāru + pagru see also [pa-gŕr-š]a inaṣṣar LḪ §133 and [pa]-g[ŕ]r-ša lā iṣṣurma §133b (Borger 2008, 438).



pagű, pagītu; pegű, pegītu I “ape”


1. Emar: New by-forms pé-gu, pé-gi!-tum Emar 551: 35f. (Ḫḫ XIV 118f.; MSL 8/2, 16).



2. Note corr. for AHw pagű I: MSL 12, 184 (not 177): 42; 162 (not 155): 150 (Salonen 1970, 442).


3. CAD P 19a, disc.: After Borger 2008, 438f., the correct reading for the logogram of pagű in Akk. context is UGU.DUL.BI (not UGU.(U.)KU.BI as in CAD). See also Borger 2010, 395.


4. For the meaning “guenon” see Lion, CRRAI 38 (Paris 1992) 359f., note 22 (after Stol 2008, 349).


5. Mari, with exotic animal sŕ-ú-um (Ziegler 2004, 96, after Stol 2008, 349): [ů ta-ma]-ar-ta-šu-[n]u ša iš-tu ma-a-tim e-li-tim na-šu-ú [šum-m]a pa-gu!-ú šum-ma sŕ-ú-um [ša] ki-ma qí-iš-ti-ia [š]u-bi-la-nim A. 3297+: 40-42 “[And] their [pres]ent which they bring from the upper land, [whet]her an ape, whether a sāʾiyu-bird, send it as a gift for me!” See sāʾiyu.



*pagű II (a stringed instrument)

only CAD


After Borger 2008, 439 pagű II has to be deleted. See already Volk 1989, 202: 87 with correct reading of the only reference SBH 109 No. 56: 71f., quoted in CAD P 19a: mu-mu nar-e!-ne sa li-bí-ib-*sěg-*ge-*e-[ne] // ana šu-mi-ia na-a-ru ina pit-[ni? ul …] “Beim (Nennen) meines Namens schlagen die Musiker die Saite(n) nicht an”. See the comment of Volk p. 250: instead of pa-ge-e (thus CAD) read PA-ge-e = -*sěg-*ge-*e. Therefore, the logogram SA.LI (AHw 809; CAD 19) does not exist: SA corresponds to akk. pitnu and LI is a negation prefix. See also Borger 2010, 289.



pāgu (mng. uncl.)

not in the dictionaries


19 ŮZ Ů.TU-ma pa-a-ga u GEŠTUii nu-nu TUK “The 19th, a she-goat gave birth and (the kid) has ... and the ears of a fish” (Hunger / Sachs 1988, 198, n. 324 B r. 7). See Stol 2008, 349.



pagūmu (a harness strap)?


On the basis of the spelling KUŠ pa-a-gu-mu (EA 22 i 48) Salonen 1970, 442 considers the normalization pāgumu instead of pagūmu.



paḫādu “to dread, fear(?)”; Ug. WSem. lw. (?)

CAD: paḫādu (or paḫātu) v.; (mng. uncert.)


Huehnergard 1987, 166 connects the Ugaritic Akkadianized form lip-ḫu--ma (Ug. 5, 17 r. 7’) with Hebrew pāḥad and Targumic Aramaic paḥdā, both meaning “to fear” (compare AHw: “(kan. Fw.)”). The second (/) radical is uncertain because of the absence of alphabetic attestations.



paḫantarru “a blanket or cover”, Hurr. lw.


1. New spellings \ pa-ḫa-at-tá-ri in MB Qaṭna QS 3, 13: 9 and \ pa-ḫa-ta-ri QS 3, 18: 24.



2. See also Huehnergard 1987, 169 and Pentiuc 2001, 137. For new attestations in Emar see Ikeda 2003, 271a: túgpa-ḫa-da[-ra?] (BLMJ 13: 13’); [tú]gpa-ḫa-da-ru (BLMJ 23: 17).



pāḫānu “responsibility”

not in the dict.


MA 5 ēṣidū pa-ḫa-nu PN Subartu 14, 9: 9 “5 harvesters (in the) responsibility of PN”. Related to /īḫatu and perhaps also paḫnu (for the latter s. CAD P 33), cf. Radner Suratu 14 p. 89. 



paḫāru I “potter”, LB (a plant)


1. Relatively rarely spelled syllabically: MA pa-ḫa-ru Chuera 60: 5.



2. For ref. see also Salonen 1970, 442f.


3. p. designates also a plant: Ú LÚ.BÁḪAR ša ḫarru ina ziqqi tašakkan FS W. G. Lambert 176, 21A: 17 (s. also id. 21B r. 24) “you put <...> and ‘potter-plant’ from a ravine in a wineskin”. S. also Finkel id. 177 sub 17.



paḫāru II “to gather”


1. DRt Mari (not in the dictionaries): up-ta-ḫa-aḫ-ḫi-ru-ma ARM 1, 69: 15 (see NABU 1988, 17); ṣābum … ina māḫirim up-ta-ḫa-ḫi-ir-ma ana GN išši A 396 “the troops … have gathered together against the enemy and moved to GN” (Groneberg, RA 83 (1989) 30, C and note 21). See Stol 2008, 349 and Kouwenberg 2010, 440.



2. Št2 (2nd ref.) OB lit. uš-ta-pa-aḫ-ḫa-ru ittīka Gilg. RA 101, 59ff.: 21 “I shall gather with you” (instead of uštamaḫḫaru).



paḫāttu “fear”. Amor. lw.

not in the dictionaries


šum-ma ni-ḫi-it-tum-ma m[i]-im-ma it-ta-ab-ši [e-li]-ni! pa-ḫa-tu-um [la! iš-ša]-ak-ka-an ARM 5, 68: 18 “if any trouble comes up fear shall [not be] imposed [on] us”. Cf. Durand 1998 p. 98. šum-ma-an ... i-ša-ʾu5-ru-nim ú-la-ma-an pa-ḫa-at-tu-um [i]š-te-et-ma-an it-te-en6-pé-eš15 FM 2 p. 112f. no. 71: 10'–15'. “if they had ... helped me, there had not been happened a single case of fear”. ů pa?-ḫa-t[um? ...] FM 2 p. 27 no. 6 r. 1’. Cf. Streck 2000, 109; 2007, 151.



paḫāzu “to be arrogant”


NB ip-ḫi-z[a] SAA 17, 109: 17 in broken context.



paḫḫārūtu (?) “pottery making”; OB

not in the dictionaries


Stol 2004, 134 interprets VS 29, 20: 7 (hire of a person) either as ana sīrāšűtim (LUNGA-ut-tim) “for brewing” or as ana paḫḫārūtim (BÁḪAR-ut-tim) “for making pottery”.



paḫipʾetan? “for my sake(?)”


Hapax in MB Qaṭna, Hurrian word: \ pa-ḫé-ip-e-ta!(copy: ni-wa)-an QS 3, 4: 33, see the discussion ib. p. 63.



pāḫu “breathing”; NA; Aram. lw.

not in the dictionaries


NA: u ša ḫīṭūšunu pa-a-ḫi bēl šarrāni [rēma (?) (xx)] liškunšu SAA 10, 118: 5 “but let the lord of kings par[don] those whose guilt is (light) like breath; ša ḫīṭūšunu pa-[a-ḫi rēma] liškun-ma itti [ardēšu limnī] SAA 17, 83: 5’ “have [compassio]n on those whose crimes are (lig[ht) like breath], count (them) among [his servants]”. After Dietrich 2003, pāḫu is a lw. from Aram. pwḥ “to blow, breath”; pwḥʾ “breath, breeze”.



pāʾirānu “seeker”

not in the dictionaries


LB: [ina] libbiya pa-ir!-nu! [...] „[in] mir [findet] der Sucher“ SpTU 5, 225: 18 (Streck 2007, 151 with ZA 93 (2003) 139).


pakāru “to tie up”


The suggestion of Testen, JAOS 123, 592 (via Stol 2008, 353) to connect mng. 2 of the verb with piriktu I via a metathesis is uncertain.


pakku II, pikku (a metal object; a wooden object); Emar; NA


See for NA CAD P 36 p. B and for Emar: lu-uk-ki-iš = LAGAB = pa-ak-ku, pí-ik-ku Emar 545: 88f. (Ḫḫ V–VII) (it follows ḫaṭṭu).



*pakku C (mng. unkn.); NB

CAD P 36f.


The entry pakku C in CAD is based on a single attestation: alikma [r]ēḫi ša nasḫur pak-ku na-ad-na-ak!(DA)-ka esiramma ana Eanna šūribi YOS 7, 198: 15. See, however, San Nicolň 1954, 368, who interprets pakku here as pakku I “Überlegung” (AHw 812a); pakku A “wits, reason, sense” (CAD P 36): “Gehe und den Rest, um den (dich) zu kümmern dir Weisung gegeben wurde, treibe ein und führe in Eanna ein!” After San Nicolň, pakku nadānu has the same meaning as ṭēme šakānu, which also occurs in this text. See also Kozuh 2006, 114 and n. 125, for whom na as ḫur pak ku remains unclear.



pakuttu “wooden stave”


After Stol 2008, 349 the logogram GIŠ.PA.KUD (CAD P 37a) does not belong here but stands for urű III “ein Zweig; Palmwedel” (AHw 1435b); Waetzoldt, BSA 5 (1990) 18, n. 12: Sum. “abgeschnittene Zweige (und) Rohr”.



palāḫu “to fear, revere”


1. G, in PN (CAD P 44a): I-el-kŕ-pi4-la-aḫ Tell ed Dēr II (1978) 26: 4 „Fürchte deinen Gott“ (Stol 2008, 350).

            In the stative (CAD P 41b): read with Mayer 2008, 94f. a-mu-ra-at in ezzet palḫat ilat a-mu-ra-at YOS 11, 20: 1f. (OB Lamaštu) as amurrat, the stative f. from amurru, instead of amurrât (so CAD), the stative f. from amurrű, since i + a do not contract to â in this text. See also Farber 2014, 74;148 and comm. on p. 201. Mayer 2008, 94f. compares this passage with OA Lamaštu: ezzat pulḫat ilat na-ku!-ra-at Or 66 (1997) 59: 1f. “sie ist wütend, sie ist Schrecken (sic!), sie ist Göttin, sie ist sehr fremdartig”. The spelling na-ku!-ra-at is, however, questionable, see Farber 2014, 74: na-ma?/ku?-ra-at. See also Farber 2014, 201f. with n. 16. Farber (p. 148f.) decides in favor of nammarat “glaringly bright”.


2. Gt SB: pi-it-lu-ḫ[u?] SpTU 4, 157 Vs. 17 (Streck 2007, 151).


3. D, CAD P 49a: the remark of CAD that K. 1016 r. 7 does not include the verb palāḫu is incorrect (Borger 2008, 439), see now SAA 16, 128: ina battatayya ú-pa-la-ḫu-nuThey are systematically scaring me”.



palāku “to devide off, demarcate”


D, Mari: [mik]irtam (or [im]irtam?) upallik A. 1177: 40 (Durand 2004, 118f, note 34; Stol 2008, 350).



palālu “to guard, watch over; to go in front, precede”

AHw. palālu, CAD palālu B “mng. uncert.”.


1. OAkk. Beydar in PN: Ip-lul-il Subartu 2, 74 iv 2, Ip-lul-DINGIR ib. 109 iv 5 “The god has gone ahead”. Hardly palāsu (P. Talon ib. p. 78).


2. OA alī rābiṣum i-pá-li-lu lutammē AKT 6a, 135: 25 “whereever the attorney interrogates, he may impose an oath”. For the mng. of  p. “to interrogate under oath” s. Hertel 2013, 366f.



palāqu I “to slaughter, strike down”


G MB, CAD P 51b, A1: “PN schickte PN2 und PN3, und sie nahmen (die Kuh) aus der Hand von PN4 in Empfang (im-<ḫu>-ru-nim-ma), und der šangű PN1 ip-lu-uq-ma i-kul-ma schlachtete (sie) und aß (sie) ...” UET 7, 19: 2–7 (Mayer 2008, 95).


palāqu II mng. uncl.

only CAD


CAD P 52a, correction: BAM 575 iii (!) 49 (Stol 2008, 350).


palāsu “to look (at)”


1. CAD P 53a, lex. sec: read with Borger 2008, 439 BM 50725 instead of BM 50727.

            For Weissbach Misc. 13: 69ff. and dupl. see now Maul 1998, 168.



2. G: palāsu is relatively rarely attested in the G-stem: OB adī ilum i-pa-la-sú  “until the god looks (at us)” Shemshara 1, 50: 27f. ina warḫim annîm ilum ana mātim i-pa-la-ŕs “in this month the god will look at the country” Shemshara 1, 64: 61f.


            CAD P 53b, 1b: After Mayer 2008, 95 pa-li-is-ku-um in YOS 11, 9 is not a participle (CAD “strike the one who faces you”) but a stative: “er (= der Feind) blickt auf dich hin (– schlag zu!)”


3. D, CAD P 54a, 2: For Iraq 39, 150: 29, 33, 36 see palāšu D.


4. Dt, CAD P 54: After Borger 2008, 439 the verb in LH § 159 is balāṣu D and not palāsu. See balāṣu. See also Mayer 2008, 95.

CAD P 54b, 4: Delete section 4:  the correct spelling of the verb is bu-ta-al-lu-ṭě-im and not pu-ta-al-lu-sí-im (Kupper 1988, 6; Borger 2008, 439; Mayer 2008, 95). See balāṭu Dt.


5. N, CAD P 54b: After Stol 2008, 350 the meanings “to watch” and “pratiquer l’extispicine” (ARM 26, 360) should be added.

CAD P 54b, 6a: OB (mein Bekannter in mein Gesicht) ú-ul ip-pa-al-sŕ-am “blickte er nicht” Ištar Bagdad 68 (Streck 2007, 151).

            CAD P 57b, 6d1’: After Mayer 2008, 95 a better translation for AnBi 12, 283: 42 is  “Sterne, die ... überhaupt kein Beobachter je beobachtet hat/hat beobachten können” (s. also Or 58, 145 f.).



palāšu “to perforate”


D, CAD P 61a, 2a: For Ě.DAB PN … pu-ul-lu-šu JCS 29 150 see Hirsch, AfO 27, 428a (with Stol 2008, 350): “Verwaltungsterminus bzw. Hinweis auf der Tafel (‘gelocht’)”.

CAD P 61b, 2d/e: OB also with a person as object in transferred meaning: PN ana eqlim kirîm pu-lu-uš AbB 14, 36: 3’f. “‘durchbohre’ den PN bezüglich Feld (und) Garten!” (Mayer 2008, 95).

            Add with Stol 2008, 350: ašar pu-ul-lu-ši-im pu-ul-li-iš Iraq 39, 150: 29, 36; ul tu-pa-la-aš Iraq 39, 150: 33.  See Durand, LAPO 16, 273f. and 275 with comm. f. who interprets palāšu here as “éventrer (les ballots de laine)”. In CAD P 54a these passages are incorrectly quoted under palāsu.



*palatuššu (a title of Enlil)


Delete palatuššu OB Atr. i 14 (AHw 1581, CAD P 62): see the jB version from LB Sippar dEn-lil i-ḫu?-zu er-ṣe-tam ba-ú-la-tu-uš-šu Iraq 58, 153: 14 “Enlil occupied earth for his subjects” (George - Al-Rawi, Iraq 58, 153: 14). Cf. Mayer 2008, 95.



palgu “ditch, canal”


1. For K 6336 (CD 64b, b) see also Borger 2008, 439.


2. CAD 64a, a2’: add with Mayer 2008, 95 (A.MEŠ) palgi(PA5) lu-ú x-[….] BM 65299 r. 1 (confession of sins) “Kanalwasser habe ich leider ….”; ALAN IM PA5 gišKIRI6 (ṣalam ṭīd palag kirî) SpTU V 246 iii 6’ (ritual) Figuren aus Lehm vom Garten-Kanal”.



palḫiš “fearfully, reverently”


CAD P 64b, lex. sec.: correct SBH 132 No. I r. 17f. after Cohen, CLAM 156 46 and 160 b+141: [ana lěb-bi-ka dMIN ina] teslītu pal-ḫi-iš lizzizūka “(To calm) yor heart, may the Anunna-gods stand before you in prayer” (Borger 2008, 439).



palḫu “fearful”


1. AHw 816a: read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 162 (not 155), 154; 185 (not 178), 47.


2. CAD P 65b, 1: “Finkel, Mesopotamian Magic 226” refers to the article “On Some Dog, Snake and Scorpion Incantations”, in Abusch, T./Toorn, K. van der (eds.), Mesopotamian Magic. Textual, Historical, and Interpretative Perspectives (Ancient Magic and Divination I). Groningen 1999 (Borger 2008, 439).


3. CAD P 66a, disc. sect.: delete disc. sect. with Mayer 2008, 95, since palḫu does not occur in RA 46, 94: 11. For the reading of the passage see šamriš.



pāliku “divider”


AHw 816a: read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 158 (not 151), 15; 177 (not 170), 17; 204 (not 197), 13.


*palīlu (a textile)

See pālilu, meaning 3.


pālilu 1. “vanguard, front-runner”; 2. (a component of jewelry); 3. “sack, bag (?)”


1. Beaulieu 2003, 384 introduces a new meaning of pālilu, which occurs in NBC 4503 (Neo-Babylonian Eanna archive): “116 a-a-ri IGI KŮ.GI šá dGAŠAN.ME 2ů 4 ši-sŕ-a-ti-šú-nu 3ina lěb-bi 8 sa-an-ḫa-a-nu šá pa-li-l[e]-e 4ma-ṭu-ú 53 a-a-ri KŮ.GI šá <<šá>> ku-lu-lu 6šá dGAŠAN.MEŠ ina lěb-bi 10 sa-an-ḫa-a-nu 7šá pa-li-le-e ů 9 gišBÁN.ME 8šá ši-pi-ti ma-ṭu-ú ‘16 frontal rosettes of gold belonging to the Goddesses together with their 4 joints(?), from which are missing 8 safety(?) catches; 3 golden rosettes for a crown belonging to the Goddesses, from which are missing 10 safety(?) catches and 9 sūtus as suture’” (Beaulieu 2003, 179f.). Beaulieu assumes a connection between pālilu, which he tentatively translates as “safety(?) catch”, with pālilu “watchman”, if the first one “denotes a safeguard attachment”.


2. AHw 816a and CAD P 66 include the word palīlu “a textile”, which they separate from pālilu “guardian”. However, the new passages from Mari about textiles make clear that pa-li-lu was used for storing and protecting textiles and wool: 35 pa-li-lu ša 10-ŔM TÚG ŠŔ.BA 57 túgŠŔ.ḪA pa-li-lu ša SÍG ŠŔ.BA za-am-ra 2 pa-li-lu ša BAR.SIḫá (ARM 22, 321: 2-5) “35 p.-bags each of which contains 10 textiles; 57 p.-bags (made) from šaḫḫű-canvas to keep (for zamāru see Durand 2009, 181) wool; 2 p.-bags for headbands”; 2 pa-li-l[u ša TÚG]ḫá 4 pa-li-[lu] 1 kušpa-tí-ru 11 kušpa-ti-ḫa-tum ša SÍG 7 kušpa-t[i]-ḫa-tum ša TÚGḫá 23 éša-za-mi-la-tum ša ša-al-la-at GN (M.18159: 1-6, see ARM 30, 416) “2 p.-bags for textiles, 4 p.-bags, 1 leather bag, 11 leather containers for wool, 7 leather containers for textiles (and) 23 sacks from the booty of (the city) GN”; 1 GÚN 49 1/2 MA.NA SÍG ni-is-qú-um ša i-na 1 túgša-ḫi-im pa-li-li za-am-ru (M.6706: 1-4, see ARM 30, 463) “1 talent and 49 1/2 minas choice wool, which is kept in a p.-bag (made) from šaḫḫű-canvas”.

So it seems reasonable to interpret pa-li-lu as a participle from palālu “to guard” with the meaning “the guarding one” or possibly “a bag” in textile context (Durand 2009, 179). Therefore, all references quoted under palīlu should be transferred to pālilu, while palīlu should be deleted.



3. Mentioned together with donkeys and their harness: ANŠE u unūssu u šinā pá-li-li AKT 6c, 550: 3 (cf. 19) “a donkey and its harness and two p.s”. ANŠE ... u unūt ANŠE ... u šinā pa-li-li ib. 584: 22.



pāliqu “butcher”

not in the dictionaries


Emar: gud-gaz = pa-li-qú MIN Emar 602: 148 (Lú) “butcher of dito (= a bull)”.



palkű “wide, broad”


1. First OB (lit.) ref.: šubalkut pa!-al-ki-i-ši-id kabtati CM 8, 22ff. i 17 “to overthrow the broad foundation of the mind”.



2. CAD P 67f., b3’: For Streck Asb. 278: 8 see (with Borger 2008, 439) BIWA 201: 8.



pallaḫu “very reverent”


AHw 816b: read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 162 (not 155), 155; 185 (not 178), 48.



See pallišu


pallāšu ? “piercer”

not in the dictionaries


SB lex. [alim?]-bu-u = pa-la-šu AOAT 50, 398: 37b (cf. comm. ib. p. 253) “[bi]son(?) = piercer(?)”.



pallišu, pālišu, pallāšu “housebreaker, burglar; (stone) borer”


1. AHw 816b: read with Salonen 1970, 443, MSL 12, 182 (not 175), 32.


2. After Stol 2008, 350 with collation of Durand, RA 98, 123, instead of pallišu “stone borer” there also exist the forms pá*-lá-š[u*-u]m* KTT 53: 14 and 5 GÚ NA4ḫá pa-a*-li-šu ARM 5, 13: 10.


3. Add: innuḫa[r]am qitmam u šammam pa-li-[š]a-a[m] ... liššűnim ARM 26/1, p. 298, 134: 9’ “let them bring ... (white) dye, black dye and a drilling stone”.


4. Wr. syll. NA pa-liš StAT 3, 2: 33. Same person wr. logogr. [l]úNÍG.BŮR.BŮR ib. 3: 22.



pallurtu s. išpallurtu


See also Borger 2010b, 274 (with Borger 2008, 440).


palṣu s. balṣu


AHw 816b: read with Salonen 1970, 443, MSL 12, 183 (not 176), 51.


paltu (a class of woman)


AHw 816b: read with Salonen 1970, 443, MSL 12, 128 (not 123), 87.


PA-a-lu, PA-ʾa-a-lu (a kind of flour?); Emar

not in the dictionaries


These forms occur in the manuscripts of Emar 6, 388: 8: 4 SĚLA PA-a-lu (manuscript K: PA-ʾa-a-lu) “four of p.-flour”. With Pentiuc 2001, 137 one could relate these forms to an unknown word with the root b/p-ʾ/ʿ/-l. Watson 2002, 11 connects PA-a-lu with Ugaritic pil, which “denotes some type of foodstuff” and for which the meaning “flour” or “some type of grain” seems very plausible.



paʾlu? (paʾālu?) “work”, loan from Aram. PʿL

not in the dictionaries


NB aššu lēʾi ša ekurrāti ša šarru išpura umma rēḫti p[a]-ʾ-lu u lēʾī ... šūbilanni SAA 17, 43: 8 “concerning the writing-board of the temples, of which the king wrote to me: ‘Send to me the rest of the work(?) and the ... writing-boards!” Cf. Dietrich ib. p. 41.



palű “period of office; reign; staff”


1. OB lit. u šumum inaššī pa-la ramanišu u alpum inaššī pa-la ramanišu ZA 75, 204: 112f. “and the garlic plant raises its own staff! And the bull raises its own staff”. CAD P distinguishes palű A “reign; an insign of kingship” from palű B “rod”; but the connection of palű and našű in the ref. above, also attested with palű A, proves that palű A and B are, in fact, the same word, as was already correctly analysed by AHw.


2. The plural of palű is well known from MA and NA in the sense of “regnal year” (CAD p. A 1d) but not from OB: ina pa-le an-nu-ti-in “during these regnal years” Shemshara 1, 46: 6.

3. An insign of kingship (CAD P 74 p. 5). With labāšu, pointing to a garment: OB lit. ištēn elum la-bi-iš [BAL]A-a-am Gilg. Schoyen 2: 9 “there was a man, clad in a royal [mantle]”.



2. CAD P 71a: the letter ABL 926 is SB and not NB (Borger 2008, 439f.). After Borger 2008, 439f., it consists of formulaic expressions, from which the l. 16 (which is quoted in CAD P) is a quotation (not exact) from BIWA 17 A i 51: ina BALAmeš-ia ḪÉ.NUN ṭuḫ-du ina MU.AN.NAmeš-ia ku-um-mu-ru ḪÉ.GAL-lu “during my reign abundance (and) plenty, during my years productivity was piled up”.

            CAD P 74a, 3b: For the Charter of Assur see also Saggs 1975, Iraq 37, 12 (with Borger 2008, 439f.).

            CAD P 74, 5: For Craig ABRT 2, 13: 8 see also Borger ZA 61, 77: 49 (with Borger 2008, 439f.).

            CAD P 74b: For RT 24, 104 (K 2493 + K 7102 + K 9081 + K 10352 11’ // K 5088 + K 6918 + K 11307 8’ // STT II 130 3’) see also Borger 2008, 439f., who restores the passage as na-ši/áš gišGIDRU (u) BALA-e/a ka-[bi?]-su dMUŠ mu-ṣap-r[i].


3. CAD P 71b, 1b: add with Mayer 2008, 95 li-te-diš pa-le-e SpTU II 12 ii 23 “meine Regierung möge sich erneuern”.



palubazḫi (?) (mng. uncert.); Nuzi; Hurr. lw.

not in the dictionaries


Nuzi: 1 BÁN ŠE a-na pa-lu-ba-a[z-ḫi?] HSS 16, 23: 39 (= AdŠ 3, 114: 40). The reading is based on the collation of Wilhelm 1985, 105. Id. 106 ad 40, compares palubazḫi with the forms ending in –a/umbaz/šḫi in Hurr. from Bogazköy. Cf. with Wilhelm id. also [q/p]a?-lu?-pa-aš-ḫi Hermitage 15344: 4 (= Jankovskaja no. 42). AHw 839 and CAD P 222, however, opt for the spelling a-na SIPA pá-as-pa-sí according to editio princeps without consideration of the collation. S. also Richter 2012 under palupa[zḫi].



pāmu (mng. unkn.)


See paṣāmu.


pana “previously, earlier; in front”


1. SB ištū ūmī pa-na-a//panānū Ballad of Early Rulers 3 “since days of yore”.



2. NB: Note the new spelling IGI-a-am in ultu IGI-a-am ina Ajjari [UD] 3kam ša MU 148kam BiMes. 24, 25: 12f. “früher, im Monat Ajjar, 3. [Tag] des Jahres 148 (Seleukidenära)”  (Streck 2007, 151).


3. For ištu pa-na ana warka “always” see, with Stol 2008, 350, also Charpin, CRRAI 43, 98, note 25, A. 371: 5.


4. For ālik pana “leader” see, with Stol 2008, 350, also CT 45, 48: 24 and OLA 21, 22: 3 (ša ÉREN.GĚR). Cf. ālik maḫra, said of divine emblems (CAD A/1, 344b, 3’).



panāku, panāgu “”to mount, to cap”


D  said of villages, mng. uncl.: NA ālānū ina libbi a-ḫi-ši pa-nu-gu SAA 1, 172: 12 “the villages are ... by each other”.



panimu (mng. uncl.); Ug., Amarna; WSem. lw.

only CAD


Sivan 1987, 133 and 257 interprets pa-ni-mu in EA 155: 46 as a Northwest Semitic preposition with 3 m. pl. suffix “before them; in front of them” and connects it with panūma “face” (*pani-humu > panīmu). Compare Moran 1992, 241: “The word of the king [g]oes : pa-ni-mu (before him)”. Albright 1937, 197, note 2, however, considers pa-ni-mu as Egyptian bw nb “everythere”.

Note, that Sivan 1987, 257 connects with panūma “face” also the personal (pa-ni-ya-nu; pa-ni-la) and geographical (pa-ni-ěš-ta-a / urupa-ni-iš-ta-i) names from Ugaritic Akkadian texts. See Sivan 1987, 257 for the previous literature.



paniš “in front; in advance”


Attested also in OB (Mayer 2008, 95): pa-ni-iš-ša (= ana panī-ša) “in front of her” VS 10, 214 vii 22 (see also CAD P 157a, 3b2’).



panītu “earlier (time)”


AHw 818b: For iṣṣēr ša panīʾātim CCT 3, 44a, 16 “more than before”, see now CAD P 82b, 1a (see also Matouš 1970, 134).



pannaru “a textile(?)”; OA


OA pá-na-ra-am AKT 3, 77: 19; pá-na-ra-am AKT 4, 42: 13.



pannigu, punnigu (a pastry or bread)


1.  Note that CAD P 383b considers pinigu “cereal product” as a separate lexeme. Cf. Parpola 1979, 30, who connects [š]e!pi-ni!-gi CoA 96 ix 1 (coll. W. G. Lambert) and 9 pi-ni-gi GPA 136, 8 with pannigu. See also pi(n)nigu as byform of pannigu in CDA 263a.



2. Emar: Spelled pa-an-ni-gu Emar 560: 91 (Ḫḫ XXIII).



3. There are several opinions about the origin of pannigu, which appears always as punnigu in Emar (nindapu-ni-gu/gu8; ninda!pu-un-ni-gi!, see Pentiuc 2001, 141f.). Hoffner 1974, 178 argues for the pre-Hittite origin of this word. According to Durand 1989a, 35, 54, the vowel /u/ after the first consonant, which occurs in this word in MA texts and texts from Emar, would be, however, typical for North Mesopotamia (Durand 1989a, 35, 54 describes this feature as an “Assyrie-Euphrate assyrianisé-Mitanni?”). Durand assumes, therefore, that this word is of Northern Mesopotamian origin and had come to Hittite from the south. See also Hebrew pannag, which is probbly related to pannigu.



panu I “front”, pl. “face”; eli ša p. “more than before”


1. MB: Note the plene spelling pa-a-ni in WVDOG 102, 20: 12 (MB Ekalte).


            CAD P 87b, 1h3’: ina pan NN “at disposal of NN” occurs also in MB: PN1 i-na pa-an PN2 ša-ak-nu UET 7, 47: 1–4(barley which) PN1 put at the disposal of PN2” (Mayer 2008, 95).


2. CAD P 95b, panu A in bēl pani: Lambert 1974, 83 suggests the translation “strong” instead of “rich man” for [á-ka]l-tuku = be-el pa-nu, referring to Marduk (lex. sec.).

            CAD P 87a, 1g2’: For ABRT 1, 6 r. 10 see now also SAA 3, 13 with Borger 2008, 440.

            CAD P 87a, 1h1’: After Borger 2008, 440, the photo of BBSt 3 iv 3 confirms ṣi-pi-ir-tu.

            CAD P 92a: translate Iraq 39, 150: 37 with Stol 2008, 350: “before I come” (instead of “according to my specifications”).

            CAD P 94b, 8a2’: add with Mayer 2008, 96: OB [p]a-ni-ia ṣalmūtim īmu[r “PN hat mein 'schwarzes' (= enttäuschtes /unzufriedenes/ verärgertes?) Gesicht gesehen” AbB 10, 134 1. Rd. 1–4; p[a-ni-šu ṣa]lmūtim ammar-ma ARMT 28, 18: 36.


3. St. const.: After the references in CAD P 93–95, the st. constr. of pl. panū “face” is either pani or pan (Mayer 2008, 96). There are 3 jB references for pan in CAD (94a, last line; 95a, line 6 and 20). Add with Mayer 2008, 96 the OB references: pa-an šarrim KN [n]awrūtim ātamar OBTR 135: 7-9 “I have seen the bright face of the king”; pa-an ṣābim ul iṣallimū id. 1: 31 “will the troops’ faces not darken?”; pa-an dAšš[ur] petű MARI 7, 273: 17f. “the face of Aššur is ‘open’”.

            See also OB Mari: pa-an be-lí-i[a] i-ju-ut-tu-un “The face of the lord is mine” (= my lord was favorable towards me) ARM 28, 98: 5f.


4. Corrections and additions for CAD P 91 5a2’ (ana pani and ina pani to express relative time) after Stol 2008, 350:

ina pani “(my/him)self”: ina paniya ana GN ērumma RA 42, 128:13 “Ich selbst [und nicht der zweite Mann im Traum] trat in Terqa ein” (Stol 2008, 350; pace Durand, ARM 26/1, 474f.: “avant d’aller ŕ Mari; tout de suite”; see also Heimpel 2003, 266: “I entered Terqa prior to my (going to Mari)”). PNf ṣuddīʾamma ṭurdašši ina paniša ŠE.NUMUN <…> lilqēʾamma alākam līpuš VS 16, 130: 8 (AbB 6, 130) “supply PNf with food and send her (to me); she herself should take seeds and set off on a journey”.

ina pani “(to take/go) away from”: 1 BÁN ḫašḫūrī ip-pa-ni-ia ilqűma AbB 10, 169: 23 “they have taken 1 seah apples away from me”; buṭmātim nisan šattim ša ina pa-ni-šu-nu ilqűnim ana ṣēr bēliya ušābilam ARM 27, 123: 14 “I will send my lord the first terebinth fruits, which they have taken from them for me”. PN <…> ina pa-ni bēl ḫubullišu ana GN illikma AbB 13, 89: 14 “PN <…> had fled to GN from his creditor”; kīma iṣṣūri ša ina pa-ni kasūsi ana sūn awīlim īrubu Sumer 23, 161: 12–15 “Like a bird which enters a man’s lap (fleeing) from a falcon”.

            ana pani “instead (?)”: ana pa-ni awātim awātam apul AbB 1, 86: 25 “instead of a legal case settle the matter!”. Cf. ana pa-ni alpī itaplusi u naṣāri ana paniya 1 alpam amurma AbB 6, 93: 30 “instead to check constantly over the oxes and to guard (them), find for me an ox”; ana pa-an gimil dumqi gimil lumni irtībam ARM 13, 97: 6 “he repaid me with evil instead of good” (cf. CAD R 54b “with evil for good”).

ana pani “against”: ana pa-an awīl Ešnunna Receuil G. Dossin 161 “against the ruler of Ešnunna”; mimma nakrum ana kakkim ana pa-ni-ia ul iptinam ARM 10, 123: 7 “no enemy became strong enough in battle to oppose me”.

ana pan, appani + subj. “in order to; so that”:  ap-pa-ni ḫišeḫti ekallim umallű FM 7, 105, 28: 6 “so that it (the village) fulfills the requirements of the palace”; ap-pa-ni ālam išāmuma id. 11 “(go and look for a village), so that he may buy this village and (give it at the disposal of the palace)”. See also FM 7, 110, note a: appani in this meaning does not seem to appear anywhere else.

            ana pani + izuzzum: a) positive “to support”: kīma atti ana pa-ni-ia tazzīzī AbB 8, 102: 5 “as you have supported me”; mādiš ana pa-ni-šu izīz AbB 8, 141: 18 “extend your full support to him”; b) negative “to confront”: kīma ša anāku allikam ana pa-ni-šu izīz AbB 12, 45: 23 “as if I had come myself, confront him”; attima lā tadabbubīma ana pa-ni-ki lā tušzazzī-niāti AbB 3, 2: 17 “you should not complain and force us to confront you”.

            For ana pani + alāku “to meet”; + maṣű “achieve a goal”, “to prosper”; + nadű “to be available”; + qabű “tell to somebody’s face” see Stol 2008, 350.



panű “to move forward”


D “to transfer, turn over”: OA ašar pá-nu-im pá-ni-ši AKT 6b, 451: 9 “transfer it wherever it has to be transferred!”



panű “first, earlier; front”


CAD 98b, 3c: After Borger 2008, 440, CT 53, 387 (K 7517) and ABL 107 (K 4304) do not join.

            For ABL 756 see now SAA 16, 31.



pānu II (a basket; a measure of capacity)


1. OB 1 pa-an ŠE 1 pa-an ZÚ.LUM “1 pan of barley, 1 pan of dates” CUSAS 9, 113: 1f. 1 pa-an ŠE.GIŠ.Ě BÁN ZABAR “1 pan of sesame by the bronze seah-measure” ib. 139: 1.

            Note the spelling in OB 10 gipa12(PI)-ne-e AbB 12, 118: 4.


2. Used for the measurement of ribs (see M. Powell, RlA 7 (1987–1990) 491 § III B): (I erected 30 ribs in it) ša 1 PI ikbirū “which were one pānu thick” Finkel 2014: 14. (I set up 3600 stanchions in it) ša 1/2 (PI) ikbirūma “which were half of a pānu thick” ib. 16.



papāḫu “cella, shrine”


1. CAD P 105a, f: For Bull, son of Šamaš” AfO 18, 111: 16, see with Borger 2008, 440 MesZL 337: gu4-dumu-dutu is probably Akkadian kusarikku “bison”.


2. For the meaning of papāḫu see Jahn 2005, 127–131 (with Mayer 2008, 96): Originally a “Mitteltürraum/reception room” in the middle or in the rear of a private house, later a chapel in a temple. See further Durand, in E. Lévy, Le systčme palatial en Orient, 58–61 (papāḫu in Mari); Wilhelm, SCCNH 7, 121–128 (in Nuzi), George, Iraq 57, 186–197 (with Stol 2008, 350).



3. Fem. pl. also SB KÁ pa-pa-ḫat bīt DN SAA 8, 567: 2 “gate of the cellas of the temple of DN”.



papallu, pamallu “shoot, sprout; offspring, scion”


The byform pamallu occurs in “The debate between the Date Palm and the Tamarisk” from Emar (Wilcke, ZA 79, 177: 55’, with Streck 2007, 151).



pap(p)ān libbi (part of body, swelling of stomach) of human, of animal


1. OB lit. pa-ap-pa-al-li-ib-bi-šu agargarum CUSAS 32, 27: 7 “its belly is fish-spawn”. Note the first instanc of double pp.



2. CAD P 105b: After Stol 2008, 350: transl. “the umbilical area” instead of “diaphragm”.



papātu “a container”


MB Qaṭna 1 pa-pa-a-te ša GIŠ.Ě ma-lu-ú “one p.-container filled with oil” QS 3, 13: 23. 23 na4pa-pa-te-na ša Ě ma-lu-ú “23 p.-conatiners made of stone, filled with oil” QS 3, 18: 21. The word is already attested once in Alalaḫ (AHw. 824 “ein Holzgegenstand”, CAD P 106 “a wooden implement or furnishing”). The new references make clear that we deal with a container, that the second syllable contains a long /ā/ and that the word is probably of Hurrian origin (note the Hurrian pl.-suffix -na); see the dicussion in QS 3 p. 89.




AHw 824a; CAD P 106b


CAD P 106b: In Weidner Tn. 1 v 24 read after duplicate Görg 1989, 214 vii 22 ú-šal-pa-tu instead of ú-pap-pa-[...] (Schramm, AfO 36/37 123f., with Borger 2008, 440). See now also Wilcke 2010, 438 vii 21-22: C: ú-šal!(PAP)-pa-tu.



pappaddű (?) (mng. uncert.); NB; Sum. lw.

not in the dictionaries


The lexeme p. was tentatively proposed by George 1993, 68 as a reading for PAD.PAD.DA-a, which remains to be confirmed, in the “Tale of Ninurta-Pāqidāt’s Dog Bite”: PAD.PAD.DA-a aqarraš-ka IM 78552: 8 (Iraq 55, 66) “I can carve off the choicest cuts for you”. The translation of George 1993, 67 “the choicest cuts” for p. here is based on the equation pad = qa-ra-šum (MSL 16, p. 163, Nabnītu xvii 292).



pappaltu f. < pappāsu “porridge” MA; jB lex., med. (design. of discharged semen)


MA: 1 pasru ša taḫalte 1 pa-pa-al-tu  SAAB 8, 13 r. 6’ “1 container of a foodstuff taḫaltu; 1 of porridge” (with Stol 2008, 350). Note that AHw 824a and CAD P 107a only record the meaning “seminal discharge”. 



pappardaliu “agate (?)”

s. also papparmīnu


pappardaliu can denote both banded agate and artificially patterned stone, if the stone is black and shows one white stripe (Frahm 1997, 147f. (with Stol 2008, 350); Schuster-Brandis 2008, 403f.; Arkhipov 2012, 36; compare papparmīnu). Note, however, rare kind of pappardaliu in M.11692: 3-5: 33 na4-par-par-dili ta-ak-pí-tu gal 4ša 1 i-du-šu-nu ge6 {X} 5ů ša-nu-um i-du-šu-<nu> su13-a (cited after Arkhipov 2012, 422) “three big takpītu-beads from pappardaliu-stone, which are white from one side and red from another”. In M.10382: 1 pappardaliu with fore stripes could be mentioned: 1 na4-par-par-dili er-bé-et-tum (cited after Arkhipov 2012, 424), unless four beads are meant here (Arkhipov 2012, 36).



papparmīnu (a semiprecious stone)

s. also pappardaliu


papparminu is either a kind of black banded agate with two white stripes or any stone made to look like it (Frahm 1997, 147f. (with Stol 2008, 350); Schuster-Brandis 2008, 404; compare pappardaliu). Schuster-Brandis 2008, 404 argues that the colored stones could be distinguished from the genuine banded agate in texts by definitions. See the chalcedony bead BM 89159 that is defined as NA4.BABBAR.MIN5 KUR aš-[šu-ri] “Assyrian papparmīnu-bead” (Sollberger 1987, 379f. and Beaulieu 2003, 13 read incorrectly BABBAR.DIL.DIL = pappardil(dil)ű). After Schuster-Brandis the definition aššurű shows that it is a faked banded agate. But it could also simply mean that this kind of papparmīnu (genuine or not) is typical for Assyria (Sollberger 1987, 380 has already discussed both possibilities). See also Borger 2010b, 380 for further literature.



pappiru s. bappiru


pappu I “curl, strand of hair”


1. Constructed as fem.: MB lit. pa-pa-am qatattam ALL no. 11 r. 8 “thin curl”.


2. On pappāt īni “eyelashes” see the disc. s. v. epepiʾātu.



paqādu “to entrust; care for; appoint”


1. G CAD P 122f., 2b2’b’: add with Stol 2008, 350 ana arallę pa-<aq>-du STT 2, 254: 22 “they are doomed to the netherworld”.

CAD P 123, 2c1’: For Streck Asb. 14 ii 16 see BIWA 24 A II 16 with Borger 2008, 440.

CAD P 124b, 2c3’: For K. 1273 r. 7 see now SAA 16, 52 (with Borger 2008, 440).

CAD P 126f.: For PN see also with Stol 2008, 350 Šamaš-piqdanni (ARMT 16, 192); Yapqid-DINGIR, Yapqid-dUTU (OBTR 259).


2. Gt (CAD P 127f., 7): it-i-da (itʾidā) pit-qí-da “pay attention, be careful (pl.)!” K. 6310+: 33’ (s. Or 56, 196; with Streck 2007, 151 and Mayer 2008, 96).

CAD P 127b, 7: read with with Borger 2008, 440 in Borger Esarch. 83 r. 26 pit-qád instead of pit-qad (see already AHw 826a).


Gt “behave cautiosly”: NB lū pu-ut-qu-ud  SAA 17, 63 r. 14 “may he be cautious!” pit-qí-du ib. 129 r. 20 “be cautious!” (in broken context).


3. D “to entrust, hand over”: OB namrīʾātim ša tu-pa-aq-qá-du-šu-nu-š[i]-im “the fattened animals that you entrust to them” AbB 13, 48: 4’f.


“Take/make an inventory” (Stol 2008, 350; see also ARM 27, 40, note b): mimma ša ana DUMUmunus-šu inaddinu <…> li-pa-aq-qí-id-ma (var. li-pa-qí-id) tuppam lišṭurši NAPR 5, 6: 32 “Whatever he will give to his daughter, let him take an inventory (of this) and write (it on) a tablet”. Cf. the interpretation of paqādu in NAPR 5, p. 9: 32: “let him guarantee her by writing a tablet”. (List of objects) mimma šumšu mali ibaššű ú-pa-qa-du-nu-kum Amurru 2, 77, note 444 “he will make an inventory of the (list of objects) and everything that is there for you”. É-tam ú-pa-aq-qí-du FM 7, 128, 36: 23 “they have made an inventory of (each) household” (see also FM 7, 83, note e).


4. N (CAD P 129): [mīt]u ul ip-pa-qí-di ana eṭem(GIDIM) kimtišu LKA 155: 11’ (= “Šamaš 67”, Mayer 1976, 418) “(without you, Šamaš) the spirit of the dead will not be handed over to the ghosts of his family” (with Mayer 2008, 96).



paqāru s. also baqāru “to claim”


CAD P 135a, disc. sec.: After Borger 2008, 440 the spelling ni-ip-ṭu-ur-ma BIN 4, 65: 42 “we opened” is not correct since the phonetic value ṭu does not occur in OA. He reads with AHw 104b ni-ib-qú-ur.



pāqirānu, bāqirānu “claimant”


After CAD P 139a, also Nbk. 100: 6, formerly read mupaqqirānu, belongs here.


pa(q)qāyu “mat-weaver”


After Salonen 1970, 443 pa(q)qāyu could be a leather worker (see Salonen 1970, 443 for futher literature).



paqru, baqru “claim”


OB ba-iq-ru-um (in unclear context) KTT 55a: 6.



parādu I “to be scared, terrified”


1. G OA maḫīrum pá-ru-ud Prag 598: 8 “the market is disturbed”.



1. Gt CAD P 143b, 2: add with Streck 2007, 151 šumma ... pit-ru-[ud?] AOAT 43, 155: 85’ (jB) “if he is very scared”.



2. Gtn also OA: libbī lā ip-ta-na-ri-id AKT 6c, 606: 23 “my heart shall not become frightful all the time”.


3. Dtn OA bītī tů-up-ta-na-ra-ad AKT 2, 33: 9 “you constantly frighten my house”.



2. ARM 26, 155: 16 (CAD P 143b, 2) does not belong here. See parāṭu Gt (Streck 2007, 151).



parādu II? “to separate”


Whereas AHw 827b and Schaudig 2001, 313 (cf. Stol 2008, 351) interpret ip-par-du-ma AnSt 8, 62: 12 (Nbn.) as parādu II  (Aram. lw. “sich absondern”, hapax), CAD P 144b emends the ref. to ip-par-<ši>-du-ma (naparšudu).



parʾagal (an equid), “mule for riding(?)”; OB Mari; < parű I + agālu I

not in the dictionaries


4 anše-gišgigir 4 anše-kur-ra 3 anše pa-ar-a-ga-al 3 anše-la-gu ARM 24, 5: 8’ “4 chariot donkey, 4 horses, 3 mules for riding, 3 donkeys for riding”. anše pa-ar-a-ga-al  (a compound word in the absolute case) corresponds to Sumerian anše-kunga-la-gu “riding mule” in the identical equid’s list ARM 9, 149/150. For the meaning s. van Koppen 2002b, 21ff. (with ref. to further studies). S. also Militarev /Kogan 2005, 233, no. 176.



paraḫšītu I (a musical instrument)


OB gišpa-ra-a-ši-ti FM 9 p. 192 no. 44: 8. [giš]pa-ra-a-ši-[ta]m ib. 9.



paraḫšītu II


See also paramšītu.


paraḫšű, parašű “from Marḫaši”


Emar: First syll. spellings: děm-ma-mar-ḫa-a-ši = pa-ra-šu/su-u Emar 545: 404 (cf. DCCLT MB Ura 04) “figurine from Marḫaši”.



parāḫu “to ferment”


Stol 2008, 351 tentatively connects parāḫu “to sprout” (CAD P 145a; AHw 827b) with parāʾu B “to sprout” (CAD P 182a; AHw 833a). S. parāʾu II



parakku “cult dais; sanctuary”


1. Replace with Labat 1973, 58 “Racc. 91 passim” (AHw 828b, 3) with “Racc. 91, 9: 14”: it is the only passage, where the expression parak šīmāti occurs.


2. CAD P 146a: For BiOr 30, 179: 64f. see now Ambos 2004, 162: 63f. (Borger 2008, 440).

            For ZA 10 pl. 2: 30 see now pa!-rak šá-áš-ši! K 69 + K 3007 (Borger 2008, 440 and Cohen, CLAM 502f. 27).

CAD P 148b: For AAA 22, 62 r. ii 32 see now Wiggermann 1992, 18: 290-295 (Borger 2008, 440).

            CAD P 149, a4’b’: add with Mayer 2008, 96: elī-ma tišab ina kussî parakki(BÁRA) šarrūtu SpTU I 1 iii 7’ (Nergal and Ereškigal) “go up and take your seat on the throne, the royal dais”; lā lamassi Uruk ina parakki(BÁRA)-šu ušeššeb SpTU I 3 r. 5 “he will let a non-protective deity of Uruk take the seat on his dais” (see also  SpTU I 3 r. 13f.).



3. SB Ug. (Gilg.) iḫīṭma mitḫāriš pa-rak-ke-e AuOr. Suppl. 23, 42: 5 “likewise he inspected the shrines”.



parāku I, NA parāḫu “to lie across, obstruct”


1. See Borger 2008, 440f. for a disc. of the logogram (after Borger GIB and not GIL as CAD P under parāku).


2. CAD P 156a, 2a (AHw 293b): read with Borger 2008, 441 gišdal = tallu TCL 3: 65 (instead of gišru). Cf. Boissier DA 16 iv 24 (CAD P 155a, 1c).


2. G a) CAD P 157, 3b2’: add with Streck 2007, 151: OB () ap-ri-ik Ištar ana šibbatu panīki Ištar Bagdad 21, 23 “I have not opposed wrath of your face”. See also here šibbatu.

CAD P 154b, 1b2’: add with Mayer 2008, 96 OB kummus-kunūšim immerum pa-ri-ku-nu-ši pa-a[t-rum ?] YOS 11, 23: 139 “the sheep kneels for you, the knife lies crosswise for you”.

            CAD P 156a, 2a: ša ... kīma šigari mātu/i par-kát CT 25, 10 ii 7 (AfO 50, 21: 7) “(goddess,) who like a door lock blocks the country” (Mayer 2008, 96).

            CAD P 157, 3b2’: with panuššu: ša ina uzzišu dannu ilu mamma lā i-par-ra-ku pānuššu BaM 21, 341: 6f. “(Adad), whom, in his violent rage, no god can oppose” (Mayer 2008, 96).

            CAD 158a, 3c (see also CAD P 408a pirku B 4): The obscure passage dŠamas na-ši-ku-um mutqī  7 u 7 / ša pirkī šinā ana kâšim pa-ar-ku YOS 11, 22: 42f. is interpreted by  Mayer 2008, 96f. as “Šamaš, I bring you seven and seven sweet cakes, which are lined crosswise in two rows for you”. For na-ši-ku-um =našękkum s. Or. 56, 204. Note that after Mayer 2008, 96 this passage belongs to CAD P 154b, 1b2’. Hurowitz HUCA 60, 69, however, connects pirkī parāku with aram. prk “zerkrümeln”: “Seven loaves the crumbs of which are crumbled for you” (see parāku II, below).

            CAD P 158b, 4a: šerʾam ip-ta-ar-ku FM 6 (2002) 465: 17 “(five plows have risen and) have cross-plowed the furrow”; eqlam mala pa-ar-ku kullimaššunūti id. 468: 34-35 “show them the field as much as it has been cross-plowed” (Mayer 2008, 97).



b) OA annakam PN ina bāb kārim kīma nēšim pá-ri-ik-ma AKT 6c, 528: 17 “here PN lies across the gate of the colony like a lion”.

OA with acc. (CAD ) 158 p. 3d): mamman lā pá-ar-kŕ-ku AKT 4, 66: 31 “I am not giving trouble to anybody”.


3. Gtn OB šāpir nārī ip-ta-na-ar-ri-ku-nim-ma “The heads of the river districts are constantly hindering me” AbB 13, 31: 10f.

mu-up-ta-ri-ik bītim (// é-a ku4-ku4) PBS 1/2, 135: 12’ “who constantly passes(?) the temple”. For the reading s. A. Cavgineaux, Fs. Limet p. 26. For the transl. here cf. CAD P 158 4b. A. Sövegjarto, NABU 2014/66, without mentioning Cavigneauxs new ed., reads mu-[uš]-ta-ri-ik “the entrusted one of the temple” and apparently derives the form from šarākum; however, neither Gtn nor Dt woul yield a mng. “the entrusted one”.



4. N, CAD P 160a, 7a: delete with Mayer 2008, 97 KAR 26: 37, since the spelling of the verbal form is ib-ba-šu-ni-ma, not “ip-par(text -ba)-ku-ni-ma” (CAD P 160a): s. Or 68, 150 (collation) and now also Schwemer, KAL 2, Nr. 21 (new copy).


The NA by-form parāḫu (AHw. 829 D 2, CAD P 159 5 c 2’) is also attested in the N-stem: mannumma lū?? isamma lū! lā ip-par-ri-ḫi SAA 16, 5: 11 “nobody should be undecided and stand in the way”. Cf. also Luukko/van Buylaere ib. p. 6.



parāku II “to crumble(?)”

not in the dictionaries


Stol 2008, 351 tentatively introduces parāku II “to crumble(?)” on the basis of pirkī parāku YOS 11, 22: 42f. (see parāku I G, above), connected by Hurowitz HUCA 60, 69 with aram. prk “zerkrümeln”. In note 97 Hurowitz suggests the same interpretation for šeʾum pirkum UET 5 60:14 “well ground / crumbled grain” (cf. CAD P 408a: “obscure”). Here probably also belongs piriktu I (an ingredient for making beer) (Stol 2008, 353).

See also parāku in par-ka-nu ina batqa (or matqâ?) ú-par-rak (or ú-ḫaš-šal) BM 50350: 6f. (Da Riva 2002, 111f.) “Er wird die querliegenden Erdklumpen mit einem batqu (or matqű-Werkzeug) zerschlagen” (Da Riva 2002, 112).



paramšītu (a garment)

only CAD


CAD P 161 translates GÚ paramšītu in OBTR 212: 2, 6, 8 as “a type of neck ornament”. Since GÚ is preceded by a phrase with TÚG in the previous line, Durand 2009, 71 rightly interprets GÚ here as an abbreviation of (túg)GÚ.Č = naḫlaptu “garment” and, therefore, paramšītu as a type of naḫlaptu. Furthermore, Durand assumes, that paramšītu should be read pa-ra-aḫ!-ši-tum and understood as a nisba from Marḫaši (Parḫaši, see CAD M/1, 280). Hence his translation “chemise ŕ la mode du Marḫaši (?)”. However, as Durand himself notes, the signs AḪ and AM can be distinguished very well in the copy of this text, which almost excludes this reading.



parāmu “to shred; to rend, to slice through


N (not in CAD; AHw. doesn’t have the lemma at all; but see CDA p. 265): NA kī ša kušE.SÍR šalqatuni ina qaqqar paqutti [kušE.SÍRme]š-ku-nu li-par-ma SAA 2, 6: 658 “just as this shoe is split, so may your [shoe]s be torn by thorns”. See also Watanabe, BagM, Beih. 3, 209 § 103 with Stol 2008, 351.

            S. also pirindu.



parāqu “to divide off, separate”


D (not in the dictionaries): LB: Add with Stol 2008, 351 ina TÚG širʾam tikkašu tu-par-ríq RA 78, 73: 34 “(if she abandons her husband,) she will ‘separate’ her neck from a tunic”, that may mean she must go unveiled as indication of loss of her status (see already Joannčs in RA 78, 75).



parāru “to be dissolved, broken up”; D “to break up, shatter”


1. G a) CAD P 162, 1: add DIŠ ip-ru-ur-ma ušḫarrir TDP 190: 26 “if he became weak and lapsed into silence” with AHw 829b and Stol 2008, 351 (in CAD B 107a quoted under barāru B). See, however, the disc. in Durand, LAPO 16, 101, who interprets the verb as barāru “to speak blasphemous” (see CAD B 107a and here barāru II).


b) For parīru (Stol 2008, 351) see below.



2. D a) OB, said of muḫḫu “brain” (George 2013, 283f.): muḫḫu pu-ru-ur CUSAS 18, 43: 1, 5, 8 and passim in this text “the brain is jagged”. Cf. CAD P 152 p. A 2b for parāru with body parts.

            OB lit. qinnašu ú-pa-ar-ri-ir i 20 “he dispersed his family”.


b) OA “to disperse”: bītam lā tů-pá-ra-ar AKT 2, 31: 21 “don’t disperse the house!”


c) MB Ekalte ṣuḫārta ummiši [ú-]pá-ri-ru “the mother released(?) the girl” WVDOG 102, 25: 19.



c) LB, CAD P 163b, 2f.: add with Mayer 2008, 97: lū parsā lū purrusā lū pur-ru-ra gillātūʾa (var. saklātūʾa) u maskātūʾa BBR 26 iii 6-7 // SpTU II 12 ii 12f. “may my sins (var. my follies) and my wickedness be cut, separated, dissolved”.


d) For abnu li-pa-ri-ir-šú BM 76023 + 83009 (CAD P 162b) see now AMD 3, 407 no. 149b: 5 (Stol 2008, 351).


3. For LKA 155 r. 3 (after Stol 2008, 351 Dtn kiṣall[a] up-ta-na-ra-ra) see now AMD 8/1, 259 (text 8.2): 67): kiṣall[āya] up-ta-na-ṭa-ra (var. up-ta-na-aṭ-ṭa-[ra]) “my ankles slacken repeatedly” (see here paṭāru Dtn).


4. Ntn: add with Stol 2008, 351: it-ta-pa-ar-ru, it-ta-pa-ar-ra-ru RA 86, 48, note 73, Di 620: 17, 20 “(the oxen) are running around”.


5. Corrections for CT 20, 49: 12; K.17214:4’ (CAD P 163a above) and CT 20 5 15 (CAD P 163b below): CAD P 161ff. interprets the logogram for parāru in all three examples as KAL. See, however, AHw 1581b and especially Borger 2008, 441, who argues for the logogram DIR. 



pá-ra-sa-ti-im (?) (mng. uncl.); OAkk

not in the dictionaries


pá-ra-sa-ti-im occurs in an OAkk lit. text (Fs Sjöberg p. 34 i 2), which concerns an evil-eye-stone ([N]A4 ēnam [la]muttam). After Biggs 1989, 34, p. might be derived from parāsu “to block”.



parasu s. paršu


parāsu I “to cut (off); decide”


1. CAD P 166a below, lex. sec.: In 4R 28* no. 4 r. 43f. read with Borger 2008, 442 ki lá-lá-a-zu = uṭ-ṭe-tum iš-šaq-lu-šu (instead of = tamṭītu iššaqlušu).


2. G a) OB, CAD P 168, 1f: add with Streck 2007, 151 pa-ar-sŕ-at Ištar Ištar Bagdad 18 “you are far away, Ištar”.



b) OA šumma luqūtka i-pá-ru-sú-ni-ma itabbulūnim AKT 7a, 260: 15 “if they divide your merchandise and bring it to me”.

            With ištī (cf. CAD P 172 p. 4f1’ end): bāʾam pu-ru-us-ma ... ištī awīlim a-pá-ra-as-ma Imdilum p. 278: 9’–11’ “’Come, decide ...!’ I will decide about the man”.


3. Gt OB šumma qaqqadāt rēʾîm še-e-na-ma pí-it-ru-sa CUSAS 18 p. 301: 15’ “if there are two heads on the ‘shepherd’ (gall bladder) and they are separate”.

            In the sense of “to apportion” (cf. CAD P 170 p. 2) said of bitumen, in OB Finkel 2014: 18f., see iṭṭű.



4. D: šēpu + parāsu (cf. CAD P 169a, li2’): add with Mayer 2008, 97 šē[p l]emutti ina bītiya pur-ru-sa / ... šēp lemutti pur-ru-sa SpTU 5, 246 iii 13’f. “to keep the ‘evil foot’ away (from my house)”.

Add with Stol 2008, 351 amursāna tu-pa-ra-as YOS 11, 25: 47 “you divide the wild pigeon” (recipe, see Bottéro 1995, 49).


5. AHw 830b, parāsu I G, 1c: read with Lambert 1974, 83 Erra ii c 17 (instead of Era ii c 16); the next passage Or. 27, 142: 5 = Erra iii a 20A (both passages are correctly quoted in CAD P 168a, 1e and 167a, 1a).


6. Note that the verb in Streck Asb. 28 iii 83 is interpreted as ip-ru-us-ma “he isolated the citizens of Babylon” in CAD P 171, 3b (so also AHw 831a and BIWA 39 III 83) and as ip-ru-uṣ-ma “he lied to the Babylonians” in CAD P 178b, 2 (so also Streck Asb. and Jensen KB 2, 184f., who, however consider both possibilities). See Borger 2008, 442.

CAD P 168b, 1g: for the correct spelling of parāsu in Piepkorn Asb. 72 vi 46 see now BIWA 106 B VI 46 (with Borger 2008, 442): ap-ru-us (var. ap-ru-sa!; ap-ru-us-sa; not ap-ru-sŕ as CAD).



parāṣu II “to carry out a ritual”


Parpola 1979, 30 derives ni-ip-tar-ṣa ABL 977 r. 2 (AHw parāṣu II) from parāṣu I “to break” in the meaning “to proceed (to do something); to transgress” (for comm. see Parpola 1983, 212 r.2), since parāṣu II does not occur in G. See also his translation in SAA 10, 296: “On the 1st day we initiated the rites (to be performed) in Adar”. CAD P 179a quotes ABL 977 under parāṣu A “to lie; to transgress” with uncert. mng.



paraštinnu (a demon)


1. AHw 832b: read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 109 (not 104), 174.


2. CAD P 179b: for K 4656+ see also Wiggermann 1992, 201 Fig. 8 and p. 117 (Borger 2008, 442).



parašű see paraḫšű.


parāšu “to flatter”


1. See also Durand LAPO 16, 101 (with Stol 2008, 351), who interprets parāšu as “tenir des propos mordants, piquants”.



2. Gtn (not in the dict.): OB lit. [pí-ta-ar-r]a!-as-si pí-ta-ar-ra-si! (ed.: -as!-<si>] CUSAS 10, 11: 1 “flatter her, flatter her!” A. George, ib. p. 67, 69 derives the word from parāsu (“keep her apart!”). For the combination of /s/ and /š/, however, we expect a spelling with(ZI) (Streck 2006, 231), which the text uses elsewhere in ḫu-us-sí-ni l. 8, whereas the combination /š/ and /š/ may be spelled si (Streck ib. 239).



parāṭu “to tear, clear away; flicker (in astronom. context)”


1. G “flicker” in astronomical context (Parpola 1993, 89; cf. CAD P 180 “uncert. mng.”): šumma mišḫu IM.U18.LU iškun iškun-ma imṣur imṣur-ma GUB-iz GUB-iz-ma ip-ru-uṭ ip-ru-uṭ-ma issapiḫ NUN ina KASKAL DU-ku NÍG.NAM NÍG.GÁL.LA ŠU.2-su KUR-ad SAA 10, 111: 7 if a flash appears and appears again in the south, makes a circle and again makes a circle, stands there and again stands there, flickers and flickers again, and is scattered: the ruler will capture property and possessions in his expedition”.


2. Gt OB hapax: add with Streck 2003a, 63 (see also Streck 2007, 151)  [dā rē]ʾîm i[mittam] p[i]t-ru-ṭa-ma šumēla[m] [s]armā ARM 26/1, 155, 15-17 “the base of the gall bladder was completely torn on the right and cut on the left”. Note that CAD P 143b interprets the verb as p[i]t-ru-da-ma, Gt of parādu “to be confused”.



parāʾu II “to sprout”

see also parāḫu


AHw. parāḫu I “gären”(= CAD parāḫu “to sprout”) is in fact the same verb as AHw. parāʾu II “aufgehen” (= CAD parāʾu B “to sprout, flourish”): root PRʾ, the aleph spelled in OB and SB lex. Pace CAD P 182, there is no need to assume a denomination of pirʾu “shoot”. Note that the verb is a-class in OB (ip-ta-ra-aḫ) but u-class in NA (i-par-ru-ʾ].



paraʾuru (mng. uncert.)


After CAD P 182a paraʾurum should be deleted since Wiseman Alalakh 1: 19 reads, with CAD, še(!)-ra ú-ra-am (cf. AHw 833: pa-ra-ú-ra-am). The reading of AHw is, however, confirmed by the copy in UF 36, 47f. (Stol 2008, 351): dIštar assinnam (SAG.UR.SAG) pa-ra-ú-ra-am ina birkišu li-TE-eb-bi (curse). AHw connects p. with parrű, a cultic functionary of Ištar. However, after Lauinger 2015, 284, “the writing paraʾuram in place of the expected parrâm is difficult to explain” (see also id. 283, note 49) and a “cultic functionary of Ištar” would not fit the context. Hence his translation: “may Ištar sink the paraʾurum into his loins, as with an assinnum (adv. acc.)” (Lauinger 2015, 134). Note that Frayne 1990, 800 and Zsolnay 2010, 400, note 35 assume a meaning of p. similar to mutūtu “manliness”: “and may the goddess Eštar, (as with) a eunuch, cause potency to leave his private parts” (Frayne); “may Eštar, (as with) an assinnu, cause potency to flow out from his loins” (Zsolnay).



parāzu “to thresh (?)”

only CAD


pardannu (an illness)


CAD P 182a: read with MesZL 117f. and 124 (see also Borger 2008, 442) in KAR 73: 18 [pa]r7(NA4)-dan-nu instead of []r-dan-nu (so in CAD).



pardēsu “enclosed garden”


For PSBA 18 pl. 3 see now (with Stol 2008, 351) Gesche 2000, 631 (BM 76496). See also kurpar-an-[de]-e-zu in Gesche 2000, 629 (BM 76478 v 4f.).



pardu “afraid, fearful; frightening, terrifying”


AHw 833a: Read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 162 (not 155), 153; 185 (not 178), 46; 205 (not 198), 35.



pargallu (a kind of sheep)

only CAD, CDA


1. The first OB Mari reference for this elsewhere only NB attested word: ma-a-tum ka-lu-ša i-na la b[a-še-e] pa-ar-ga-li ṣa-al-[l]a-at “The entire land lies there for lack of p.-sheep” M.9050 (ARM 26/1, 201 n. 9; see also Stol 2008, 351).


2. MB Ekalte [1] līttu 1 pár-ga-lu “[1] cow, 1 p.-sheep” WVDOG 102, 19: 17.



pargāniš “on the meadow”


For pár-KI- KUB 37 188, 8 (after Labat 1973, 58 pár-gi5-iš) see CAD P 187 under parkiš.



parḫudű (a class of person)


AHw 833b: read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 171 (not 164), 470; 197 (not 190), 1.



pariktu “wall, curtain; injustice”


1. SB kīma ša bāʾirimma pa-ri-ik-ta šēt Šūpę-amēli 29 “escape the fence like that of a hunter!” ana šupšuqti ša āl GN pa-ri-ik-ti di-ni Šūpę-amēli 28 “for the difficulty of the city of GN is my(?) injustice (and) my(?) justice” (unclear).

2. NA 3 túgpa-ri-kát sikiZA.GĚN.NA StAT 1: 29 “3 curtains of blue wool”.



2. For di(-in)-kul-di in 1R 70 iii 16 and BBSt. No. 8 iv 12 (CAD P 185b) see here dikkuldű.



parīru “dispersed troop(?)”, MB Emar

not in the dictionaries


In omen apodoses, always in the pl.: qīt pa-ri-ri-ia Emar 698: 21 “end of my dispersed troops(?)”. [qīt p]a-ri-ri nakri ib. 22 “[end of the dis]persed troops of the enemy”. pa-ri-ri nakri aṣabbat ib. 32 “I will seize the dispersed troops(?) of the enemy”. pa-ri-ri-ia nakru iṣabbat ib. 33 “The enemy will seize my dispersed troops(?)”.  In broken context: [pa-r]i-ri-ia, [pa-ri-]ri ib. 701: 6f. Cf. Arnaud in Emar 6/4, 323, note 21–22, and Pentiuc 2001, 138. See also George 2013, 182. Cf. barīru III.



parīsu I “rudder, boat/pole”


1. After Stol BiOr 57, 628, the basic meaning of parīsu I could be a “board (of a door or ship)”.


2. On the basis of lexical entries Lambert 1974, 83 (with previous lit.) assumes two words parīsu: 1. gišmá.rí.za = pa/par-ri-is-su MSL 5, 172: 254ff. “some part of a boat’s structure, used in quantity on a single boat” and 2. gišgi.muš = pa-ri-su MSL 5, 184: 407f. “piece of equipment for propelling a boat”, used one at a time.


3. CAD P 186a, d: add with Mayer 2008, 97 literary passages: [pa-r]i-si ša ṣuppā 5 šūši iksam Gilg. OB VA+BM iv 27 “cut me three hundred (lit. 5x60) [punting]-poles, each one ṣuppu (= sixty cubits)” (George 2003, 280f.); erid ana qištimma pa-ri-si ša 5 nindanā [5x60 ik-sa] Gilg. SB X 160 “go down to the forest and [cut me three hundred (lit. 5x60)] punting-poles, each 5 rods long” (George 2003, 688f.; Gilg. SB X 166, 176-180); āmur pa-ri-su u ḫišiḫtum addī Gilg. SB XI 65 “I found a punting-pole and put the tackle in place” (George 2003, 706f.; see also Gilg. SB XI 276); ina gipiš tâmti rapašti <…> gišMÁ.GUR8 bāʾiri lībukū ina pa-ri-su Cagni Erra IV 49 “may they lead the fisherman’s barge with the punting-pole(s) in the expanse of the vast sea <…>”.



4. Emar: [...gi-]muš = ṣerrat pa-ri-si Emar 545: 542 “rope of the rudder”.



parīsu II “a measure of capacity”


1. The abbreviation pa, already attested in Alalaḫ, also occurs in MB Qaṭna, see QS 3 index p. 185.



2. See also Wolters “Metrological PRS-terms from Ebla to Mishna“, Eblaitica 4, 223–241” (with Stol 2008, 351).



parku “transverse”


1. CAD P 188a under parku and 67a under palkű considers pa-ar-ku in Atr. 78 iv 8 // HE 529: 5 as a by-form of palkű “broad, vast”. Mayer 2008, 97 argues for parku “transverse”: OB ṣēru pa-ar-ku malī idrāna Atr. 78 iv 8 “the cross-ploughed (or “lying across”) open country is full of salt”.


2. Jursa AfO Beih. 25, 125 interprets parku with by-form pašku as “querliegende (Erdschollen)”. Cf. CAD P 187f., which understands parku “trasversal” and parku A/pašku “a physical feature in a date palm orchard” as two different lexemes.


3. par-ka-nu ina batqa (or matqâ?) ú-par-rak (or ú-ḫaš-šal) BM 50350: 6f. (Da Riva 2002, 111f.) “He will crush the ‘obstructive clod of soil (?)’ with a batqu (or matqű-tool)” (Da Riva 2002, 112 with Stol 2008, 351, see also here parāku II).


4. parku perhaps also occurs in NB Ě šá? KI SŮ pa-aš-ka ŠÉŠ-ma tuškęn A.RA.ZU[-ka GIŠ TUKU] SpTU 3, 76: 45 (Zgoll 2003, 114) “with oil you have sprinkled the ground, you smear the ‘obstructive clod of soil(?)’ and prostrate yourself. Your prayer will be answered”. Zgoll 2003, 119 leaves pa-aš-ka untranslated but suggests in n. 256 the following interpretations: “einen Holzklotz / Erdklumpen; deine Axt?”. Cf. CAD P 268b “your ax” (pāš-ka).



5. OA mng. “harm, problem”: pá-ar-ki-a qallil AKT 7a, 41: 24 “diminish my problems!”



parkullu, purkullu “seal-cutter, lapidary”


1. OB: After Stol 2008, 353 the correct reading in AJSL 33, 232 no. 19: 2 (CAD P 519f.) is GUD.ḪI.A (instead of KAŠ.ḪI.A), since KAŠ.ḪI.A does not occur in OB. Hence the translation: “6 oxen, gift of PN, the stone carver”.

            For PBS 8/2, 185: 6 (CAD P 119b, a2’) s. pūru I here.


2. SB: muḫrī ša BUR.GUL sāmta simat kišādiki RA 18, 163 r. 27 “accept from the gem-cutter carnelian befitting your neck” (inc. against Lamaštu, see already Salonen 1970, 443 and now also Farber 2014, 268ff. and 298f.).



parparḫű (a herb, phps.) “purslane, Portulaca species”


1. In the bilingual text Or.95/3 (pract. voc.; see Süel / Soysal in Studies H. A. Hoffner (2003) 360 ad 353 Vs. § 8), PAR.PAR.ḪI.A is identified with Hitt. ga-lu-lu-u-pí-iš (pl. from kalulupa “finger”), s. Stol 2008, 350.


2. CAD P 109b below: Th. 1905-4-9,90+95 is identical with AMT 45/5 r. 4 (Borger 2008, 440, Stol 2008, 350).



parrāṣāyu (?) “lying, mendacious, criminal”

not in the dictionaries


MA DUMU pár-ra-ṣa-ie-e qí-bi-áš-šu “Call him ‘son of criminals’!” Chuera 2: 13f.



parratu “young female lamb”


Many MA ref. BATSH 9/3 p.195 (index).



parriku (mng. uncl.)


In AHw 834b read with Salonen 1970, 443 MSL 12, 204 (not 197), 11; 158 (not 151), 13; 177 (not 170), 16.



parru I “(male) lamb”


Durand NABU 1991/30 (with Stol 2008, 351) connects parru I with pāru in 2 (PI) ina bīt papāḫim 3 (BÁN) GU4 pa-a-ru-um ŠU.NIGIN ŠE ZI.GA TLB 1, 184: 10 (CAD P 210a: pāru F “mng. unkn.”; AHw 836b: pāru IV a “ein Rind?”). He derives both words from parāru “to be broken up”, and assumes, on the basis of ARM 24, 42, that they denote the young animal weaned from its mother: [x] ÁB MU-2 [x] ÁB MU-1 [x] ÁB pa-ra-tu[m] 2 AMAR GA “x cows, (which are) two years old, x cows, (which are) 1 year old, x weaned cows, 2 suckling calfs”.

According to this assumption, mother’s milk of pa-a-ru-um in TLB 1, 184 above is already replaced by other nourishment (ŠE).

See also the following attestation of parru “(male) lamb” and parratu “(female) lamb” in Mari with adjectival pl.: 1 ME 83 UDU pa-ar-ru-tu u pa-ar-ra-tum baqmūtu “183 shorn male and female weaned lambs”.

Note, however, that the different spellings don’t favor the assumption of parru and pāru as the same word. All the same pāru could be another Akk. reflex of the root prr (Militarev/Kogan 2005, 240).



parrű I “base, common; (homosexual) lover”


In AHw 834b read with Salonen 1970, 444 MSL 12, 134 (not 129), 182.



**parrű II (kind of emmer broth)


For parrű II (AHw 835a; CDA 267a) see, with CAD P 192b, utrű CAD U 337b and MesZL 148.




only CAD P 192b


K. R. Veenhof, AKT 5 p. 111 n. 112, suggests the mng. “separately” for ap-parsāti- (CAD P 192 “mng. unkn.”). S. also parsu.



parsikallu (a (head)band (?)); OB Mari

not in the dictionaries


parsikallu is a Sumerian loanword and is attested mainly in the Mari texts (see Durand 2009, 82f.) as par-si-kál-l[i]-im (T.341: 22); túgpa-ar-si-ka-al-li (M.6001: 6); túgpár-si-kal-li (ARM 22, 175: 5’); túgpar-si-kal-li-im (M.18222 ii’10’); (túg)BAR.SI.GAL/KAL (ARM 21, 294: 14’; ARM 18, 49: 8; T.327: 3 etc.).

Outside Mari it occurs only in late lexical lists that equate the term with nargītu “a headband” and paskāru “a headdress” (see CAD N/1, 352): túgBAR.SI.GAL = nar-gi-tum (Ḫḫ 19: 250); [túgBAR.S]I.GAL = [nar]-gi-tum = pa-ás-ka-rumkír (MSL 10, 142).

Several attestations of parsikallu are quoted by CAD P 204b under paršīgu “turban” (ARM 18, 49: 8, etc.). The syllabic writings above, however, demonstrate clearly that paršīgu (BAR.SI) and parsikallu (BAR.SI.GAL/KAL) are two different words (Durand 2009, 78-83). See also ARM 22, 324: 28 and 45ff., where BAR.SI.KAL and BAR.SI refer to two different sections.

According to the lexical lists parsikallu seems to denote a headband. Note T.345: 17’, where parsikallu is mentioned, consisting of several different tissues: [x] TÚGḫá ša BAR.SI.GAL. Remarkably, parsikallu was also used as a bandage: 1 túgBAR.SI.KAL <...> a-na PN inūma im-ra-[ṣú] (ARM 22, 145: 2 and 6f.) “1 parsikallu bandage for PN when he became si[ck]”. See also the following passages from Tell Leilan (Durand 2009, 83): 6 BAR.SI SAG GAL a-na ra-ka-as 3 PN (AWTL 85: 1) “6 big headbands for bandaging 3 PN; x BAR.SI SAG GAL a-na ṣa-ma-ad še-ep PNf (AWTL 86: 1-3) “x big headbands for bandaging the foot of PNf”. Durand 2009, 83 tentatively quotes these spellings under parsikallu and considers them as “une notation en désordre d’une séquence idéogrammatique complexe”. However, these forms can well belong to paršīgu.





See paršīgu.


parsiktu I “bushel measure”


1. parsiktu “bushel measure” (CAD P 192f.) and paršiktu “a plank, part of a boat” (CAD P 205) are, also with Kraus AbB 10, 115, note 126 a (s. Stol 2008, 351), two different words (differently AHw 835a).


2. CAD P 193a, a2’: After Stol 2008, 351, read VAS 13, 27: 2 GIŠ.BA.RÍ.GA É na(!)-kam-tum (instead of GIŠ.BA.RÍ.GA šu(text: GÁN)-zu-ub-tum).



parsiktu II


See paršiktu II.


parsu I “cut off; definitive”


1. Read with Salonen 1970, 444 in AHw 835a MSL 12, 166 (not 159), 265.


2. For the meaning “definitive” (CAD P 195a) see already Parpola 1979, 30.


3. CAD P 194b, 1d: Instead of pa-az-ru Iraq 30 pl. 25 read pa-as-ru (metathesis of par-su, BIWA 39 A III 73).

            CAD P 194a, 1’-2’: Stol 2008, 351 translates bītu parsu “separated room” (with CAD B 291b) instead of “separate house”.



4. OA pa-ar-sŕ-ti-kŕ awâtim ušēṣiʾ AKT 5, 18: 5 “he has disclosed confidential matters of you”. S. also parsātu.



parsu II “fraction”

not in the dictionaries


sa9 ma-na = pa-ra-[as MA].NA Emar 553: 222 “1/2 mina = fracti[on] of the [mi]na”, s. DCCLT MB Ura 10. Cf. parasrab and paras-ṣeḫru CAD P 164f.



parṣu “office; (cultic) ordinance”


1. Said of a city: OB Mari ana pa-ar-ṣí ša ālim FM 7, 35: 10’ “according to the customs(?) of the city” (broken context).


2. OA a payment or tax (CAD P 202 p. 7a): manāʾum pá-ra-aṣ lā tašaqqal AKT 6c, 638: 24 “(one) mina is the p. tax – will you not pay it?”


3. SB ina pīšu uṣű pa-ra-aṣ ūmī aḫirâti Šūpę-amēli 5 “from whose mouth came forth the ordinance for days to come”.



4. CAD P 197a, 1a2’: ekur kiṣṣa ella gummurū par-ṣu-[ša] BM 75974: 19 (Mayer 2008, 97) “Ekur, pure shrine: her (of Gula) rites are completed”.

CAD P 198, 1c (personification of parṣū): attunu GARZA šarḫūtu ša ili u ištari qū[lā(-ma)] KAR 38: 32 (Maul, BaF 18, 424; Mayer 2008, 97) “you, proud parṣū of the god and the goddess, beware!”. After Mayer 2008, 97, parṣū designate here symbolic figures or other objects used in the ritual. S. also e.g. ana mahar GARZA paṭīru tukān KAR 38: 26 “you install a portable altar before parṣū”.

CAD P 198b, 1d: ša ina kissat par-ṣi kunnât AfO 50, 21: 2 (Mayer 2008, 97) “(Goddess), who is praised in all rituals”.

parṣū in ilū šūt parṣī (deities, who are involved in the rituals in question, s. Mayer 2008, 97f.): udašši serqī ellūti ana DINGIRmeš šu-ut PA.ANmeš CTN 4, 168 ii 2 “I provided the gods of the rituals with pure offerings”; DINGIRmeš šu-ut pár-ṣi likkišū murṣu ša zumriya id. ii 8 “may the gods of the rituals drive the disease of my body away (from me)”; 7 u 7 ana DINGIRmeš šu-ut pár-ṣi imitta u šumēla ina muḫḫi šammi kirî tašakkan id. ii 27 “7 and 7 (fruits) you put to the left and to the right on the garden plants for the gods of the rituals”.

CAD P 199b, 2b: read with Stol 2008, 351 a-we-lum ů lu a-we-e[l-tum] YOS 13, 202: 4 (instead of awīlum ulu <DUMU> awīlim, so CAD).

            CAD P 200b, 3: after Mayer 2008, 98 the verbal form OB [attabal-ma] (cf. SB at-bal (var. at-ta-bal) in RA 46 94: 5 should be interpreted as Perf. G “I have taken away” (cf. CAD: “I organize”).    

CAD P 201a, 3: For Bauer Asb. 47 see comm. in BIWA 72 x 62.

            CAD P 201a, 4: possibly here belongs after Mayer 2008, 98 našâkki pár-ṣi (var. PA.ANmeš, *P[A...]) ša taḫšuḫī KAR 107; 39’ // 358: 26’ // KAH II 139 Rs. 6’ “(the lord) brings you the insignia which you have desired”.

            CAD P 201b, 6: OB ana pa-ar-ṣi ša ālim tu[rrim FM 7 no. 35: 10’ “to restore the (legal) customs of the city” (Mayer 2008, 98).



paršīgu, parsikku “headdress, turban”


1. By-form pars/šīku or pars/šikku: OA pá-ar-si/ší-ke AKT 6b, 429: 7. Cf. CAD P 203b p. a 2’.



2. The following passages from Tell Leilan (Durand 2009, 83) possibly belong here, too: 12 BAR.SI SAG GAL (AWTL 83: 1) “12 big headbands”; 6 BAR.SI SAG GAL a-na ra-ka-as 3 PN (AWTL 85: 1) “6 big headbands for bandaging 3 PN; x BAR.SI SAG GAL a-na ṣa-ma-ad še-ep PNf (AWTL 86: 1-3) “x big headbands for bandaging the foot of PNf”. Durand 2009, 83, however, tentatively quotes these spellings under parsikallu (see under parsikallu). For new instances of parsikku in Mari see Durand 2009, 78-82.



paršiktu II, parsiktu II “turban (?); a part of the rigging (?)”

not in the dictionaries


Durand 2009, 83, distinguishes parš/siktu (= BAR.SI) as a feminine form of paršīgu from parsiktu (= GIŠ.BA.RÍ.GA) “a measure of capacity” (CAD P 192) and paršiktu (= GIŠ.EME.SIG) “a plank, part of a boat” (CAD P 205).

The equation BAR.SI = parš/siktu is secured by two lexical entries: gišTAGxTÚGše-ra-BAR.SI = (ṣi-ṣi-tum) šá par-sik-ti (Ḫḫ 5, 303, see MSL 6, 31; quoted in CAD P 203 wrongly as par-sik-ki); gada!BAR.SI MÁ : ba-ar-si-ma-a = pá-ar-si-ik!-t[um ša] i-l[i-pí-im] (school text MDP 18, 56; reading after Durand 2009, 184). After Durand 2009, 83 parš/siktu occurs in Mari in ARM 19, 321: 3: 1 3 MA.NA ni-is-Kum 2 KI.LÁ.BI [pár-s]í*-ik*-tin. paršiktu in AbB 4, 140, which is quoted in CAD P under paršiktu “a plank, part of a boat”, Durand 2009, 184 considers as belonging to this parš/siktu, too. Depending on the context, Durand 2009, 601, interprets parš/siktu either as “keffieh” or as “amarre”.



paršu, parasu “excrement”


1. In AHw under paršu read with Salonen 1970, 444, MSL 12, 106 (not 101), 73.


2. Lex. sec.: add with Stol 2008, 351 in-gar-bi = pa-ra-sú (Foxvog, Fs. Sjöberg (1989) 168: 16).



3. Also MA: GN gabbu kī pa-ar-še da-li-iḫ BATSH 4/1, 9: 41 “the entire land GN is stirred up like excrement” (see also Stol 2008, 351).



paršumu D “to outlive”; Dtt “reach a great age”


parű I “mule”


1. Lex. sec.: add with Stol 2008, 351: x = ANŠE.ŠÚ.AN = pa-ru-ú MSL 15, 61 Ur Diri 26.


2. CAD P 207a: read with Frahm 1997, 105b (see also MesZL 271 and Borger 2008, 442) in OIP 2, 130 vi 66 (Senn.)  a-ga-li-i til!(BAD)-li (instead of BI-li).


3. The mules of Šamaš (after Mayer 2008, 98; see already Bīt rimki 57: 63 in CAD P 207a, a): pa-ru-ú-ka ḫanṭūtu li x x x -ka Gilg. III 96 “let your swift mules ... you” (after George 2003, 814 this refers to the mules “that pull the sun’s chariot through the sky”); ul ʾ-da-ru (var. lā i-ad-da-ru) pa-r[u]-ka BWL 128: 41 (hymn to Šamaš) “your mules will not be darkened/ do not become restless” (cf. BWL: “nor is your surface darkened”); pa-ru-ka ezzū šamrū id. 134: 150 “your mules are furious and impetuous” (cf. BWL: “your harsh face”).

Cf. the mules of Nisaba: ina pa-re-e dNisaba duššűti ... SpTU IV 141 r. 9 “with the magnificent mules of Nisaba ...”.



parű III “to speak basely(?)”


CAD P 209a, a: Note with Stol 2008, 351 the different translation of Charpin FM 5, 34 (see also Charpin CRRAI 43, 100f., note 37) for pa-ru-ú-um ip-ri A. 731:12: “(Mon seigneur Zimri-Līm) se conformé en tout (ŕ Yaggid-Līm et Yaḫdun-Līm)”.



parű IV “to vomit”


SB Ug. pa-ra-a ana parāsi AuOr. Suppl. 23, 25: 3, 15 “to stop vomiting” (incantation).



pāru I “a song”    


OB lit. pa-[r]u-ú VS 10, 215: 28a, s. Streck/Wasserman 2012, 193.



pāru II, bāru “skin”


1. Lex. GA-kišib-lá-mu = ba-ri rittiya CUSAS 12 p. 156 vii 19 (Ugumu) “skin of my hand”.


2. First OB ref. in CUSAS 18, 19: 41, see piʾazu.



pâru I “to seek”


After Streck 2007, 151, the only reference for the Gt stem in CAD P 210b is Perf. G (see also AOAT 303, 78 no. 203).



paruktu “sail”


Beaulieu 2003, 385 discovered a new instance of paruktu, which he translates as “canvas”, in the Neo-Babylonian Eanna archive: “2 gadašal-ḫu šá pa-ru-uk-ti ‘two šalḫu cloths for a canvas’” (NCBT 1069: 8).



parūru (a form of malt)


For parūru, a sort of porridge (“Mehlbrei”), see Deller Or. 54, 327 (with Stol 2008, 351).



parūtu I (a kind of alabaster)


1. For the reference Cole Nippur 116: 16 (CAD P 211b, b, at the end of section) see with Streck 2007, 151 parūtu IV “female mule”.


2. parūtu probably also occurs  in EA 13: 31: […] ů pa-[ru]-ti “and al[aba]ster” (Moran 1992, 25 and 26, note13).



parūtu IV “female mule”

not in the dictionaries


1. Ref. in CAD P 211 parūtu A b end.



2. pa-ru-tu Cole Nippur 116: 16 after parű “mule” in a list on a school tablet. Cf. šaḫű/šaḫītu “boar/sow” ib. l. 3f.). For the form parūtu cf. rubūtu (Streck 1999, 295 no. 116 and id. 2007, 151).



parūtu V, parītu “insulting speech”


Add with Mayer 2008, 98 the first ref. outside of syn. list: ikkib rubę pa-ru-ti pīšat lā qabę īpussu SpTU III 58 iii 32’ “what he did to him is a taboo for the prince, an offence, an unutterable insult”; pa-ri-tu4 aj aqbi Or. 59, 450: 19’ “may I not say something mean”.



parzikku “saddle hook (?)”, Sum. lw.

CAD P 212a: “mng. uncert.”; AHw 837b: “ein Gerät”


For the possible mng. of parzikku s. Civil 1987, 47 (with Stol 2008, 351): he interprets the Sumerian part of the lexical equations gišDAG-si as “a part of the donkey’s harness for hanging leather bags on for transportation”, that means “some kind of knob, ring, or hook for hanging the bags”. par-zik(-kum) is a lw. of  gišDAG-si, which therefore has to be read pŕr-si(.g) (not dag-si).



parzillu “iron”


1. OA annuqum ša pár-zi-lim AKT 3, 97: 21f. “an iron ring”.



2. Correct Streck Asb. 28 iii 59 (CAD P 214a, 1c) after BIWA 39 A III 59f. (with Borger 2008, 442): PN PN2 <…> ina ṣiṣṣī išqātī AN.BAR biręti AN.BAR utammeḫa qātē u šēpē.



pasāḫu D “to drive away”


See with Stol 2008, 351 also napsuḫtu.


pasālu “to turn (away)”


For the correct interpretation of ip-sil urḫašuma la alāka iqbīšu Lie Sar. 368 (CAD P 217a, c) see Fuchs 1994, 331: 309 and note 344 (with Borger 2008, 442): this passage is a quotation from the Epic of Anzu describing the refusal of the deities to fight against Anzu. The translation is: “He (Elamite) turned away, saying him (Marduk-aplu-iddina), he (Elamite) would not make the expedition”.



pasāmu, pesēnu “to veil”


1. G mannu ša ummânu ina pānīšu ibaššűma lapā[n šarr]i i-pe-si-nu u [an]a ēkalli [lā iš]apparu SAA 18, 131 r. 4 “whoever has a scholar in his presence but hides him fr[om the kin]g and [does not s]end him [t]o the palace”.



2. For joins to K 8678 (CAD P 217b, 1) see AfO 50, 143b (in the middle) and Borger 2008, 442.


3. Dt: ašar dīšu up-ta-ṣa-na LKA 15: 2b (Mayer 2008, 98) “where the grass is hidden”.



4. N (not in the dictionaries) NB amāt šarri tap-pe-es-si-i[n] SAA 18, 131: 21 “the king’s word will be suppressed (lit. concealed)”.



pasāsu “to erase”


1. D a) OB Mari: [tupp]i bēlija ša PN [u] PN2 ublūnim pu-sú!-us-ma šitassâšu ul eleʾʾī FM 8, 47 r. 18–21 (the ed., by mistake, has -sú-sú-) “the tablet of my lord, which PN and PN2 have brought to me, is erased and I can not read it”.

Obj. dīnu: OB šumma dīni tu-pa-as-sŕ-as pu-ús-s[í]-ia RATL 83: 12f. “if you want to cancel my verdict, cancel (it)!”


            1-šu 2-šu adīnšu u dayyānū qātamma idīnūšu dīnī u dayyānī ú-pá-sŕ-as ARM 5, 39: 13 “several times I have made a judgment against him and the judges sentenced him likewise. But he annulles my sentence and the judges”. Cf. CH xlii 28: dīn adīnu up-ta-as-sí-is “(if  that man) annuls the judgment I rendered”. See Heimpel NABU 1997/5 and Durand LAPO 18, 248f. (with Stol 2008, 351).


b) NA: NA4 lissuḫšu NA4 līkulšu NA4 liskipšu NA4 lišpīšu NA4 li-pa-sis-su TU6 ÉN AMD 3 no. 156: 23’; AMD 3 no. 149a: i 23’ (inc.) “May the stone cut it down. May the stone absorb it. May the stone fend it off. May the stone seal it up. May the stone obliterate it: spell (and) recitation”. This passage is quoted incorrectly in CAD P 249a, 3a under pašāšu (as Köcher BAM 503 i 23’). See Stol 2008, 351.


2. Read with Borger 2008, 442 in CAD P 219a, lex. sec. above Maul Eršahunga 269 no. 59: 6’f. instead of Maul Eršahunga 369 no. 5: 6’f.

For K 8871 (CAD P 219b, 1b) see now also K 9633 (Borger 2008, 442).



pasigu (a bird).

not in the dictionaries


OB pa-si-gu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 27 (in list of birds).  Cf. (pa)siggű “a canal”?



pasīlānu(?) (mng. uncertain); Ug. WSem. lw(?).

not in the dictionaries


The reading of  PRU 6, 158: 5 is uncertain. Nougayrol (PRU 6, 120, 158: 5) reads 1 karpatkap(?)-pa-al(?)-la-nu re-qu “1 (vase) kappallanu, vide”. Huehnergard 1987, 168, however, argues for the reading 1 DUG.SAG pa-si?-la-nu re-qu “1 empty high-quality(?) pot, p. style(?)”. He considers pasīlānu as an Ugaritic noun or an adjective and connects it with alphabetic psl “sculptor” (for Ugaritic psl see also Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 685).



pasillu (a kind of sheep)


OB 1 UDU pa-si-l[u-um] ARM 24, 45: 7.




See pašlu.


paspasu “duck”


1. MB lit. alālū pa-as-pa-sí-im urriš ALL no. 11: 9 “the songs of the duck are by day-light”. ? šulmi baZki pa-as-pa-sí ib. r. 5 “a word(?) of greeting is the quacking(?) of the ducks”.



2. CAD 222, a1’: After Borger 2008, 443, the copy of Kraus AbB 1, 113 r. 7 (CT 43, 113) shows NIMIN paspasim “40 ducks” instead of NUNUZ paspasim “duck eggs” (so CAD). 



passu I “doll; pawn, gaming piece”


After Stol 2008, 352, the translation “doll” instead of “gamepiece” fits better many passages in CAD P 224f.



pasuttu (< pasām/nu “to veil”?) “(kind of fowling) net (?)”


CAD P 226a: dIštar pa-sú-un-ti pušqi ša erēbša egru AfO 50, 22: 18 (Mayer 2008, 98) “Ištar, the fine-meshed net, entry to which is complicated”.



paṣānu “to veil”


Dt dīšu up-ta-ṣa-na LKA 15: 2 “the grass is veiled”.



pašāḫu I “peace, tranquillity”


For the correct interpretation of KBo 1, 1 r. 66’ // 3 r. 15’ (CAD P 227b) s. Mayer 2008, 98: (u) attā KN qadu mātī-ka ṭūba pašāḫa lā šapāra ina libbi mārī Ḫurri šū-ma liḫliq “(and) you, Šattiwaza, may you! (text: “he”) be destroyed together with your land in the midst of the Hurrians without someone sending (you) prosperity (and) peace”. Mayer interprets lā šapāra as an inf. in adv. use. For ṭūba pašāḫa s. also ṭūb libbi pašāḫa kabatti KBo 1, 3 r. 41’.

            pa-šá-aḫ šēbūti lū šīmatk[a JRAS 1920, 566: 8’ // TIM 9, 55: 9’ (Mayer 2008, 98) “the peace of old age is your destiny”.



pašāḫu II “to cool down, rest”


1. For OECT 6 pl. 17 (CAD P 228a, below) and OECT 6 pl. 7 (CAD P 228b, second paragraph) s. Maul, Eršaḫ. no. 72: 24’f. and id. no. 43: 8’ff. respectively (Borger 2008, 443).

            K.9037 (CAD P 228b, below) was identified as Angim (s. already CAD Q 80b, lex.sec.). This passage has to be added with Borger 2008, 443 to Cooper, Angim, l. 176.


2. D CAD P 230b, 2b: [bēl]ī ú-pa-aš/áš-ši-ḫa-an-ni [bēl]i uṣammidanni [bēl]i upaṭṭ[ir]anni BWL 58: 1 // BM 34650: 1 (Mayer 2008, 98f.) “my lord has given me relief, my lord has joined me, my lord has forgiven me”.

For TuM 2-3 (CAD P 231a, 3) s. pašāḫu III.


3. Š CAD P 231b, 5b: inamdin tę ša šup-šu-ḫi šipat balāṭi ARBT II 17 Rs. 25’ = JRAS 1929, 15: 27’ (Mayer 2008, 99) “she (Gula) gives the incantation-formula of relief, the spell of life”.

            ina tęša ú-šap-šaḫ namrāṣa BM 75974 r. 25 (Mayer 2008, 99) “she relieves the complaint with her incantation-formula”.



pašāḫu III “break, cut off (branches)”; Aramaism.


pu-uš-šu-ḫu (ša gišimmarī) TuM 2-3, 136: 8 and 137: 11 “(he is responsible for … and) cutting the palms”. Joannčs 1989, 146, n. 2 with Stol 2008, 352 connects puššuḫu here with Aram. pšḫ II “cut off” (see already AHw 841a “D brechen, zerreissen?”; Seidel, AoF 16, 128, 2 (syrisch pšaḥ “anhauen”); Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum 610f.). Differently CAD P 231a, 3: puššuḫu “to lie fallow”.



pašālu “to crawl”


Gtn ta-ap-ta-na-aš-ši-lam qaqqa[ram] ZA 75, 204: 109 “you keep crawling towards me on the gro[und]”.



pašāru “to release, free”


1. G: a) After Stol 2008, 352, a better translation for the references in CAD P 240, 6 is “to sell something in small quantities, to distribute” (Oppenheim Iraq 17, 79, note 40, Kraus SD 11, 226f.): šīmātim ša 1 mana ša 2 mana lū šāmākuma attāma pu-šu-ur-ši-na-ti AbB 7, 149: 11’ “I want to buy for you the goods for 1 or 2 minas, and you distribute them (sell them in small quantities)!” Note also pāširu B “peddler” in CAD P 253.

            For CAD P 241, 7 “to pack, apportion” see also Veenhof AbB 14, 214f. “to measure; to make ready for transport” (with Stol 2008, 352).

After Stol 2008, 352, the interpretation of pašāru “to recount the dream” in the references in CAD P 241b, 8a is incorrect. He follows Zgoll, 2006, 394f., who explains pašāru in the context with a dream as “to solve, to interpret”.

For the meaning of pašāru as a technical term in the ordeal procedure in Mari (CAD P 242a, 8b) s. Heimpel 2003, 273, note 1: “to confirm a statement by surviving the ordeal” (s. also Durand, ARM 26/1, 520; RA 90 11f., s. Stol 2008, 352).



b) OA PN pá-še-er awātim AKT 4, 27: 13 “PN is the one who settles the case”. Cf. CAD P 239 p. 4.



c) NA as terminus technicus “to convert into cash, liquidate”: [uppiš]-ma PN <…> [ina libbi] 80 manę erî 2 imārī kurummāti akī pa-ša-[ri] izzirip issiqi SAA 6, 3: 4 “PN <…> [has contracted, purcha]sed, and bought (him) [for] 2 homers of barley (equalling) 80 minas of copper at its current value”. After Kwasman/Parpola 1991, 5f., note 4 ad 3, akī pašāri is a functional equivalent of (a)kī maḫīri “according to the market price (of GN).”



1. Gt: First OB ref.: mimma e-la-am ša libbišunu ay íp-ta-aš-ru-ú CUSAS 10, 13: 3 “may they not disclose to each other whatever is pure(?) in their hearts”.



2. Dtn (not in the dictionaries): pu-taš-šir ruḫīya puṭur iʾilti K.256 (4R2 17) r. 29 // Ki. 1904-10-9, 108: 7’ // VAT 13645 iii 5’ (= “Šamaš 43”, Mayer 1976, 415; Mayer 2008, 99) “undo always the sorcery affecting me, release me from my sin”.


3. Š: After Mayer 2008, 99 šupšuru in CAD P 243a, 12a and 12c does not denote a causative “to have somebody release something”, but a factitive to the passive stative G (GAG § 89 c) “to make somebody (or something) be released”.



4. N Emar “to become calm”, said of sheep: šumma immeru enūma takarrabu ip-pa-šar šubat nēḫtu Emar 698: 1 “If a sheep, when you offer (it), becomes calm: dwelling of peace”.



pašāšu “to anoint”


1. CAD P 249a, 3a: Köcher BAM 503 i 23’ does not belong here, see pasāsu.


2. G CAD P 246b, 1a2’a’2’’: anāku asḫar paššāka(ŠÉŠ-ka) asḫar ramkā<-ka> asḫar kīma nalšu u imbaru lamâ tikkī SpTU 2, 24: 26 (Mayer 2008, 99) “I am anointed with asḫar-extract, I am bathed in asḫar-extract, my nape of neck is wrapped up in asḫar-extract as in dew and rain”. šaman balti pa-ŠÍK. (var. ŠÉŠ-ku and [pa]-áš-sá-ku) KAR 237: 13 // LKA 105: l // LKA 107 r. 5’ (Mayer 2008, 99) “I am anointed with the oil of pride”.


3. Gtn with reflexive mng.: Bo. pí-ta-an-ši-ša KBo. 36, 29: 23 “keep anointing yourselves”.



4. N CAD P 249, 4: at-ta-ap-šá-áš šamna ṭāba anāku SpTU 2, 24: 5 (Mayer 2008, 99) “I have anointed (perf.) myself with sweet oil”.



5. Ntn (not in the dict.): it-ta-nap-ša-šu? SAA 8, 38: 3 “he keeps anointing himself”.



pašāṭu “to erase”


G Singular spelling in MB Ekalte [p]a-ZA-a-ṭa ippuš “(who) makes an erasure(?)” WVDOG 102, 19: 33.



pašertu see pišertu




Pentiuc 2001, 138; see pāširu.


pašertu “undoing”


For aban/abnē (ša) pašertim “pierres pour la délivrance” s. also Durand, ARMT 21, 236 (with Stol 2008, 352).



pašḫu I “resting, restful”


For AOAT 1, 3: 246 s. with Borger 2008, 443 also WO 5, 174f.: 246f. and HKL 2, 21, above.



pāširu “retail merchant; dream interpreter; dissolver”


1. Read in AHw 845a with Salonen 1970, 444, MSL 12, 106 (not 101), 61.


2. In the ritual text Emar 6, 394: 17 the plural form of pāširu, pāši/erūtu, could possibly appear: ĝešGIGIR [            ĝešGI]GIR pa-še-ru?-tu4. Arnaud (Emar 6, 394: 17), Pentiuc 2001, 138 and CAD P 253a interpret, however, the third sign in this word as IR!. Hence the reading pa-še-er!-tu4 (Arnaud), PA-še-er!-tu4 (Pentiuc) and pa-še-er-tum (CAD).

Pentiuc connects PA-še-er!-tu4 with pāšertu “ein Gerät zum Lockern v Röstkorn” (AHw 844b; see also CAD P 252 *pāširtu “a container”). CAD P 253 relates pa-še-er-tum to the adjectiv pāširu with uncertain meaning, referring normally to water. Note that AHw doesn’t make the difference between adjective pāširu and substantive pāširu as CAD does (see CAD P 252 with the adjectiv pāširu and CAD P 253 with the substantives pāširu A, B and C) and has only one pāširu with the meaning “lösend”.


3. NA CAD P 253a, a2’: [li]izziz(z)ūma kakkabū šamę kalīšun ana nagbikunu liškunū balāṭa [li]mḫur Šamšu nagbi pa-ši-ru-ti [li]niḫḫū libbašu lišapšiḫū kabtassu K.6692: 2’ // K.8005+: 24’ (Mayer 2008, 99) “All the stars of heaven may appear; may they put life in the water of your spring. May Šamaš accept the ‘loosing’ water of the spring; may it calm down his heart; may it relax his mood”.



pašīšu I “anointed (a priest)”


1. Read in AHw 845a with Salonen 1970, 444, MSL 12, 130 (not 125), 51-60.


2. Note with Stol 2008, 352 the syllabic spelling on a cylinder seal: pa-ši-šu-um ša dEN.ZU (Collon, Catalogue of the Western Asiatic seals in the British Museum, Cylinder seals III (1986) no. 205: 3).



pašīšu II (a garment)?

not in the dictionaries


NB: Note with Streck 2007, 151, pa-ši-šá OIP 122, 118: 5, 30, which judging by the context means either a garment or an ornament of Ištar from Uruk.



pašīšūtu “role of pašīšu priest”


For the disc. sec. in  CAD P 255b s. with Borger 2008, 443 also MesZL 327f. no. 388 and 402 no. 699.



pašlu (a cup)

not in the dictionaries


1 galpa-áš-lu ZABAR ARM 24, 83: 3 and 85: 8 “1 p. cup of bronze”. 1 [galp]a-áš-lu ZABAR ib. 95: 4. 1 galpa-áš-lu MA?-i-tum KŮ.BABBAR “1 ... p. cup of silver”. 3 pa-áš-lu pa-pa-ar-ḫi-im ARM 31, 85: 3 “three cups with floral ornament”. Cf. pasallu “an object” (CAD P 216), hence to be read paslu? See also Stol 2008, 352. For further ref. and disc. s. Guichard, ARM 31, 257f.



pašluzzu (mng. unkn.); Nuzi; Hurr.

not in the dictionaries


pa-aš-lu-uz-zu HSS 14, 247: 28 (palace inventory). Probably ending –ussi (Wilhelm 1998, 175, note 10). S. also Richter 2012, 306.



pašqu II “a stone”

not in the dictionaries


Emar: gug LAGAB = pa-aš-qu Emar 553: 76’ “carnelian...”. Related to the adj. pašqu “narrow”?



pašru “loosened”


Read in AHw 845b with Salonen 1970, 444, MSL 12, 180 (not 173), 22.



pašrūtu “(broth) with crumbs (?)”

not in the dictionaries


pa-aš-ru-tum šīrum {ú-ul} izzaz <…> bappira taḫaššal tanappīma ina pani nasāḫi ana diqāri tušappaḫ YOS 11, 25: 23 (MC 6, 40: 23) “(Broth) with crumbs (?). Meat is used. <…> Crush and sift beer bread, and sprinkle in the pot before removing it (from the fire)”. S. Bottéro 1995, 9 and 40 (with Stol 2008, 352).



*paššaru (mng. uncl.)

only CAD


*paššaru in CAD P 259a has to be deleted (with Stol 2008, 352). For the alleged pa-ši-ri Cancik-Kirschbaum MA Briefe 9: 41’, s. BATSH 4/1, 9: 41 under paršu, above.



paššūru “table”


1. OA [p]á-šu-ru ša IGI ilišu AKT 6b, 468: 1 “tables in front of his gods”. 5 pá-šu-ru šaʾmā AKT 7a, 79: 12, 14 “buy 5 tables!”



2. NB: Beaulieu 2003, 385 demonstrates that paššūru “offering table” in the Neo-Babylonian Eanna archive is written in all cases but one (YOS 7, 185: 20) with the logograms URUxGU (= ŠAKIR) or URUxGA (= ŠŔKIR) instead of URUxURUDU (= BANŠUR). The relevant passages are: GCCI 1, 370: 1, 6 and YOS 7, 185: 26 with, by collation, gišURUxGU and gišURUxGA, respectively; VS 20, 2: 2 gišURUxGA. The new attestations are NCBT 120: 10 with gišURUxGU!; NCBT 380: 2 with gišURUxGA; and PTS 3315: 13’ and 21’ with gišURUxGU KŮ.BABBAR and gišURUxGU KŮ.GI, respectively.


3. CAD P 260a, lex. sec.: gišbanšur ní-ba íl-íl-lá-ĝu10: pa-áš-šu-ru ša ina ramāni-šu neʾű BaM 37, 95: 21-23 “the table that turns over (?) by itself”. Note the wishing-table motif here (Mayer 2008, 99).

            CAD P 261b, 1a2’: OB Inc. ṣēnū pa-aš-šu-ru-[] YOS 11, 21: 24 (Mayer 2008, 99) “(their?) tables are loaded up”.

            CAD P 262a, 1a2’: For the interpretation of ku-su-up gišBANŠUR  Ugaritica 5, 168: 17 s. CAD P 450b, disc. sec. (with Borger 2008, 443): “table scraps”.

            CAD P 262b, 1b1’: After Mayer 2008, 99, kīma in the last reference of this section KBo 1, 3 r. 43’ is a prep., not a subj.: kīmę KN kīma paššūri-šu... “as KN (loves his lands etc.) like his table”.

CAD P 264a, 2b: [] šamši ina gišBANŠUR ilānī ušaḫmaṭ gin[â] SpTU 5, 225: 6 (Streck 2007, 151 with ZA 93, 138f.) “Like the sun I (the vine) will bring the regular offerings for the table of the gods in good time (I will set aglow)”.



pāštu “axe, adze”


1. After Borger 2008, 443, the correct reading of the logogram is dur10-tab-ba instead of šen-tab-ba due to the syllabic spelling dur (s. lex. sec.).


2. For pāštu as a tool of fishermen (s. references from Mari in CAD P 266b, b) s. also Stol, OBO 160/4, 822.  



3. ra-ak-ba-sú(text: šu)-ú-um ana kuppî pa-aš-tum CUSAS 10, 7: 5 “for the eel the sickle-sword is riding”. Cf. A. George, ib. p. 44f.



patāḫu “to puncture, bore through”


1. CAD P 270a, 2b: After BIWA 59 A VII 36f. the logogram GÍR.AN.BAR in Streck Asb. 60 vii 37 has to be read patar (St. const. of patru “sword”) instead of namṣari (so CAD). Note that CAD P 281b quotes this passage under patru.



2. First NA ref.(?):  ša KUR pát-ḫat-u-ni SAA 16, 5 r. 11  in broken context.



patālu “to twine”


N MB ti-pá-ti-il Lamaštu p. 264: 8 s. II.



patānu I “to dine”


1. G OB Mari (wine) inūma sugāgū [š]a GN ip-tu-nu FM 10, 42: 6–8 “upon the occasion when the sheikhs of GN dined”.


balu patān occurs already in OB: ba-lum pa-ta-an YOS 11, 4: 8 (Mayer 2008, 99) “without eating”.



2. Š OB akalam u šikaram ú-ša-ap-ta-an-šu-nu-ti FM 9 p. 39 no. 4: 27 “I will give them bread and beer to eat”.



patāqu I “to shape, create”


1. G NB CAD 275a, 1d2’: minű ibašši ša ina libbišunu i-pe-et-<ti>-qu-nu ABL 1120 (= SAA 18, 132) r. 12 (Mayer 2008, 99) “Whatever is it that they are plotting in their hearts”.


NB minű ibašši kī itti libbišunu idabbubū ... minű ibašši kī itti libbišunu i-pe-et-<ti>-qu-nu SAA 18, 132: 12 “what is it, that they are plotting (lit. talking to their heart) ... what is it, that they are planning (lit. creating with their heart)?” Hardly N ippetqūn(u). Note petēqu already in NB.

Add VAB 4, 158 vi 43 (s. now AfO Bh. 32, WBA vi 43; WBC iiib 26*) with forms ap-tíq // e-ep-ti-iq. In CAD D 167a ap-tíq was incorrectly read as abni.


2. N OB (silver) itūr ip-pa-ti-iq-ma 3 GÍN KŮ.BABBAR imṭī “ARM 24, 123: 6f. “was melted again and 3 shekels of silver were lost”. (silver) ... ša ana kakki kaspi ip-pa-at-qú ib. 94: 17–20 “was cast into a silver weapon”.



patāqu II “to drink”


First OAkk. ref.: ruʾti kanaktim ti-ip-tá-at-qá MAD 5, 8: 10f. “you (du.) have drunk the sap of the incense-tree”. Note that AHw. 1582 tentatively lists the ref. under patāqu I whereas CAD does not have the ref. at all (neither batāqu nor patāqu I, II).



patarru, atbarru? “knife(?)”


Byform atbarru? in OB lex. ba-da-ra = at-ba-ru UET 7, 93: 16. Cf. Sjöberg 1996, 225.



patīḫatu (a leather container)


OB kušpa-ti-ḫa-tum ARM 24 index p. 245. Disc.of etym. (not Amor.!) Streck 2000, 109f.



patinnu “sash, band”


Made of gold: pa-tin-nu KŮ.GI šulmān ša šarri SAA 17, 58: 5’ “a golden sash, a gift for the king”.



patīru, Mari paṭīru (?) “a leather bag”; OB, Mari, M/SB


For 1 kušpa-t/ṭí-ru in a list of bags for storing textiles and wool from Mari see pālilu 3. Note the spelling pa-t/ṭí-ru with the sign TÍ, which doesn’t seem to be used in Mari elsewhere.



patniš “strongly”


Add with Mayer 2008, 99 dinninna tukšu allalű ša ana pan kiṣir šašm[e] pat-niš izzazzu AfO 50, 21: 14 “Inninna, the strong shield that faces the battle group powerfully”.



patnu II, petnu “strong, sturdy”


1. Read in AHw 848a with Salonen 1970, 444, MSL 12, 181 (not 174), 36.


2. LB: ḫuṣṣu pét-nu iḫaṣṣaṣ gušūrē pét-nu-tu ina libbi iṣabbat OIP 122, 16: 8–10 “he will erect a resistant reed hut, he will put in solid beams” (Streck 2007, 152).



patru “sword, dagger”


1. CAD P 282a, 12’b’: ina pa-tar bi-ni (ina GÍR GIŠ.ŠINIG) + nakāsu Walker/Dick 2001, 73: 52 and 142: 86b (Mayer 2008, 100) “ to cut with a knife made of tamarisk wood”.

CAD P 282b, b: delete with Borger 2008, 443 the reference BBR II no. 62 r. 7, which is read la ma-gír-tú tu-še-ṣa (-)x (instead of GÍR UD.K[A.BAR).


2. Emar: 3 GÍR makkasātu 3 GÍR ZABAR GAL 3 GÍR ZABAR TUR CM 13 no. 28: 2-4 (Stol 2008, 352) “3 makkasu-knives, 3 big bronze knives, 3 small bronze knives”.


3. NB: GÚ.UN AN.BAR ana pat-ra-a-ta WZKM 91, 355 no. 7: 2 “one talent of iron for daggers”. Note with Stol 2008, 352 the fem. pl. form here.

            GÍR siparri ša 10 GÍN šuqultašu teleqqēma SpTU 5, 246 iii 23 (Stol 2008, 352) “you take a bronze dagger weighing 10 shekels”.



pattu “canal”


OB lit. as metaphor for the vagina: ana pa-ti-i-ki mamman ul iṭeḫḫēši! CUSAS 10, 10: 36 “to your canal no one will come near”.



pattű “bucket”


1. Lex. gi-bunin? = pa-at-tu-um CUSAS 12 p. 252: 163, s. Civil ib. p. 255.


1. OB lit. [p]a!-at-tu-ú napišti (//zi-pŕd-dč) CUSAS 32, 54: 2 “bucket of life”.



2. See also b/patiʾum.


pá-tů-tum s. BA-DU-tum.


paṭāru “to loosen, release”


1. G a) OAkk. Beydar in PN: Ib-ṭur-il Subartu 2, 5 iii 9 “God has ransomed”.



b) OB ša pa-ṭa-ri in-na-an-di-in “(barley and beer) was given for removal of ritual arrangement” CUSAS 9, 106: 18. pa-ṭa-a-ar KI.BI “removal of its (sacred) place(?)” ib. 111: 1, see commentary of S. Dalley, ib. p. 98f.

OB PN mPa-ṭe4-er-e-il-tim “(The god) releasing the liability” AbB 13, 160: 8. For eʾiltam paṭāru see W. van Soldt, AbB 13 p. 137 und CAD P 292 paṭāru 4.


c) OA, object silver (cf. CAD P 290 p. 2a): 7 manā kaspam ip-ṭů-ru-ni-ku-nu-tí AKT 7a, 279: 29 “they opened 7 minas of silver for you”. 3 GÍN.TA iqabbīʾū ulā i-pá-ṭů-ru ib. 21 “they promise 3 shekels each, but do not open (the silver?)”.



d) CAD 288a, 1a, with šēnu “to take off the sandals” (Mayer 2008, 100): im al-ščg kuš-e-sír(-ra) nu-du8(-a/e): šamű iznun-ma šēna ul ip-ṭur BWL 263 r. 12 (s. also Alster, Or 15, 385f. and 389) “it rained, but he did not undo (his) sandal(s)”; paṭār(DU8) še-e-nu TCL 6, 20 r. 7; ši-in mātim elītim u šaplītim ta-pa-ṭŕ-ar MARI 5, 258: 14f. “you will loosen the sandal(?) of the upper and lower country”. S. also N-stem.

            CAD P 288f., 1c: šiptu Šamaš a-paṭ-ṭar immera kasâ maḫar-ka kīma anāku immera annâm a-paṭ-ṭa-ru arnu šērti gillat u ḫiṭītu lemnētu ša ina zumriya ina pan ilūti-ka lip-paṭ-r[a SpTU 2, 12 ii 31-3 “Incantation: Šamaš, I release a bound sheep before you. As I release this sheep, so may be released fault, guilt, sin and evil crime, (which are in my) body, in front of your divinity” (Mayer 2008, 100).

            CAD P 296f., 9: early OB ina pa-ṭá-ri-šu [x] TA/ŠA URUki ra-ḫa-bu-um ZA 90, 266, no. 3: 8 “if he deserts [from?] the place Raḫabum, (PN will weigh the [wage?])” (Streck 2007, 151).

After Streck 2007, 151, some instances in CAD P 296f., sec. 9 belong to the Gt-stem, s. AOAT 303, 51f. no. 101.


2. D CAD P 300, 12a: OB ana pu-uṭ-ṭú-ri-ni 3 mana kaspam ana ṭātim niddinakkum VS 29, 2: 9 (ZDMG 156, 183f.) “for our ransom we have given you 3 minas silver as baksheesh”  (Streck 2007, 151).


3. Dt CAD P 301a, 14: SB ina ūm išartišu up-ta-aṭ-ṭa-ru eʾiltu u annu Iraq 60, 192: 24//CTN 4, 201: 24 (Ludlul I) “on his day of justice sin and guilt are absolved” (Streck 2007, 151).

            CAD P 301a, 14d: read with Borger 2008, 443f. in YOS 1, 38 i 21 rik-su-ú-šu14 (after Frame, RIMB 2, 146ff. no. 3) instead of rik-su-ú-tim (so CAD).


4. Dtn: kiṣall[āya] up-ta-na-ṭa-ra (var. up-ta-na-aṭ-ṭa-[ra]) LKA 155 r. 3 (AMD 8/1, 259 (text 8.2): 67) “my ankles slacken repeatedly”. Here belongs also KAR 80: 5 (CAD P 299b, 10c2’ under puṭṭuru).


5. N CAD P 301f., 18, with šēnu “to be taken off (about sandals)” (Mayer 2008, 100): AN še-ni (var. E.SÍR) (NU) DU8 = šamű šēnu (ul) ippaṭir Astronomical Diaries 1, p. 33 “it rained (but/and) the sandal was (not) removed”. S. also G-stem.

“Take apart a precious metal object for reutilization; remove a plating from the object”: 1 ḫubūsi GAL ezub abnātišu ip-pa-aṭ-ṭŕ-ar iššaqqal RA 83, 119 “1 big ḫubūsi-weapon without its stones must be taken apart and weighed”; 2 na4muššar BÁBBAR.DILI ša ina ḫīšim ippaṭru MARI 4, 514 “2 muššar-pappardilű-stones, which are removed from the headband”. S. also Durand, LAPO 16, 257 for puṭṭuru with the same meaning (Stol 2008, 352).

šipru napṭuru “work is neglected”: šumma <...> šiprušu ip-pa-ṭar AdŠ 4, 21, n. 16 “if <...> his work will be neglected, (he will pay 2 rams)” (Stol 2008, 352).



paṭru “released”


For ḫindu paṭirtuunfastened, i. e. unsealed leather money bag” (vs. ḫindu kaniktu TCL 12, 120: 1f.sealed leather money bag”) s. also LB: 4 2/3 mana 5 šiqil kaspu ḫi-in-di pa-ṭi-ir-tu4

ZA 61, 255: 2; 10 1/2 mana kaspa indu pa-ṭir-ti rakistu u kanikti NABU 1993/19, no.  2: 1 “leather money bag, unfastened, bound and sealed” (Mayer 2008, 100).



pāṭu, pattu “border; district”


1. OB pa-ṭú-u-ni ša sanqū irappiš CUSAS 18, 19: 8’ “our border areas that are contracted will expand”. Note the disagreement in number, which sometimes occurs in the Tigunanum texts (other explanation: A. R. George, ib. p. 120: monosyllabic stem from a finally weak root”).



2. SB: izzīzūma ina pa-at-tu // i-nap-pa!-at-tu (Sandhi writing) qišti Gilg. SB V 1 “They stood at the edge of the forest” (s. also Or. 64, 47, note 59 and Streck 2007, 151). S., however, George 2003, 602f. and 821: i-na-pa-at-tu // i-nap-pa!-at-tu (< napātu) “they stood marvelling at the forest”.



pa’ű (a bird)


See also III.


paʾurru (mng. uncert.); NB

not in the dictionaries


NB: 1 šá pa-úr-ri.SIG17  YOS 17, 246: 5 (Beaulieu 2003, 195; list of jewelry of Nanaya) “one gold necklace with paʾurru”.



paz “?”

not in the dictionaries


Hapax, Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: \ pa-zu-šu ša? uruQŕṭ-na QS 3, 1: 13. See the discussion in QS 3 p. 45.



pazāru(?) “to abscond, to go into hiding, to steal through(?)”


1. CAD P 310f. s. v. pazāru 1b records the reference OB ARM 27, 65: 12f. (Heimpel 2003, 432): ka-ṣa-am-ma a-na GN ip-zi-ir and translates “he stole through the steppe toward Andariq”. This reference proofs that two other Mari references also belong here. One of them, ARM 2, 120 (= ARM 26/2 p. 436f. no. 500): 20f. (Heimpel 2003, 392), was previously registered in AHw. 619 and CAD M/1, 329 s. v. maṣāru, “umschreiten?” and “to move in a circle, to make a detour, to linger”: šum-ma a-na GN a-la-ak šum-ma ka-ṣa-am-ma a-ba!-az-za-ar “if I go to GN, (or) if I steal through(?) the steppe”. The other reference reads: PN ... i-na GN ú-lu i-na GN2 ú-lu i-na GN3 ka-ṣa-am-ma i-ba-az-zi-ir “PN is stealing through(?) the steppe from GN, or else from GN2, or else from GN3” ARM 26/2 p. 435 no. 498: 8–12 (Heimpel 2003, 391). For ip-zí-ir ARM 26/1, 169: 17' and ip-zi-ru in a Shemshara letter see CAD P 311 pazāru 1b. Note that the verb here, in ARM 27, 65, in ARM 26/1, 169 and in the Shemshara letter is i-class whereas in ARM 26/2, 500 it has a in the present tense. See also the reference ARM 2, 78: 31, registered in CAD N/1, 328 s. v. napzaru: ḫarrān kaṣîm napzaram ... lā nillak, translated in CAD “we cannot take the road through the steppe clandestinely ...”.

            The verb was discussed by J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 345 n. g and n. 37; see also S. Lackenbacher, ARM 26/2 p. 435f. n. a. and Durand 1998, 262 ad no. 600 n. b. Durand derives the verb from pazāru. However, the orthography leaves some doubts whether it really belongs to this verb: both ARM 26/2, 498 and 500 write ba, not pa (but see a-ša-ap-pa-ra-am ARM 26/2, 498: 18, pa-ni- ib. 22, pa-an ARM 26/2, 500: 4, ni-ša-ap-pa-ar ib. 22, a-[ša-]-ap-pa-ra-am ib. 27), and ARM 26/1, 169 writes . The context of most of the references mentioned does not force a connotation of “hiding” or “stealing through”. All this offers the possibility to derive the verb from the root BṢR, “to tear off” (CAD B 134), perhaps in the meaning “to take the short cut way” (see the translations of Heimpel 2003). S. also Anbar, NABU 2006, 3.


2. D “to conceal; to stow away” (cf. CAD P 312 p. 2b): a) OB ezub 120 G[UR] ú-pa-az-zi-rů ummi[ʾānū] “apart from 120 kor (of dry bitumen) which the workmen stowed away” Finkel 2014: 33. ezub 30 GUR ú-pa!?-az-zi-rů lú.mešummiʾā[] “apart from 30 GUR (of lard) which the workmen stowed away” ib. 58.


b) D Said of a person: OA PN pá-zu-ur AKT 6c, 538: 17 “PN may hide”.



Pazūzu (a demon)


Beaulieu 2003, 385 discusses a use of the demon Pazuzu’s head as a piece of jewelry in the first millenium. NBC 4894: 65 seems to contain “the first instance of a Pazuzu head made of gold”: pa-zu-zu KŮ.GI.



pazzurtu “contraband, smuggled merchandise, smuggling”


1. The word is well attested in OA. The first OB reference is semantically unclear: ḫupšum ša pa-zu-ur-ta-ni u maṣṣarātum irtīqā “The ḫupšum-troops who are our smugglers(?), and the guards have absented themselves” Shemshara 36: 22f. Eidem/Lćssře 2001, 107 translate “the soldier of our secret depot and the guards have absented themselves”; such a translation would require, however, the genitive *pazzurtini. How J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1, 345 n. 37 “qui pratiquent la contrebande” syntactically understands the passus is unclear.



2. The meaning “contraband, smuggling” does not suit well all the passages cited in CAD P 314 under pazzurtu. Streck 2000b, 269 ad 10 interprets p. in business correspondence as “sichere Bergung”, “Aufbewahrung”: (silver) pá-zu-ur-tí ṣubātī-šu CCT 5, 38a (FAOS Beih. 4 p. 207): 12f. “silver for the storage of his fabrics”; pá-zu-ur-tí [x] TÚG kutānī BIN 4, 189 (FAOS Beih. 4 p. 404) “(cost) for the storage of k.-textiles”; 12 GÍN KŮ.BABBAR išdi PN gamrum pá-zu-ur-tí ṣubātī-šu ZA 90, p. 268, no. 5: 10 “12 shekels of silver are at the expense of PN, expenditure (for) the storage of his textiles”.



ped- “to help”

not in the dictionaries


Hapax, Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: GN a-na PN \ be-tu-ni “GN helped PN” QS 3, 5: 12, see the discussion in QS 3 p. 71.



pegű, pegītu s. pagű


peḫḫazu, perʾazu “a precious metal”


a-la-am pí-ḫa-za-am an-zu-tam ů ĚRmeš ša be-lí-ia a-na li-ib-bi GN ú-ša-al-li-im “I brought the drum, the p.-metal, the eagle-emblem(?) and the slaves of my lord safely to GN” ARM 26/1, 20: 12–14. See CAD p. b; the broken reference ARM 26/1, 18: 25 can be restored safely by comparison of the two texts. Note that pace J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 120 (see also Heimpel 2003, 185 n. 35) the references hardly belong to the word piʾazu “mouse”.



peḫű I “sealed, closed; stupid”


1. bābu(KÁ) pe-ḫu-ú ... OLA 40, 94: 27 “the locked gate (which opens on to the garden is called Ka-kiri-abzu (‘Gate of the Garden of Apsű’))” (Mayer 2008, 100).



2. Said of intellect (cf. CAD p. d): OB lit. ana kâšim pe-ḫu-um (// Sum. pe-el) anāku CUSAS 10, 14: 18, 20 “am I, (compared) to you, limited?”



peḫű II “to close up, seal”


D NB dūru nukkusu rab-kāṣir [ina libbi itt]ę u šamni ṭābi up-te-eḫ-ḫi SAA 18, 157: 8’ “the chief-tailor sealed the breached wall [with bitu]men and sweet-scented oil” (symbolic act).



pēḫű “caulker(?); protector(?)”


1. (Protector): OB Mari šu-ú pé-ḫu-ú i-ga-rum “he, the encloser(?), the wall” ARM 28, 63: 36, see ARM 28 p. 93 n. c.



2. Read with Salonen 1970, 444 in AHw 853b MSL 12, 158 (not 161), 338.



pelű I “(light) red”


After Borger 2008, 444, the instances under CAD P 319b, d, belong to gůn and gůn-a = burrumu (s. already AHw 501a under kulbābu; CAD K 502a lex. sec. and 502b, c). For the difference between SU4 and DAR/GŮN s. MesZL Kap. II, no. 182 and 183.



pelű II “egg”


1. OB 6 pe-lu-ú Ě.DŮG.GA um-ta-al-lu-ú “6 eggshells, filled with perfumed oil” CUSAS 9, 65: 7f. (an asyndetic relative clause, construction not understood in CUSAS 9 p. 66). Cf.  CAD P 321 pelű d for the use of pelű as container for perfume in Mari.

2 pé-li lurmim FM 2, 62: 12 “two ostrich eggs”.



2. CAD P 320b, a1’: For Kraus AbB 1, 113: 7 see paspasu.


pelű III “to be red”


“An amulet stone” pe-li-ma UET 7, 121 iii 6 “is red” (Stol 2008, 352).                



pelulizzi “a garment”


New Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: 4 túg.me \ be-lu-li-iz-zi QS 3, 13: 5. According to QS 3 p. 89 perhaps from the Hurrian root pil- “to spin”.



pēmtu “charcoal”


1. MA Bil.: […] u-me-ni-bir // pe-en-ti zurūma Iraq 42, 32: 9 “scatter (plants) on the coals”.


2. For the “uncertain” (CAD P 325b, c) passage eli dâdānišu tikkišu NE tašakkanma iballuṭ BAM 3 ii 8 “you place charcoal above his neck tendons (and) his neck and he will recover” s. dupl. BAM 5, 480 iv 5: elēnu dâd[ānišu tikkišu] [gišE]R[E]N ḫum-ṭám tašakkanma A-šú ubbal “(If a man’s head is watery…), you place scorching cedar above his neck tendons and neck, and it will remove the fluid” (Worthington 2006, 21 and 28). Differently Stol 2008, 352: [...] x ṣil-lum-tú GAR-an-ma.



pēmu “thigh”


1. Lex.: ḫa-áš-úr-ĝu10 = kubur pe-mi-ia CUSAS 12 p. 150: 30 (Ugumu) “the thick of my thighs”. úr-ĝu10 = pe-ma-a-a ib. 32 “my thighs”.


2. OB [šumma izbum] ... 4 pe-e-mu-šu CUSAS 18, 12: 70 “[If a miscarried foetus] ... 4 are his thighs”.


3. SB Ug. (Gilg.) I.ZI! GÍD!.DA pe-na-šu! AuOr. Suppl. 23, 42: 32 “his thighs are a long wall”.



4. For the correct reading of RA 6, 131b in AHw 854b s. now MSL 14, 504: 16 (also in CAD P 321b, lex. sec.; Lambert 1974, 84).



pe/indű 1. (mark on skin, phps.) “mole” or “birthmark”; 2. (a red speckled stone)


For (na4)ŠI.TIR = pendű in Amarna letters see also EA 22: 64 (Moran 1992, 58, note 16).


perdu (an equid)


1. OB lit. pe-er-di! (text: GIŠ) sisîm CUSAS 10, 12: 27f. “the mare(?) of a horse”.

2. OA pé-er-dam AKT 1, 78: 10. S. Hecker, aATU (v. 0.3, 2012). Not *birtu “a metal”, as Bilgiç AKT p. 96f. and 13 argues.



3. A rhyton in form of a foal (Stol 2008, 353): 2 GAL SAG līd pí-ir-di 1/2 MA.NA-ŔM ARM 31, 282, n. 26: 12 “(to make rhytons in form of) two big foal heads, each of 1/2 mina”; 4 GAL SAG līd pí-ir!-di! KŮ.BABBAR 1 5/6 MA.NA 3-su KI.LÁ.BI ARM 31, 282, n. 37: 20 (s. also LAPO 17, 81). For disc. s. Guichard, ARM 31, p. 282f.


4. For pirdu s. now Michel 2004, 190-200.



persu, pirsu “division; a piece of fabric (for repairing cloths?)”


1. CAD P 411 contains the entry pirsu, an adj. qualifying red wool in the NB texts. Durand 2009, 85 demonstrates, that the same word occurs in Mari in context with different fabrics: 1 4 túgbar-ka-ru-ú 2 pí-ir-su 3 S[I.L]A? ia-aḫ-mu-ṣí-AN (M.8599) “4 textiles barkarrű, a piece (for repairing them?), for checking by Yaḫmuṣ-El”; 1 1 túgú-ṭub-lu SAG 2 pí-ir-su 3 SI.LÁ ia-aḫ-mi-iṣ-AN (M.11683) “1 uṭublu-fabric, a piece (for repairing it?), for checking by Yaḫmuṣ-El”.

            After Durand 2009, 85 and 601 pirsu in Mari and in NB texts denotes “morceau de tissu découpé dans le coupon” used probably for repairing cloths. Note, that both Mari texts speak about the same person, who could be the cloths mender. pirsu as an adj. should thus  be deleted. The Mari and NB passages must be added to pe/irsu “Abtrennung” (AHw 855b) or pirsu A “detachment, section” (CAD P 411f.) as a new undersection.


2. Read with CAD Z 80a, 2d3’ and Stol 2008, 353 in ARM 6, 36: 5 (CAD P 411b, c) GUD.ḪI.A pirsam azūz (instead of KAŠ(?).ḪI.A) “I distributed the oxen by sections(?)”. After Stol the pl. KAŠ.ḪI.A does not occur in OB.

CAD P 411b, e “a part of intestines”, not only lex.: šītum pi-ir-su u karšu YOS 11, 25: 6 (rec., s. MC 6, 9 and 31f.) “(Red (broth). Fresh meat is not used <…>, but rather) salted meat, entrails or/and stomach”. For šītum “salted meat” s. šittu III here. See also Stol 2008, 353.

In the expression pisan pirsi: x kaspam <…> ina giBISAĜ pí-ir-si ARM 25, 48: 17 “silver <…> in the section-box (?)”; ŠU.NIGIN 1/2 mana kaspam ana giBISAĜ pí-ir-si id. r. 8; 1/2 mana kaspam ana giBISAĜ pí-ir-si id. 134: r. 2 (s. also FM 7, 65). See also Stol 2008, 353.



perṣu “breach”


Lex. sec. (add with Stol 2008, 353): OB pí-ir-ṣum-gěr BM 54712 ii 7 (Izi, s. ASJ 20, 202). Cf. Izi Bogh A ii 147 (MSL 13, 137): gú gěr = be-el-šú (for pilšu) = (Hitt.) pát-te-eš-[šar].



peršaʾe, an adverb

not in the dictionaries


Hapax, Hurrian word attested in MB Qaṭna: a-ḫi \ be-er-ša10-e an-ziq “My brother, I was ... annoyed” QS 3, 2: 43. See the discussion in QS 3 p. 52.



pērtu “hair (of head)”

1. Lex.: sík-ŕk-ĝu10 = itiq pe-er-ti-ia CUSAS12 p. 154 ii 2 (Ugumu) “lock of my hair”. gištukul-sík-ĝu10 = kakki pe-er-ti-ia ib. 4 “clump(?) of my hair. dal-sík-ĝu10 = talli pe-er-ti-ia ib. 6 “part of my hair”.



2. OB lit. (Mayer 2008, 101): šakān qimmatim mēlul pé-re-te kűmma Ištar CM 8, 24 i 38 (Praise of Ištar) “the creation of the hairstyle, a hair game, is yours, Ištar”; mūša illaptā sinnišātu pé-re-te kadrā-ma id. 26 ii 4 “the women have been affected by night, they are brash with (their) hair”. Note, that Groneberg CM 8, 24f., 26f., 42, note 56 and 45, note 96 interprets pé-re-te in both passages as bi-ri-te “space between”. For the reading pé-re-te here s. already Lambert AfO 46/47, 275bf. After Mayer 2008, 101 pé-re-te may be either pl. /pērētim/ or sg. gen. /pēretim/ or sg. acc. /pēretem/ < /pēretam/ with progressive vocal harmony (s. Or 66, 169). 


OB lit. šākān qimmatim mēlul pé-re-te kűmma Ištar CM 8, 22ff. i 38 “making a hairdo, whirling of locks is yours, Ištar”.



3. SB Ug. (Gilg.) appāt pe-er-ti-šu ḫannubā kīma Ni[saba] AuOr. Suppl. 23, 42: 31 “the tips of his hair grow like grain”. apparī pērēta kī uqnâti ib. 33 “with regard to his hair, he is tufted like blue wool”.



perʾu “bud, shoot; scion, descendant(s)”


1. OB: lumun-šu pi-ri-iḫ-šu ul uwaššar YOS 11, 15: 2 “his (of a wrongdoer) evil will not leave his descendants” (Mayer 2008, 101; SEAL

OB lex.: bēl pí-ir-ḫi-im UET 6/3, 894 r. iv 11.

OB Mari: mutēr pí-ri-iḫ Jaḫdun-līm ana išrētišu (Pl. of išru) MARI 4, 324 (the inscription on the seal of Baninum) “who restored the offspring of Jaḫdun-līm to his towns (?)” (Stol 2008, 353).


2. MA: For Chuera 1: 4 see ṣābu.

            About animals: 1 uduU8 pír-ḫi GUKKAL Assur 3/1, 44 no. 11: 1 (AOAT 265, 187) “1 sheep of the fat-tailed breed” (Stol 2008, 353).


3. NA: CAD P 417b, 2c: For the reading pir-ḫi-šú Weidner Tn. 7 No. 1 s., however, Schramm AfO 36/37 123b with reading pereʾ(NUNUZ!)-šú (so also AHw 856b; Borger 2008, 445).



peruzzu (a textile)


The word, already attested in Alalaḫ and Nuzi, also occurs in MB Qaṭna: 6 TÚG.ME.MEŠ \ be-ru-uz-zí-na QS 3, 12: 16. See QS 3 p. 86 for a Hurrian etymology.



pessű, f. pessūtu “crippled, deformed”


1. OB as PNf: Pé-sú-tum FM 4 p. 135 iii 43 (after Sukkuktum “deaf”) (also p. 161 iv 20’). Pé-es-su[-tum] ib. p. 179 iv 23 (before Sukkuktum).



2. After Stol 2008, 352 pessű is to be connected with pissatu “a cattle desease” (s. already CAD P 426b under pissatu A).



peṣű I “white”


1. Note white horses already in OB Mari (Stol 2008, 352): 1 sisűm pé-ṣú-um 1 atānam pé-ṣi-tam ana bēliya ireddűnim ARM 14, 40 r. 6’ “they drive to my lord one white horse and one white she-ass”. šanītam aššum ANŠE.KUR.RA BABBAR aqbīma umma šūma ANŠE.KUR.RA BABBAR ša gišGIGIR ul ibaššű lušpurma ašar ibaššű ANŠE.KUR.RA BABBAR lirdűnim ARM 26/2, 533: 10’-15’ “Furthermore: I have said a word concerning a white horse, and he has answered: ‘There is no white horse for the chariot here. I will write to the place, where (such horse) is, so that they may drive a white horse to me’”.


2. NB, white oxen (s. also CAD P 332a, 4’): 1 GU4 pe-ṣu JCS 35, 218: 2. ištēt littu šībtu pe-ṣi-tu4 AOAT 330, no. 32: 1 “one old white cow (he has given to PN for 6 sheqels)”. S. also Stol 2008, 352.

            White barley (s. also CAD P 332b, g3’): uṭṭatu (ŠE.BAR) pe-ṣi (sg. m.) OECT 10, 211: 1. ammātišu uṭṭātu (ŠE) pe-ṣa-a-tú (pl.) Reynolds 2002, 220: 14’ (s. also note ad 14’ on p. 224) “His forearms are white barley” (description of god’s body). S. also Stol 2008, 352.



petű I “open”


1. OB, said of fields (CAD P 340a, 1f.): eqlam pa-at-a-am ana bēli-šu utār MHET 2/5, 772: 12 “he will return the field to its owner broken for cultivation” (Mayer 2008, 100).


2. Nuzi: Ḫiari ištū arḫi ša Sabūti pa-ti-ú [ša] našrū AdŠ 4, 258: 33 “(total 32 donkeys, 3 seah of barley), [which] are taken away in the month Hiari since the “opening” (?) month Sabūtu” (Stol 2008, 352). Sabūtu here marks the start of the financial year (AdŠ 3, 167, n. 2; AdŠ 4, 130, n. 33).


2. LB, said of weapons (CAD P 339bf., 1e): qarittu ša ina mitḫur kakkū pe-tu-ti ana arki-ša lā iturra AfO 50, 21: 16 (hymn to Ištar) “the heroine who did not retreat at the clashing of the unsheathed weapons” (Mayer 2008, 100).



petű II “to open”


1. Lex. sec. CAD P 341b above: read with Borger 2008, 444f. in MSL 14, 120, no. 7 ii 33 si-li-ig instead of ši-li-ig (s. already AHw 858b below).


2. G a) With panu “to bring happiness” (CAD 351b, 4): OB iltum panū-ša pe-tu-ú-ma YOS 2, 152: 18 (= AbB 9, 152) “(if) the face of the goddess is friendly”; pan Ašš[ur] pé-tu-ú MARI 7, 273: 18 “the face of Aššur is friendly” (Mayer 2008, 100; Stol 2008, 352). NA bašī itukki pe-te-e pani [gi]mil dumqi STT 123: 6 “it is in your power to bring happiness (and) reward” (Mayer 2008, 100). Read with Mayer 2008, 100 in KAR 321 r. 1 a. d. pa-nu-uš-šú/šu instead of pa-nu-uš (so CAD) because of KAR 321 r. 1b // BM 61649+ iii 20’ (s. Or 65, 429).



b) OA šīmātim a-pá-ta-im AKT 4, 45: 24 “to open the testament”.


c) The following two MB references probably belong to CAD P 345 petű 1c2’: 2 (GUR) ŠE.BAR ... [š]i-ḫi ip-te-e “He opened (the store of) 2 (kor) barley ... (rest unclear)” MBLET 42: 14. PN P[N2] PN3 ip-tu-ú “PN (and) PN2 opened (the store of?) PN3” ib. r. 8. O. R. Gurney, ib. p. 120 commentary ad obv. 14 and rev. 7 derives both instances from beṭű “to cheat” (CAD B 215, OB, Hapax).



d) The passage EA 250: 47 should be added to CAD petű 349b, d) “to break ground for cultivation”: ů yu-pa-at-ti : Ú.[GŔ]R-ri LUGAL EN-ka4 “and he cultivated the fi[el]ds of the king, your lord” (Moran 1992, 303 and 304, note 8). After Moran the gloss marker can be used here to mark a quasi-logogram Ú.GŔR-ri. It should, however, be noted that the copy shows only one wedge instead of two of the gloss marker. The sign therefore could be read as U, possibly serving as a phonetic complement to Ú.GŔR-ri. See also ugāru.

Note EA 137: 33, which is read as ů ḫe-e-ṭí ep-ti a-na DINGIRmeš “I have revealed my wrongdoing to the gods” in CAD P 350b and  AHw 860b with the translation “(Sünde) bekennen”. The interpretation of AHw requires a new meaning for petű, which is otherwise unknown in Akkadian. The meaning “to reveal” of CAD after Moran 1992, 219, note 4, does not seem to fit the context in which the reasons are given why Rib-Hadda cannot go to Egypt. Hence his emendation to ep-<ša>-ti, Canaanite form from epēšu, and translation “for I committed sins against the gods”. See also epēšu.


e) LB, used elliptically (CAD P 345, 1c2’): suluppē kī ip-tu-u ana danānu ina qātīya ittašű AUWE 5, 136 r. 6’ “they have taken away the dates from me by force, after they had ‘opened’ (the storehouse)” (Streck 2007, 152).

            “To open the mouth” (CAD P 345b, 1d2’): KA/pī-kunu ana BAD-e/pa-te-e NUNDUN/šapāti-kunu ana katāmu EME-kunu ana dabābu/bi ul anamdin SpTU 2, 24: 11f. // BM 45755: 6f. “I will not permit (you) to open your mouth, to close your lips, to speak with your tongues” (Mayer 2008, 100).


f) Imp. pi5(BÍ)-ti, (BI)-tu, pi5(BÍ)-tuḫ, (BI)-ṭu-ḫi are the forms of the name of the chief Doorkeeper of the Netherworld with the meaning “open!”. Note the archaic form /pituḥ/ (Deller NABU 1991, 18; Stol 2008, 352).


2. Gtn OB (CAD 350b, 3c): kayyānu niṣrēt ilī ap-ta-na-at-ti-a-ak-kum MARI 5, 258: 7-8 “I constantly reveal to you the secrets of the gods” (Mayer 2008, 100).


3. D: read with Borger 2008, 444f. in TCL 6, 1: 35 (CAD P 354a, 6a) LÍMMU instead of LIMMU.


4. Dt OB (CAD P 355b, 8): šamű ellūtum up-ta-[t]u?-šum ASJ 12, 8: 4’ “the clear sky opens for him” (Streck 2007, 152).

aššum libbī lā ṭābu pu-te-tu-um kabtam Sumer 23 pl. 15: 23 (Stol 2008, 352).


5. N OB lit., said of a part of the body (CAD 356b, 10c): né-ep-tu rēmi CM 8, 24 i 41 “the opening of the womb” (Mayer 2008, 100).


6. G/N For ṣerrēt šamę/šamāmi petű “to open the udders of heaven” s. ṣertu.





Pentiuc 2001, 138f.; see walluḫi-.


pīʾāqu “to make narrow, tight”


For ip-te-eq-ma Gilg. P. iii 4 (OB) Mayer 2008, 96 suggests the translation “he was embarrassed” (lit. “he became narrow”) instead of “he squinted” (so CAD P 141b). Antonym expression after Mayer agdapuš Gilg. II 262 // III 24 “I have taken courage” (lit. “I have become swollen”). Cf. also the disc. George 2003, 185 ad l. 88 (from puqqu).





Pentiuc 2001, 139; see yard(ān)u.




Pentiuc 2001, 139; see yard(ān)u.




Pentiuc 2001, 139; see wašḫazu.




Pentiuc 2001, 139; see wattu.


piʾātu “edge, border, bank (of a river)”


The NA ref. in connection with rivers and canals in CAD piātu b are recorded in AHw 874 s. v. E 2 “Fluß-, Kanalmündung”, understood as fem. pl. However, since a pl. is is not required by any of the contexts, the interpretation of CAD is preferable.

            Note an attestation apparently with the determinative ÍD: ina muḫḫi ídpi-ia-a-ti ša Patti-Enlil ittalkū bīrtu ina libbi eppušū SAA 15, 166: 9 “they went to the bank of the P.-canal are constructing a fort there”.



piʾazu “mouse”


First OB ref.: (foetus) zumuršu kīma pě-a-zi-im pa-ra-am ša pě-a-zi ulab[biš?] CUSAS 18, 19: 41 “its body is cl[ad(?)] like a mouse in a mouse’s skin”. See also peḫḫazu.



pīdu I “pardon, indulgence”


1. Stol 2008, 352 ad pīdu A transl. “replacement, ransom”. S. also Parpola 1979, 30.


2. ta-kal-la/lam-ma ṭar-du pi-du-šu (var. pi-d[u-, pi-du-uš-šú) ta-nam-din KAR 321 Rs. 2a // BM 61635+ iii 15’ // BM 61649+ iii 21’ “you hold the exile and give the ransom for him” (Mayer 2008, 100).



pīdu II “imprisonment”


piglu s. biqlu


pigmu “section”

not in the dictionaries


pigmu (pí-ig-mi) appears once in the legal document Emar 6, 2: 2; 6: 2. Zadok 1991, 115 derives pigmu either from the root pgm “to cut” or from the root pqm “to split”, both of which are known from Mishnaic Hebrew. Pentiuc 2001, 140 prefers the root pgm “to cut” and undertands pigmu as a word of West Semitic origin with the pattern qitl- and the meaning “section”. Etymologically pigmu is connected with Aramaic pəgam “to cut”, pigmā, pəgāmā “semicircular turret”, Ugaritic pgm in lpgm and pkmt of a Hebrew inscription (Pentiuc 2001, 140). The case-vowel -i- in Status Constructus could reflect the Ugaritic influence.



pīḫu “beer-jar”


1. OB 18 pi-ḫu-um “18 pīḫum-jugs” CUSAS 9, 8: 7.



2. Read PSBA 19 (CAD P 370a, a1’b’) with Stol 2008, 353 pí-ḫu 1 BÁN(!) KAŠ si-bi, instead of pí-ḫu SĚLA.TA BÁPPIR.BI. S. also pí-ḫu 1 BÁN 5 SĚLA CT 45, 54: 7. After UET 5, 607: 38, 4 pīḫu value 1 shekel silver (Stol 2008, 353).



pilaggu s. balangu


pilaqqu, palaqqu “spindle”

CAD: pilakku


1. For the form palaqqu, which is known from the lexical text Emar 6, 545: 74’, see also Pentiuc 2001, 138. A similar a/i vowel shift is found also in barku (Emar) / birku (core Akkadian) “knee” and talpānu (Emar) / tilpānu (core Akkadian) “bow”. The cognates of pilakku include Ugaritic plk “spindle”, Phoenician plk1 “spindle”, Hebrew pélek < *pilk “whirl of spindle”.


2. OB lit. ú-ki-al-lu (=̂ /ukallū/) pí-la-ak-ki CM 8, 26 ii 18 “they (the men) hold the spindles (in the hands)” (Mayer 2008, 100).



pilku II “work assignment, portion”


1. First MA reference: píl-ka-ni ṣi-il-a-šu-nu “Assign them portions!” Chuera 3: 5.



2. First OB reference: ummānu ša GN U4 7-KAM pí-li-ik U4 2-KAM nadű-ma AbB 14, 210: 7 “the troops of GN (assigned) for seven days, have abandoned the work assignment of two days” (Veenhof, AbB 14, p. 193; Stol 2008, 353). After Stol 2008, 353, OB 4 ÉRIN ŠŔ pi-il-ku-um UET 5, 726: 4 (CAD P 374a, 1 under pilku A) belongs here too.



pillatu “stolen goods”


Stol 2008, 353 translates pillatu after AHw 1583a as “Gestohlenes Gut”, cf. CAD P 375b: “mng. uncert.”.



pillű (a plant, phps.) “mandragora”


After Stol 2008, 353, NAM.DIL NÍTA GUL BAM 494 iii 21 (CAD P 376b, c1’) should be read u-bu-uš SÚN (= narṭabi).



pilsu “view”

not in AHw


First ref. outside PN: OB ina pí-li-is īnīya RATL p. 395 v 31 “under the view of my eyes”.



pilšu “breach”


1. Note the spelling OB lit. pí-in-ši-i-ka (// Sum. búr) CUSAS 10, 14: 4.



2. OB (CAD P 379a, 1a1’): ina liwīt dūr nītim šipik eperī pí-il-ši siḫpim u emūqiya rabîm ālam šuāti ina ešeret ūmī aṣbat BagM 34, 144 viii 5-9 “I have taken this city in ten days by means of siege of the enclosure wall, by means of embankment, breach, surprise attack and my great power” (Mayer 2008, 100f.).



pīlu “limestone”


Pl. pūlānū also in NA 4! pu-la!-a!-ni! SAA 6, 288 r. 4.



pimaḫunitinina? “?”

not in the dictionaries


Hapax, Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: ÉRINmeš Su-ú-ti \ bi-ma-ḫu-ni(-)\ti-ni-na? QS 3, 5: 52. See the discussion in QS 3 p. 74.



pinku “knob, boss”


OB pí-in-ku KŮ.GI ARM 24, 98 r. 4, 8. 2 ŠE.LÚ ([KŮ].ZI) pí-in-ku ib. 149 r. 4, 10. pí-in-kum KŮ.G[I] ib. 150: 13.



pinnatu “part of the tail”

not in the dict.


Lex. KU-kun-ĝu10 = ⸢pí-in-na-ti⸣ CUSAS 12 p. 157 x 5.



pinnu, pīnu “button, stud”


1. Beaulieu 2003, 385 adds new attestations of pinnu in NBC4894: 24 and 27 in context with necklaces and in NBC4894: 67 in context with finger rings. He tentatively explains this term as “an attachment or button to fasten the components of jewels”.



2. Also NA(?): pi-i-nu kis[su] SAA 7, 62 iv 1 “button ...” (in list of precious items given to Mullissu).



pinzurru s. bunzerru


pipnu s. bibnu (?)


pīqa “on (one) occasion”


For pīqa lā pīqa (CAD P 384b, c) s. also Mayer, Or. 58, 153f. (via Stol 2008, 353).



piqdu “allocation, consignment”


OB 1 UDU.NÍTA ŠŔ-bu pi-iq-di a-na É.GIR4.MAḪ “1 ram from the consignment for the Egirmaḫ-temple” CUSAS 9, 34: 1–3. 3 UDU.NÍTAḫi.a ŠŔ-bu pi-iq-di “3 rams from the consignment” ib. 37: 6f. (ewes and lambs) a-na ne-pe-eš-ti ŠŔ-bu pi-iq-di “for divination from the consigment” ib. 365: 1–5.



PI-ra-šu (/w/yarrāṯu/ or /w/yarraṯu/) (Pentiuc 2001, 139f.)


See warāšu I.


pirdu (an equid) s. perdu


piriggunű (a stone)

AHw: uggunnű (Stol 2008, 353)


pirikānu, pirikannu, parakannu “a garment”


Note the qualification: OA pě-ri-kŕ-ni narbūtim wasmūtim AKT 6c, 544: 21 “soft and fitting p.s”.

Rare by-form parakannu: OA pá-ra-kŕ-NIM liqēʾā AKT 4, 61: 17 “take the p.!”



pirikku (a divine symbol or a cultic installation?)

CAD: pirikku A and B


1. OB Mari aššum pí-ri-ik-ki-i[m ša ina i]-šar-tim ṣeḫretim nadű ... pí-ri-ik-ku-um nasiḫ FM 8, 11: 33–37 “regarding the p., [which] is situated [in] the small chapel ... the p. has been removed”.



2. Emar: 1-en UDU ana KIRI6 ša BI-ri-KI ša IŠKUR (Emar 6, 446: 49’) “one sheep to the garden of the p. of Adad”; la-ma-ma i-na pí-ri-*ki-*ma / im-taḫ-ra (Emar 6, 28: 5-6; see Durand 1989c, 179) “Before they confront each other by the p.”.


3. CAD P 397 introduces two entries: pirikku A “(a divine symbol)” and pirikku B “(mng. unkn.)”. Judging, however, by the cited passages, these lexemes may be one and the same word, which denotes a cultic installation where libations and consecration of priestesses could be made or an oath to the deity could be sworn (Feliu 2003, 132–134 with references to previous literature; CAD P 397). Soden 1987, 103 and Streck 2003a, 36, note 18 understand pirikku from Mari and Emar texts as a variant of parakku “cult dais; sanctuary”. Durand 1990, 298 does not exclude the connection with parakku either.

Since pirikku is written with the sign PI in OB texts, the etymological connection to Ugaritic brky, Hebrew bərēkā, Aramaic bre(y)ktā, Arabic birkat-, all meaning “pool” (Durand 1983, 26, note 28 and Zadok 1991, 115), must be abandoned (see already Charpin / Durand 1993, 375, n. 142). Against this etymological approach speaks also the fact that all Semitic cognates are feminine in singular (see also Pentiuc 2001, 41).

Fleming 1992, 89, note 73 and Oliva 1993, 82, 98 connect pirikku with the forms BI-ri-KA-ti, BI-ri-GA-ti, which serve as an epithet of Ištar in Emar texts, which seems, however, not very probable. Oliva 1993, 82, 98 supposes that pirikku with the feminine form pirikāti is derived from Akk. pilaqqu “spindle”. The sound change between -l- and -r-, however, would remain difficult. Moreover, the meaning “spindle” only roughly fits the contexts, in which BI-ri-KA-ti and BI-ri-GA-ti are epithets of Ištar. Most passages with pirikku in singular seem to presuppose that pirikku means a cultic installation (see above). Huehnergard 1988 (unpublished paper) discusses the relation of the Emarite forms BI-ri-KI, BI-ri-KA-ti and BI-ri-GA-ti with normalization /birrīqu/ to the Common Semitic root brq “to flash (of lightning)” (see Pentiuc 2001, 40). See also Pentiuc 2001, 41; parakku and Bir(r)ika/ātu.



pirik libbi (an organ)

not in AHw


piriktu I (a technical term in brewing)

AHw does’not distinguish between piriktu I and II


S. also parāku II “crumble” and pakāru “to tie up”.



piriktu II (< parāku “to obstruct”) “opposition, violent act”

AHw does’not distinguish between piriktu I and II


pirindu “slice”


Parpola 1979, 30 connects pirindu with Arab. farama “schneiden”, farmat “slice”. After Watanabe, BagM, Beih. 3, 209 § 103 pirindu is a derivation from parāmu “to shred” (s. above).



piriṣtu, pl. pirṣātu “falsity, falsehood”


The ref. OBGT XII 9f. (MSL 4, 119), belongs, according to CAD P 398, to pirištu “secret”.  But the following entry tašg/qertu shows that it is in fact the sg. of the lemma here.



pirišši “a type of chair”

not in the dictionaries


New word, Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: 1 gišGU.ZA \ bi-ri-ši-na-še “one chair in pirišši style” QS 3, 12: 17. [x] gišGU.ZA \ bi! (copy: GA)-ri-ši!-n[a-še] ib. 18: 31. For a Hurrian etymology see QS 3 p. 86.



pirištu “secret”


1. Unique form with affricate /s/: OB pi-ri-is-ti RATL 143: 9.



2. Read now Maqlű II 78 (CAD P 399a below and 399b above) with Abusch 2015, 234 dā’in dīni (instead of dīniya) atmę pi-riš-ti attā-ma. S. also Mayer 2008, 101.


3. With kanāku: pi-riš-tú kan-kat Götteradreßbuch 159 (StPohl s.m. 10/II, T 158; s. George, Iraq 48, 140) “the secret is sealed” (Mayer 2008, 101).



pirizzaru “a month; a festival”


Cf. Jacquet, FM 12 p. 56f.



pirku I “transversal, chord; (part of a gate); region, area; mng. uncl.”

CAD: pirku B; AHw: pe/irku


1. “transversal, chord”: MA, measure pirik ritte “handsbreadth” (not in AHw and CAD): ina gišBÁN ša pi-rík rit-te/rid-di (MARV 8, 46: 29; MARV 6, 24: 12; VS 19, 25: 22); ina gišBÁN ša PAD DINGIR pi-rík/ri-ik rit-te/rid-di (MARV 3, 42: 2f.; MARV 8, 60: 3f.). S. Freydank 1991, 71 (via Stol 2008, 353).

NA [...] pi-ir-ki ina GABA-šú SAA 10, 310: 2’ (Parpola 1979, 30) “[has] lines in his chest” (med.). pi-ri-ik É CTN 4, 248:10 (Stol 2008, 353) “transversal of a house”.

NB (CAD P 407b, 1d): pi-rik mātāti usappiḫšunūti BagM 21, 384 i 18 “(the Assyrian) scattered they (the deportees) across the country” (Mayer 2008, 101).


2. “part of a gate”: After Borger 2008, 445 pi-ri-ik-šu-un AfO 6, 82: 30 (CAD P 408a, 1d2’ “transversal, chord”) belongs to sec. 2. (CAD P 408a) and denotes “part of a gate”.


3. “region, area”: After Stol 2008, 353, the OB instances quoted in CAD P 407, d1’ under “difficult”, belong to sec. 3. “region, area” on p. 408a. S. already the review of Kraus (BiOr 22, 290a), who interprets pirku in BagM 2, 78 as “Gefangenenlager im Felde (?)”. Cf. OB (field) pí-ri-ik dNanna OECT 15, 39: 2; OB MU.DU KISLAḪ pí-ir-ki A.DAM.MA MDOG 125, 55: 44 (s. also comm. on p. 59); KTT 120: 19 “income of the threshing floor in the region of the steppe”.


4. (uncert. mngs.): OB inūma pi-ir-kam ša PN uterrūnim BagM 24, 152 n. 202 ii 25 “after they have returned p. of PN” (Stol 2008, 353).



pirku II

S. parāku II “to crumble”.


pirmaḫ (design. of horses)


The var. pirzumuḫ (AHw 867a; CAD P 408f.) is a misreading for pirmamuḫ with the infix -am- for designating a pl. (Soldt, RA 74, 78 with 170; Stol 2008, 353).       



pirqu I “claim”


pirqu II, pišqu “redemption”

CAD: pirku A “harm, wrong, fraud”


pirqūtu “redemption”

not in the dictionaries


LB: PN u mārūšu ina tuppi pi-ir-qú-ti-šú-nu ušzīzū OIP 122, 38: 45 “They reaffirmed (the status of) PN and his children (as recorded) in their tablet of redemption”. Weisberg, OIP 122 p. 255 connects pirqūtu with Aram. prq “to isolate, segregate”. S. also Streck 2007, 152. 



pirsātānâtu s. pirsātānītu


pirsātānītu, pl. pirsātānâtu (female initiate: a woman sharing the secret knowledge); LB

not in the dictionaries


LB: IM KU4meš munuspir-sa-ta-na-a-tú BM 80711: 1 (BabA 1, p. 107f.) “a letter from the temple-enterers (and) the women, who share the secret knowledge”. Cf. Jursa 2002, 108. After him, p. might be a “weibliches Pendant zu den ērib bīt pirišti, den ‘Betretern des geheimen Raumes’”.



pirsu “weaned child or animal”


Many MA ref. BATSH 9/3 p. 196 (index).



pirsu adj. (qualifying red wool) s. persu


pirTu (mng. uncl.)

not in the dict.


OB: 908 NUN.SĚLAku6 ana pi-ir-TI-im ŠU.TI.A PN SU.SI.IG BagM 20, 247 n. 44: 6 (s. also p. 237). Sanati-Müller, BagM 20, 237 connects pirTum with parāṭu “to clear away”: “PN, an official (responsible for the disposal of animal carcasses) has taken 908 (spoiled?) fishes to clear (them) away” (Stol 2008, 353).



pīru “elephant”


1. OB lit. arrak ša pi-ri-im iṣṣeḫrakka! CUSAS 10, 12: 9 “it (the penis) is very long. That of an elephant has become small with respect to you”.



2. For the correct Akk. translation of SumProv. 5.1 (CAD P 418f.) cf. maṣű here.



*pisanduppu “tablet container or the label attached to it”

only CAD


Instead of pisanduppu, read the logogram giPISAN DUB (CAD P 420b) with Borger 2008, 446 as pisan tuppāti “tablet container” (s. also Veenhof, BiOr 27 32f. and MesZL p. 327 and 345f.). Note that one of two instances of pisanduppu in CAD P 420b, Dalley Edinburgh 15: 8, is quoted correctly in CAD P 423a, e under pisannu.



pisannu see pišannu I.


PiSḫu “road, way”

not in the dictionaries


pisḫu (BI-IZ-ḫi/ḫu) occurs twice in Emar legal texts: KI-ir-ṢI-tu4 ma-la ma-ṣú!-ú i-na pí-is-ḫi šazi-ir-ḫa-na (Emar 6, 171: 1-2) “A k.-field as far as it extends to the road of the gate Zirḫana”; pa-nu-šu pí-is-ḫu (HANEM 2, 7: 6) “in front it (a ḫabaʾu-building) (is bordered) by the road”.

Durand 2003, 89, 90 interprets BI-IZ-ḫu as pisḫu “chemin” on the basis of the verb pasāḫu(?) “marcher, se mettre en route”, known from Mari and Boghazköi (CAD P 216,  meaning and form are, however, uncertain), and other similar contexts. The idea to understand BI-IZ-ḫu as a road corresponds to the assumption of Tsukimoto 1998, 185, who reads the signs BI-IZ in HANEM 2, 7: 6 together as ÚR and understands this word as urḫu “road, way”. Note, however, that after Durand, the sign ÚR does not seem to occur in this corpus.

            There are also some other interpretatons of BiZḫu found in the literature. Durand 1990b, 61 suggests to understand BI-IZ-ḫi in Emar 6, 171: 1-2 as a variant of sipḫu, which he takes as a variant of siḫpu “covering, surface”, which seems very questionable. Zadok 1991, 119 similarly considers pí-is-ḫi as a metathesis of sipḫu, which he, however, understands as a topographical term.

Huehnergard 1988 (unpublished paper) refers bi-iz-ḫi /bizġi/ “fissure, opening” to Syriac bezʿā “cleft, opening”, Arabic bazaġa “to break forth”. Pentiuc 2001, 39 reads bi-iṣ-ḫi /biṣʿi/ “ditch, dike, pond”, relating this word to Babylonian Aramaic bəṣaʿ “to break”, biṣʿā “ditch, dike, pond”, even though there is only one more example of a Ḫ sign used for /ʿ/ in this corpus (Pentiuc 2001, 39 and 163 under ṣí-iʾ-li, ṣí-iḫ-li).



pīsu “shovel(?)”


OB Sg.: pi-i-sŕ-am <...> šūbilīm AbB 14, 110: 50 “send me <...> spade” (Mayer 2008, 101).



pisurru, or šisurru? “gizzard”


Watson, NABU 2006/46 (via Stol 2008, 353) tentatively connects pisurru with Ug. ššrt KTU3 (AOAT 360/1) 1.119: 21 with uncert. reading and mng. If the reading is correct, the Akk. word is šisurru.





For the only lex. ref. [K]Api-ṣi-rumNI (MSL 13, 245, Kagal D, Section 5, 1’) see now MSL SS 1 (1986), 13, 2.2.7. Text G: [z]ú-wa-ṣa-buNI-[(x)]. See also CAD A/2, 352a under aṣābu, lex. sec.

For piṣīru in jB omina see biṣṣūru.



pišannu, pisannu I “box, chest; drainpipe

CAD: pisannu A


1. OB 1giPISAN ḫa-al-li-im “a container for ...” (together with other reed objects) AbB 12, 118: 7.


pišan ērištim (= gipisan šu-kam-ma) “basket of an expecting (mother)” CT 45, 75 r. 16; TCL 1, 199: 13 etc. (Stol 2000, 172, n. 9).



2. MB lit. išātu kīma mę pí-šá-an-ni ay issaḫir Tsukimoto 1999, 193: 34 “may the fever not turn back, like water of a drainpipe”.



pišertu, pašertu “release”


New by-form pašertu in MA (n barley) in[a bī]t? pa-še-er-te BATSH 9/3, 85: 3 “in the [hou]se(?) of disposal(?)”. But see pi-ščr-ti ib. 8. Many ref. for pišerti karūʾe “release of the barley-heap” (cf. CAD P 428 p. 1b) see ib. p. 196 (index).



pišri “a wooden implement used in textile manufacturing”


New Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: 11 giš \ pí-iš-ri ša lú.mešUŠ.BARme “11 p.-implements for the weavers” QS 3, 14: 1. 6 giš \ pí-iš-ri ša gadaTÚGme, 3 giš \ pí-iš-ri ša gadaBAR.DUL “6 p.-implements for linen garments, 3 p. for linen cloths” ib. 10f. See also ib. 3, 4, 15, 18f. and the discussion in QS 3 p. 91 according to which p. is not the loom.



pišru I “release; interpretation”


1. OB lit. eram išaqqīʾam mę pi-iš-ri-im CUSAS 32, 31 iii 11 “it gives the child water of dispelling (of evil) to drink”. Also pí-iš-ri YOS 11, 20: 12; OA pí-iš-ri-im Or. 66, 60: 16. Cf. George, comm. CUSAS 32 p. 97.



2. After Stol 2008, 354 Ištar-pi-iš7-ra-AN ARM 7, 263 i 2 (CAD P 430a, d) could be interpreted as “Ištar of (mountain) Bišri” (ARM 21, 18 n. 4; MARI 4, 527 n. 3).



pišru in iṣ pišri “magic staff”


1. Add to lex. sec. of CAD: GIŠ.BÚR = iṣ-ṣi piš-ri CTMMA II 280, 69: 1 (Stol 2008, 354).


2. Correct with Stol 2008, 354 Speleers Recueil 312 “OB lit.” (CAD P 430b, 1) to “SB lit.” (cf. Maqlű 6: 39).



pišru II (?) (qualifying cover); Mari

not in the dictionaries


pišru qualifies uṣű- and ḫaʾu-covers in Mari (Durand 2009, 85 and 127): 6 MA.N[A] [a?-0 ]a-yu-um ša pí-iš-ri ša 3 <...> [x M]A.NA 1 túgNÍG.BŔRA ša pí-iš-ri ša 2 GÍN <...> [...] ša pí-iš-ri-im ša [x GÍN] (T.423: 13’; 24’; 27’); 2 túgḫa-yu ša pí-iš-r[i] (T.407 iv 14).

            Durand 2009, 85f. and 128 connects pišru with puššuru quoted in CAD P 242a under the meaning “to undo, loosen, free” as “a preparation of textiles”, which is listed in texts among other stages of the preparation of fabrics. pišru should then denote a fabric made by the process of puššuru. (The second possibility considered by Durand, that ša BI-iš-ri is simply “(the production) of the (region) Ǧabal Bišrī” and Buššuru means “traiter ŕ la façon du Bišrī”, can be excluded because verbs derived from toponyms are so far unknown in Akkadian.)



piššatu, piššetu “anointing-oil”


1. OB pi-iš-ša-ti am-mi-ni i-ṣa-at “Why is anointing-oil for me scarce?” CUSAS 9, 10: 17. ul pi-iš-ša-ta ul lu-ba-ra id-di-in “He gave me neither anointing-oil nor a garment” ib. 22f. See also pi-iš-ša-ta ib. 13. (sesame oil and cedar resin) a-na pi-iš-ša-at gišIGmeš “as lubricant for doors” ib. 143: 1–4 (cf. CAD P 432 p. 2b).


2. Emar: New by-form piššetu: ě-ba = pí-iš!-še-tum Emar 541: 31 (Ḫḫ I).



pīštu, piltu “abuse, scandal”


1. OB lit. pi-iš-tum (// Sum. in) šārum meḫűm CUSAS 10, 14: 8 “the insult is wind and storm”.


2. OA ša bâš pānī pí-ša-tí-ka tumannā AKT 6b, 408: 33 “to the shame of (my) face you recount your insults”.



3. also NA lit. (Mayer 2008, 101): pi-šá-te-e-šu maʾdāte SAA 3, 29 r. 7 his many obscenities”; ana tēlte u pil-te ina pī nišī ittaškin SAA 3, 29 r. 9 “he became a proverbial expression and obscenity in the mouth of mankind”; PN ša pi-šá-tu-šú maʾdū SAA 3, 30: 5 “PN, whose abuses are many”.


4. LB: ikkib rubę parāti pi-šat lā qabę īpussu SpTU 3, 58 iii 32’ “what he did to him is a taboo for the prince, an offence, an unutterable insult” (Mayer 2008, 98 under parūtu).



pitḫu “perforation”


Emar pí-it-ḫa dalāti Emar 6/3, 463: 1 “opening of the doors”. According to Pentiuc 2001, 141 NWSem. lw., but can well be derived from Akk. pitḫu. Streck 2000, 109f.: no Amor. etym.



pitiltu “rope (made of palm fibres)”


OB li-ip-ti-il-kum iṣ arti pí-[t]i-il-tam “Let (someone) twist ribs of palm leaves into ropes for you” Finkel 2014: 11 (construction with two acc.).



pitnu I “strong, sturdy” s. patnu II


pitnu II “box; a stringed musical instrument”


1. (ad CAD pitnu B): A musical instrument/string: pí-it-nu … liblūnim mummu[m lā] rē[q] FM 9 p. 126 no. 23: 7 “may they bring a p. The conservatory shall [not] be unemployed”. For further ref. s. ib. p. 323. Cf. the disc. of Ziegler ib. p. 76f. pi-it-nu-um ARM 28, 86: 22 in broken context (cf. a female singer in l. 26).


2. OB lit. kīma pi-it-ni-im ḫu-ú-du ZA 75, 198: 24 “rejoice like a harp!”



pitqu “casting”


1. OB Mari, smelted (about metal) (CAD P 441a, 2b2’): “x minas y shekels of smelted (pí-it-qú) silver” ARM 25, 196: 1; 215: 2; 362: 1, 2, 5, 9 (s. also MARI 4, 514; via Mayer 2008: 101).


2. OB, (animal) shelter: sheep pi-ti-iq PN BiMes 17, 75 Ki 660: 3, r. 3, 9 (via Stol 2008, 354).


3. For UET 5, 481: 31 (CAD P 441b, 4) s. bitqu.



pitru “half”


Emar: 30 ma-na = NA4 pí-ti-ir Emar 553: 213 (Ḫḫ XVI) “30 mina = stone of one-half (of a talent)”. The same word as CAD pitru B “one-half of a sar” (AHw. pitru 1 “ein unbebautes Gelände od Grundstück”) und CAD pitru D “a stone vessel” (AHw. piṭru 7 “ein Stein?”). The reading pitru instead of piṭru is favored by the spelling pi-ti-ir (never pi-DI-ir). See also bitru in Emar.



pitrustu “ambiguous omen”


OB dual (see CAD P 442 p. a) also in pi-it-ru-iš-ta-an CUSAS 18, 22: 22, r. 26’.



pittu I “area, vicinity”


For the passage UET 6/2, 414: 12 (OB lit.), quoted in CAD P 443 under pittu A, see bittu II.


pittu II s. pīdu II


pītu I “opening, aperture”


1. Early OB prob. in the mng. “clasp” (lit. “opening device”), attached to hides used as container: 2 KUŠ GU4 2 pí-tá-an ARM 19, 164: 1f. “2 oxhides, 2 clasps”. 6 K[U]Š [...] 6 p[í-t]um ib. 157: 1–2. For further ref. see ib. p. 164 (index). See the disc. by H. Limet, ib. p. 33 and in MARI 4, 517, note 18 and 520.  For pītu in the mng. “clasp (of a necklace)” see CAD P 447 p. A 3.


2. Said of a woman’s genitalia (?; dual of body parts): Bo. ikkūm? bākitiya pí-ta-a-ki KBo. 36, 27: 18 “instead of(?) my wailing woman, your opening(s)(?)”. Or bi-ta-a-ki “your houses” (cf. Schwemer 2004, 67).



3. opening ritual (CAD P 446b, 2a, s. Mayer 2008, 101): ūm pīt(BAD) bābi bēli rabű dMarduk u qarrādi dNinurta SpTU 4, 167 ob. B a 1 (hemerology; s. also b 3, c 2 and r. B b l, c 3) “the day of the gate opening of the great lord Marduk and the warrior Ninurta”.

            [dLAMMA? māḫ]āzī DINGIRmeš GALmeš ina pi-it bābi(KÁ) rummî sikkūri [ina? né-gél-te?]-e āli u bēlišu ana damiqtu li-iḫ-su-u[s?-ka] BM 64518: 9-10 (prayer for the king) “may [the protective deity(?)] of the cultic centres of the great deities think about you for (your) good fortune during the gate opening, the bolt loosening, [the wakening up(?)] of the city and his lord”.


4. Note the month name ITI KA-ti erṣetim VAS 9 132: 7, which Stol 2008, 354 connects with Pí-ti erṣetim (CAD P 447a, e).



pitūtu (a headdress)


1. Add with Borger 2008, 446 pi-tu-a-te ina IGI [...] SAA 5, 282 r. 3’ “[di]adems in fr[ont of ...]”.



2. Pl. in NA [p]i-tu-a-te in broken context SAA 5, 282 r. 3.



piṭirtu? “loosening”

not in the dictionaries


OB lit. KA-inim-ma pi-ṭi-ir-tum ZA 75, 200: 61 “incantation ‘loosening’”. Prob. not a PNf WE-ṭi-ir-tum as supposed by Wilcke ib. pp. 201, 207, see Scurlock 1989–1990.



piṭru I “release”


1. After Borger 2008, 446 DUḪ gišBANŠUR RAcc. 133: 211 and 143: 410 (cited in CAD P 450b under piṭru and in AHw 1366b under tuḫḫu) has to be read as piṭir paššūri, cf. pi-ṭir gišBANŠUR K. 9876: 18 (CAD P 450b, 6) and not as kussup paššūri (so CAD) or tuḫḫi paššūri (so AHw).


2. part of the body: [si-ḫi-i]l-ti šīrī(UZUmeš) ilʾibannima / [u]-ni-šu pi-ṭi-ri-ia Rm. 499: 3’ (UFBG 536, coll. by Geller) “pain of my flesh afflicted me, my p. trembled” (Mayer 2008, 101).


3. undoing(?): ḫummušu xx RU ina UDUN u pi-iṭ-ru LÁ Sack 1994, 92 , no. 7: 9 “one-fifth shekel … being lost through furnace and undoing(?)” (Stol 2008, 354).


4. Mayer 2008, 101 analyses the instances quoted in CAD P 448f. under piṭru adj “loose (about silver)” as belonging to section 7. of piṭru s. “release”. For loose silver vs. sealed silver s. also Stol, JCS 34, 151 and OBO 160/4, 903.



piṭru II


For AN.KUD bi-it-ru ša šá-[me-e] (Emar 6, 567: 5’), which is included in the lexical section under piṭru in CAD, see bitru.



PI-zi-rí-um (item of jewelry)


There are four references for PI-zi-rí-um from Ur III: 9 PI-zi-rí-um KŮ.SIG17 ḪUŠ.A KI.LÁ.BI 1 GÍN UET 3, 676 (Ur): 1f.; PI-zi-ir tu-di-da UET 3, 477: 3f. (Ur); ŠU.NÍĜIN 1 ki-lí-lum PI-zi-rí-um KŮ.SIG17 ḪUŠ.A UTI 6, 3800 r. ii 13 (Umma); ŠU.NÍĜIN 2 ki-lí-lum PI-zi-rí-um KŮ.SIG17 UTI 6, 3800 r. iii 10 (Umma).

            The first one, UET 3, 676: 1, is listed in AHw 871b under pizzer(ium) “eine Pflanze”. CAD P 453a, however, notes that PI-zi-rí-um in UET 3, 676: 1 probably is not identical with pizzir, which CAD interprets as a “cobweb”.

Civil 2006, 60 describes PI-zi-rí-um, on the base of UET 3, 676, as “a small item (nine of them weigh one shekel) of gold jewelry. The word remains obscure in form and meaning, and a connection with be5-en-zé-er is most unlikely”.



(?) “here(?)” Amarna; WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries


p[u]-ú occurs in EA 104: 53: ů p[u]-ú en-ni-ip-ša-<at> LÚ.MEŠ.GAZ.MEŠ. CAD E 216 interprets p[u]-ú as “mouth; agreement”: “they have come to an agreement with the Ḫāpiru-people”. See also the translation of Moran 1992, 177: “and an agreement has been made with the ʿApiru”. Sivan 1984, 130 and 259 argues, however, for the Northwest Semitic origin of this word and compares it with Hebrew “here”. Moran 1992, 178, note 5 considers this analysis as a possible alternative “perhaps yielding better sense, in ‘and (t)here (too) (the city) has gone over to the ʿApiru’”. See Sivan 1984, 130 and Moran 1992, 178, note 5 for previous literature.



I “mouth”


1. Note the idiom pâ wašāru, also lexically attested: OB Mari DUMU ši-ip-ri ša PN a-na ṣe-er be-lí-ia it-ta-al-kam be-lí pí-šu la ú-wa-aš-ša-ar-šum “A messenger of PN has come to my lord. My lord should not let him speak!” ARM 28, 98: 37–40. For sikkata ana pî maḫāṣu (CAD p. 1a1’a’) see also OB Mari a-n[a pí]-i be-el a-wa-ti-ia gišGAG la a-ma-aḫ-ḫa-ṣú “(because) I cannot drive a peg into the mouth of my adversary” ARM 28, 105: 12’.

New idiom: OA ana pá-e lā tuṣṣiʾ AKT 6a, 236: 35 “don’t make excuses(?) (lit.: don’t go out to the mouth/word”).


            New idiom pî rašű “to raise objections (?)” (Stol 2008, 354): OB pi-i ir-šu-ú TIM 5, 63: 4.


3. Speech, language (Mayer 2008, 102): kīma kaspi ina pī(KA) nišī balāṭu libši BBR 26 iii 9 // SpTU 2, 12 ii 14 “may (my) life be like silver in people’s talk”. kīma ina qabę dŠamaš kīma dsērāš ina pī(KA) nišī balāṭu lū dār BBR 26 iii 11 f. // CT 51, 195: 3’f. // SpTU 2, 12 ii 16 “according to the command of Šamaš may (my) life last for ever in people’s talk like beer”. šūt/ša pa-a šaknū tapaqqidī kīma Šamaš Ištar 1:10 (Zgoll 2003, 193) “you (Ištar) care for those equipped with a mouth (= ref. to the people) like Šamaš” (via Stol 2008, 354).

Dictation: Add the expression ki-i pi-i ša-ṭir in BM 77429: 30, which Jursa 2009, 151 translates as “nach Diktat geschrieben”, to CAD P A 6a (compare ana KA šaṭir).

Declaration: (before the judges) KA-šu ú-ki-in UCP 10, 91: 18 (Stol 2008, 354).

Pűm as a deity in PN (Stol 2008, 354): Pu-um-DINGIR OECT 15, 132: 17; Puzur-dPu-ú Rositani, Sefarad 66, 10 iii 6.

Opening of a part of the body (uterus’s mouth): OA arhiš illukū māʾū i-pí-ša PIHANS 100, 396: 4f. (inc.) “the (amniotic) fluid quickly runs from her (cow’s) (uterus’s) mouth” (Mayer 2008, 102).

Opening of an object: Pí-i-ka-si-i ZABR 9, 165: 12 (s. also p. 167 for other inst.) “mouth of the (river) Kasű” (via Streck 2007, 152). dŠamaš ašakkan a-na pi-i qú-ut-re-nim ša -[tu?-r]i-i-ka erēnam ellam YOS 11, 22: 14f. “Šamaš, I place pure cedar on the opening of the censer to fumigate (?) you” (Mayer 2008, 102).

Blade of a dagger (Mayer 2008, 102): NB “among them 1616 men” a-na pi-i patri(GÍR.AN.BAR) aškun(GAR-un) BaM 21, 344 ii 7 “I have placed for the mouth of the sword (= killed)”.


4. For Iraq 18, 62: 28 (CAD P 455a, 1a1’a’) s. now the improved text in Mīs pî 134: 36-37: pi-i-šú (var. KA-šú) ana mākālę uzun-šu ana na/ešmę liššakin “may his (of a deity’s image) mouth be enabled to eat, his ear (be enabled) to hear” (Mayer 2008, 101f.).

            For the full passage of YOS 11: 22, partly quoted in CAD P 456a, above, s. CAD Š/1, 17a and Mayer 2008, 102.

Read with MesZL p. 353 below (via Borger 2008, 446) in BBSt 8 i 22 (CAD P 462a above) LUGAL.E (šarri) instead of šar Bābili (so CAD). Cf. the correct reading LUGAL.E BBSt 8 i 10 on the same p. in CAD P.

After Stol 2008, 354 ina KA Sippar CT 4 39b: 11 (CAD P 469b, c) does not belong here, since KA is here an unusual spelling for KÁ “gate”.

            Read with Borger 2008, 446 in KAR 421 ii 16 (CAD P 470b, e) ḫarri instead of ḫurri, s. CAD Ḫ 114b-115a and MesZL p. 392.



II, pāʾu “chaff”


1. OB Mari, in broken context: ŠE.NUMUN pé-e-em tu-u[ḫ-ḫi ...] ARM 27, 156: 10 “seed, chaff, br[an]”.


2. OA šummamin wašbāti awāssu ana pá-e iddīʾūnim AKT 6a, 75: 50, cf. 76: 52 “if you had been present, would they have treated (lit. thrown to) his word like chaff?”


3. Genitive pīʾi: MB kīma pitilti pi-ʾ tippattil Lamaštu p. 264: 8 “like a fiber of chaff, you will not become twisted.



3. Read with Borger 2008, 446 in K.9666 (CAD P 472a, e2’) ap-pat-t[il instead of appaṭ[ṭir and further a-bat-tu a-na-ku-ma ul a-lap-p[a?- (CAD different).



III (a bird)


OB pu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 29 (in list of birds). Variant of paʾu (Al-Rawi/Dalley 2000, 106)? Cf. also baʾu ib. 65. See also paʾű.



pūʾāgu “to take away forcibly”


For OA ref. s. būʾāʾu.


pudru “dung cake”


OB lit. pu-ud-ru-um CUSAS 32, 30: 20‘ (in recipe).



pudű s. būdu III.




Pentiuc 2001, 141; see BU-GA-ra-tu.


puggu see buggu.


pugl- “to assemble”

not in the dictionaries


Hapax, Hurrian word in MB Qaṭna: lú.mešmar-ia-ni-na ša uruQŕṭ-na \ pu-uk-lu-uš-te “Assemble the maryannū of Qaṭna!” QS 3, 4: 4f.



pugudātu “bridle, rein(s)”


Add with Stol 2008, 354: NB [ištēn imēru] ilḫi ukāpi pu-ug-da-tu4 <…> ultu bīt puṭṭurišu niteblū AfO 50, 260: 16 “we have took from his lodging [a donkey], an ilḫu-cloth, a pack-saddle, a bridle <…>”. imēru šâšu pu-ug-da-ti ilḫi ukāpu <…> ina ušuzzu ša dayyānē GN īmurūma id. 20 “they (judges) inspected that donkey, the bridle, the ilḫu-cloth, the pack-saddle <…> in the presence of the judges of GN”.



puḫādu “lamb”


1. Lit.: puḫādu(uduSILA4) sāmu SpTU 2, 17 iv 15’ “A red-brown lamb (,you smear his neck with cedar resin”) (Mayer 2008, 102).


2. In ext. (Mayer 2008, 102): ukkuš puḫādum(uduSILA4)-ma akarrab-kunūši [ḫuzāla?] BBR 100: 20 “the male lamb was kept away, I dedicate to you [a gazelle kid(?)]”. ukkuš puḫādum-ma akarrab-kunūši puḫātta(fSILA4 = KIR11) id. 38f. “the male lamb was kept away, I dedicate to you a female lamb”.

            Note the pu-ḫa-da-am barmam “speckled lamb” YOS 11, 23: 2 (Starr 1983, 30) in a ext. prayer (Stol 2008, 354).



puḫāttu “female lamb”


1. The reading of the logogram munusSILA4 (so in the dict.) is kir11 (Borger 2008, 446, s. also MesZL p. 224 und p. 329).



2. Note the syll. spelling sila4pu-ḫa-tum FM 8, 37: 6’.



3. SB puḫātta(fSILA4 = KIR11) taḫannaq-ma SpTU 3, 84: 4 “you strangulate the female lamb”. Note without det. in l. 9: SILA4 birīt tulęšu tanaddī “you put the (female) lamb between her(!) breasts” (Mayer 2008, 103).



puḫdinu (mng. unkn. Mari, of gold)

only CDA


See b/puḫdinnu.


puḫḫu D “to exchange”


Dt: OB ša <...> up-te-ḫu MHET 1, 4: 4f. (AOAT 303, 113 n. 309) “(field), which was exchanged <…>” (Streck 2007, 152).



puḫlalű “apprentice priest”; SB; Elamite lw.


puḫlalu with an ambiguous first consonant is interpreted by the dictionaries as a class of priests (see under buḫlalű CAD B 307: “an Elamite designation of a priest”; AHw 136: “elamische Priesterklasse”). Vallat 2001, 65 (mentioned by now in CAD P 484 under puḫlalű) explains puḫlalű as a compound word consisting from Elamite puḫu “child, junior” and lar “priest” with interchangeable last consonant l/r. Hence his interpretation of puḫlalű as  “enfants du clergé” or “séminaristes”. Cf. Elamite puḫutepi “apprentice scribe (?)” (CAD P 502), consisting from puḫu “child” and teppir “scribe” (CAD T 345f.). 



*puḫrātu “extraordinary meeting” s. buḫratu.


puḫru “assembly”


1. Lit.: puḫra(UKKIN) pu-uḫ-ḫu-ra-a-tú (var. pa-ḫa-ra-tu4) kīma kurgarrî SpTU 2, 24: 3 // BM 45755: 2b “(why do you keep) the assembly assembled like a cultic performer?” (Mayer 2008, 103).


2. After Stol 2008, 354, GAL.UKKEN.NA in the OB letter Di 628 (MHEO 1, 104 and 92f.) could mean “Head of the assembly”: ištū awīlum GAL.UKKEN.NA īrubam awīlum ana GAL.UKKEN.NA kīʾam iqbī umma šūma aššumika nuḫassis “after the gentleman, the head of the assembly, had entered, the (other) gentleman said to the head of the assembly: ‘We thought about you’”.


3. Add with Stol 2008, 354 ina puḫri “publicly, openly”: u ina pu-úḫ-ri šillati idbuba “he slandered me in public”; in pu-uḫ-ri-im mimmu tušaddinu birrā AbB 9, 111: 16 “establish publicly whatever you have collected”. S. also Fs Garelli 65 A. 3976: 8.


4. puḫram nadānu “to hold an assembly” (not in the dictionaries): aššum pu-uḫ-ri-im na-da-nim PN taṭrudam taʾtamam ša GN [u]p-ta-ḫi-ir-ma A.3243 = A.3651 (QuadSem 16, 35) “you has sent PN concerning providing an assembly. I have assembled the assembly of GN”; lā tallakā ana GN bá-ru-um i-bá-ar-ku-nu-ti u pu-ḫu-ur-ku8-nu lā tanaddanā ARM 26/2, 62f., 306: 40-42 “do not go (2. pl.) to GN: you will be certainly caught. And do not gather your assembly”.



pūḫu “exchange; substitute”


1. OB a-na-ku lu pu-ḫu ša ba-la-ṭí-ka “May I be a substitute for your life” CUSAS 9, 4: 5f., 19.



2. In rit. context (with syn. dinānu and nusagilű): pu-ḫu-ú-a ša ukinnū dEa […] dinānūʾa ša ibbanű dMarduk li-x-x[ ] K.5022+ r. 3f. (= “Šamas 78 B”, Mayer 1976, 419; Mayer 2008, 103)[may] Ea [...] the replacement figure of me that they have set up; may Marduk […] the substitute figure of me that was made”. ṭiṭṭa akriṣ ṣalam iṣi u qanî ana pu-ḫi-ia [ēpu]š ēpuš pu-u-ḫi šá NU.SAĜ.ÍL[A-M]U K.2387+ r. 4f. (“Šamas 78 A” // id. B r. 10f. (Mayer 2008, 103) “I pinched off clay, I made a figure of wood and cane as a substitute for me; I have made a substitute for me, which is replacement for me”. [pu-ḫ]u-ú-a maḫrātunu dinānūʾa maḫrātunu id. A r. 17 // B r. 22 (Mayer 2008, 103) “the replacement for me you (pl. m.) have received, the substitue for me you have received”. [NU.SA]Ĝ.ÍLA-ia ša dEa īpušu / ana pu-ḫi-ia (u) dinānīya šū illak id. A r. 21f. // B r. 26 (Mayer 2008, 103) “the substitute figure, which Ea has made, it will go for my replacement and for my substitution”. [dŠamaš] annű NU.NÍG.SAĜ.ÍLA-MU dŠamaš annű pu-ḫ[u-ú-a] [dŠamaš annű] dinānūʾ[a] K.6034+ (= “Šamaš 92”, Mayer 1976, 421; Mayer 2008, 103) “Šamaš, this is my substitute figure; Šamaš, this is my replacement figure; Šamaš, this is my substitution”.


3. S. also nigsagilű (CAD N/2, 217) and nusagilű here.



puḫurtu, puḫuštu “throng, crowd”

only CAD


Add with Stol 2008, 354: LB DINGIRmeš ana pu-ḫu-uš-ti É.SAG.ÍL CLBT Pl. 4 D 4 vi 15.





See buk(k)u.


pukkuru “to fetter, tie up”


Beaulieu 2003, 385 mentions the related root PKR in Syriac with the meaning “to bind” (with reference to Payne-Smith).



pulḫītu “distress, consternation(?)”


Gilg. Y. does not belong here (with Mayer 2008, 103). S. puluḫtu. Note also, that the link “for SB version s. puluḫtu mng. 1c” (CAD P 503b) is misleading. For Gilg SB s. puluḫtu mng. 2a (CAD P 508b).


Mayer 2008, 103 (CAD pulḫītu): Literatur: M. Jacques, NABU 2003/101 (bulhītu und buhrītu).”


puliṭū “citizenry”; Hell., Gk. word

only CAD      


The form puliṭū does not exist (Mayer 2008, 103). The most common form pulīṭē renders either sg. πολιτης or pl. πολιται (note that with Mayer it remains unclear how Gk. ai is reproduced in Akk.). The following spellings are known: pu-li-ṭe-e, pu-li-ṭe4-e (not in CAD), pu-li-ṭa-nu, pu-li-ṭa-an-nu, pu-li-ṭa-an. For pu-li-ṭe4-e s., e.g., Astronomical diaries -134 B obv. 17, -124 B r. 17’, -90 obv. 30’, -77 B r. 16’.



puluḫtu, paluḫtu “fear(someness)”


1. See the OB by-form pa-lu-uḫ-ti DN “fear of DN” AbB 12, 64: 4.



2. Add OB aššum šullum[u erēni] pu-ul-ḫi-a-tim 7 [īmšum Enlil] Gilg. Y. iv 2 “In order to safeguard [the cedar,] [Enlil] assigned [him] the Seven Terrors” (George 2003, 200f.). Note that CAD P 503b quotes this instance under pulḫitu “a sore or blister”. However, George 2003, 210 n. 137 regards pu-ul-ḫi-a-tim as one of the occasionally occurring broken fem. pl. and equates it with pulḫâti of Gilg. SB II 219b a. o. and pulḫęte Ass. MS y2 15’.

Add with Streck 2007, 152 the uncert. ref. urram uklum! ṣillī! utur! pu-lu!(text: PA)-uḫ-ta-am Ištar Bagdad 30 “in broad daylight is (only) darkness my protection, full of horror (?)”.


3. Awesomeness of gods (CAD P 506f, 1a1’; 1a2’): ša melammē tullât kīma ūme pul-ḫa-tú (//  pul-ḫa-a-ti) kiṣṣurat CT 25, 10 ii 5f. // 15 ii 5f. // AfO 50, 21: 4 “(goddess), who is bedecked with fearsome radiance, is clad in (kaṣāru Gt) fear like a storm” (Mayer 2008, 103). ulawwa pu-lu-uḫ-ta-šu birkī-ka OB Gilg. Schřyen2, 20 (George 2003, 234) “terror of him (= Huwawa) will encircle your legs” (Mayer 2008, 103).



pulukku “needle; stake; boundary marker


1. OB pu-ul-lu-uk-ka-tum, quoted  CAD P 510 1c, s. now RATL 28: 19.




2. Borders of the country (CAD P 510b, 1b): ša... sapar-ša pu-lu-uk dadmē saḫru AfO 50, 21: 8 “(goddess), whose net surrounds the borders of the settlements” (Mayer 2008, 103); šar-rat pu-lu-uk da-ád-mi BM 75974 r. 36 (Mayer 2008, 103).


3. Tool: 10 nalpatti 13 pu-lu-ka-[tim] ARM 21, 258: 8 (Stol 2008, 354).



punnigu see pannigu.


puqqu D “to pay attention to”


1. Parpola 1979, 30 (via Aro) connects puqqu with ar. fāqa, esp. IV ʾafāqa erwachen”.


2. D “to heed the gods” (CAD P 512b, 1a1’): ina qereb šamāmī kalîš pu-uq-qu-ši BM 75974 r. 18 “in the midst of the sky they are attentive to her (= Gula)” (Mayer 2008, 104).

puqqu + ana, ina: a-na nam-ra-ṣi-it nūri(ZÁLAG)-ka ú-pi-*iq *be-*lí BAM 231 i 23 // 332 i 8’ “I was attentive to the glitter (?) of your light, my lord” (Mayer 2008, 104).

Correction for KAR 228: 13 (CAD P 513a, 1a2’): read with Mayer 2008, 104 ana-ku mÚ-pa-qa-ana-XV-a-ti instead of ana-ku ú-pa-qa ana 15(?)-a-ti.


3. Dt, also in pres.: ana nakās napištiya up-ta-qu KAR 224 Rs. 15 // K. 3581+7946: 7 (s. Farber, BID 254 to 23’f.) “(the magician?, who) is greately attentive to cut my life” (Mayer 2008, 104).


See also mupiqqu.



pūqu “defile, cleft”


Correction for RA 38, 87: 4 // YOS 11, 23: 3 (CAD 514a): instead of ittabku read with Mayer 2008, 104 it-ta-ab-ZU (ittapṣu) or it-ta-ab-lu (s. Or. 56, 202). Hence the translation: “(a pure lamb, which) has bumped against (the buttocks of the ewe)” or “(a pure lamb, which) was brought away from (the buttocks of the ewe)”.



puquddű “(formal) delivery; legal consignment”


OB (34th year of Ammiditana): 1 uruduḫaṣṣinnu 3 uruduŠU.KIN.NÍG.GAL ša pu-qů(GU)-de-e labīri 1 uruduŠU.KIN.NÍG.GAL pu-qů-de-e PN 1 uruduḫaṣṣinnu 4 uruduŠU.KIN.NÍG.GAL ša unūt ekallim pu-qů-de-e PN PA.PA BM 78557 (BabA 1, p. 163) “1 copper axe, 3 copper sickles, part of the old allocation; 1 copper sickle allocated to PN, (in total) 1 copper axe and 4 copper sickles, part of the utensils of the palace allocated to the captain PN” (s. van Koppen 2002, 163f. and note 24). Note the spelling with GU instead of KU.



puquttu “thorn”


Add puquttu KUR.RA BAM 4, 409: 31 “thorn from the mountain” (Stol 2008, 354).     



purdű (a cooper objekt) see purṭű.


purīdu “leg”.       


1. Lex.: du-un-ĝu10 = pu-ri-di CUSAS 12 p. 150: 34 (Ugumu) “my leg”.


2. SB Ug. (Gilg.) qanā pu-ri-id-šu AuOr. Suppl. 23, 42: 36 “his leg is a reed long”.



purkullu s. parkullu


purkullūtu “lapidary’s craft”


Also in OB: (ṣalma... ša...) BUR.GUL-lu-sú šāninam lā īšű BagM 34, 148 xiii 6 “(an image), the lapidary’s craft of which is unrivalled” (Mayer 2008, 104; Stol 2008, 354)



+purnussu (vessel); lw. Hurr.


Add with Mayer 2008, 104 a new lexeme: OB Mari pu-ur-nu-(us-)ARM 24, 85: 11 and 101: 11; ARM 31, p. 259ff. It denotes a small bowl made of metal, silver or bronze.



purruru “scattered”


OA meḫrat taḫsistim pá-ru-ur-tí AKT 7a, 61: 21 “copy of the broken memorandum”.



purrusu, f. pl. purrusētu “separated” (< parāsu I)


2 ÁB pu-ru-se-e-tum CT 8, 28c: 12, a design. of cows, which was not understood by CAD P 522b (“mng. unkn.”), could refer to mother-cows separated from their calves (Stol, BSA 8, 179). Cf. pirsu as a design. of a weaned animal.



pursāsu “(rear) lock of hair”


Add with Mayer 2008, 104 OB lit. naḫlapāti pu-ur-sa-si tušešmi zikrī CM 8, 26 ii 3 “you have alerted the men to dresses and long hair styles” (Lambert, AfO 46/47, 276a).



pursātu s. purustu


pursītu, puršītu “(offering) bowl”

s. also pursű


1. OB BUR.ZI-tum ARM 24 index p. 245.

            Add with Ziegler, JMT 5, 4f. (via Stol 2008, 354) damam ina pu-ur-si-tim akṣur ARM 26/3, 538: 8 (quoted in CAD P 524b under pursű). S. also pursű.

            +pursīt uḫūli “soap bowl”: 1 GAL pu-ur-si-it ú-ḫu-li ARM 31, 34: 13’; 1 BUR.ZI ú-[ḫu-li] ARM 31, 37: 11’; 1 pu-ur-sí-it ú-ḫu-li ARM 31, 235: 7; ! BUR.ZI KŮ.BABBAR ša ú-[ḫu-li] ARM 31, 269: 8’. This smallest