-ma particle and conj.

S. also **-pa.



“what!, indeed” particle introducing and continuing dir. speech, expressing indignation


+ madaru (?) “field”; Emar. WSem. lw.

ku-ba-di a-na ⌈x (x)⌉ ma-da-ri-ia u a-na da-na-t[u4] ú-ka-ba-du Emar 6, 446: 55’ “They perform an honoring (-ceremony) in my field and in the fortres[s]”, s. Pentiuc 2001, 117f. Differently Fleming (s. Pentiuc 2001, 118): a-nata(?)⌉-ma da-ri-ia “by lasting oath(?)”.

Pentiuc 2001, 118 relates madaru to the West Semitic root mdr, which is attested in Ethiopic as mədr “earth, field, country, district”, in Arabic as madar- “clods of earth”, in Sabaic as mdr “territory, ground” and in Syriac as medrā “a clod, lump of earth”. He connects it also with Akkadian midru, which after AHw 651 occurs also in OA and SB. madaru form OB Mari mentioned by Pentiuc probably does not belong here, since it denotes a high official (s. CAD M/1, 11b madāru), not a kind of territory. Pentiuc considers the qatal-pattrern of madaru as Proto Semiti and the qitl- pattern in Akkadian (midru), Syriac (medrā) and maybe Ethiopic (mədr < *midr) as a later transformation.

A second alternative would be to connect ma-da-ri-ia with the West Semitic root drʿ and Ugaritic mdrʿ “sown land, cultivated field”, which is also written as mi-TA-ar-ú! in the Akkadian text PRU 3, 47a: 12 (s. Olmo Lete / Sanmartin 2004, 528; compare Hebrew mizrāʿ, Arabic mazraʿa). S. also midarʾu.



mādidu, mandidu “measurer”; + OB

ma-an-di-di UET 7, 73 iii 119 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) measurers”. Note nd.



madlāʾu, madliʾu, madlű, “bucket”; + Ur III

Ur III 1 kuš udu-niga ma-ad-li-um gar 2-šč ba-a-gar CUSAS 3, 968: 17 “1 fattened sheep skin placed to cover 2 buckets”; cf. gima-ad-lí-um pú-šč MVN 3, 231: 2 “reed-bucket for the well” (for further ref. s. BDTNS; s. also Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 357).



mâdu “to become numerous”

Š OA lu-ša-am-i-id OA Sarg. 64, cf. tuppu.



maḫāṣu “to beat; weave”

In the sense of “to divide” also in OB (s. CAD M/1, 78 maḫāṣu 3c for references from OA and Bo.), s. bāmtu.



maḫru “front, presence”


maḫrű I “first; former, earlier; previous, older; next future”


maḫű “to rave, become frenzied”

1. OB lit. danniš ta-ma-ḫi YOS 11, 24 i 6 “you are so ecstatic!”

2. MB lit. kabattī im-ḫi-i ALL no. 11: 10 “my mind went crazy”.



ma-i-ra-a-ni (mayyarānu?) not identified

MA BATSH 4/1: 7: 6’’, 13’’. S. Cancik-Kirschbaum 1996, 127.


makkārum “merchant, dealer”; + OB Mari

Read ma!-ka!-ra-am-ma in A. 1153: 18 (= VOM 181, 18, s. Durand, MARI 5 p. 669, prev. read bakīram, s. AHw Supplement p. 1546 und bakīram in CAD and AHw):

OB šumma šeʾum ina qātika šutamṭ -ma še-um i-na qa-ti-ka šu-ta-am-ṭú*-ú* 16a-na ṣe-ri-ia šu-up ra-am 5 ra-ab-ba-tim 17anše-ḫá še-em lu-ma-al-le-e-em-ma 18ma-ka*-ra-am-ma a-na [m]a-riki [lu-ša-ri-kum] 19ů a-na-ku a-na ka-šu-um-ma [a-ta]-ka-al-ma ‘Si tu es en manque de grain, écris-moi: je ferai prendre leur pleine charge de grain ŕ 50 000 ânes et je te les enverrai ŕ Mari sous la direction d’un chef caravanier. Pour ma part, j’ai pleine confiance en toi.’”



maklalu „a garment“

(Stol 2007, 237.)


maksű “shackle”

SB putṭir ma-ak-si-ía ORA 7, 322: 77 “loosen my shackles!”



makūru “(processional) boat”


+ malDītu “after, afterwards”; LB

LB, s. M. Jursa, NABU 2012/75 and J. Hackl, NABU (in press). Etymology unclear.



malku I “prince, king”

SB AfO Bh. 32: ma-al-⌈ku⌉? WBC ix 21.


mallatu “a plate or bowl”; + OB

OB lit. šamna ina ma-al-la-tim tumaḫḫirkama JAOS 103, 26f.: 5 “she served you oil in a m.-bowl”; mirsa im-ma-al-la-tim izūzānimma ib. 14 “they divided the sweet cake in the m.-bowl”.



maltaktu “water clock”

OB ša A.LÁ UET 7, 73 ii 48 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) “the one (responsible for) the water clock”. (Logogr. hitherto only lex. attested, cf. CAD M/1, 172 maltaktu in ša maltakti).



malű I “full, complete, sated”


mammu, meʾammu “tiara”

OB lit. me-<a->mu rēšini PRAK 1 B 472 i 9 “the tiaras of our heads”.



-man (particle of irrealis)

OB lit. lu-uš-te-mi-iq-šum-ma-an ana bēliya YOS 11, 24 ii 1f. “if I could only pray to him, to my master!”



manāma “somebody; who(so)ever”


manű “to count”

NA bé-et ša ŠID StAT 2, 315 r. 1 “abacus(?)” (lit. “house of counting”) in uncl. context, cf. diddibbu (dibdibbu) “clepsydra” ib. 9.



manzaztu “position; service obligation”

OB ša ma-an-za-az-tim UET 7, 73 i 31 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) “the one (assigned to) service”.



maqlű, maqlīʾu “burning”; + OB

OB lit. enētum ma-aq-li-a-am erammā ZA 75, 200: 46 “the high priestesses love the burning”. Note the ī-vowel instead of the expected ū (cf. fem. maqlūtu).



maqta “suddenly(?)”

AHw. 608 “überraschend”, CAD M/1, 254 “suddenly”.

Durand 1997, 116 corrects the reference ARM 2, 87: 30 to ṣí!-bu!-ta-am and postulates for the remaining reference ARM 4, 48: 6 and the new reference OB ARM 28, 168: 24 a reading ba aK-ta-am/-tam with translation “malheureusement”. The copy of ARM 28, 168 shows, however, a clear ma (cf. the ba-sign in ll. 8, 18). Apparently the word is constructed in the adverbial accusative, the only root available being MQT. Therefore, the reading of AHw. and CAD should be kept. The context in ARM 28, 168: 24f. does not offer any new insight for the exact meaning of the adverb: as-sú-[ur-]ri ma-aq-tam i-na li-ib-bi a-l[i-ia] i-la-wu-ni-in-ni5 “Probably they will suddenly(?) enclose me in [my city]”.



+ mārat damqi “noblewoman”?


S. Cancik-Kirschbaum 1996, 136-138, 151, 178.


marbiqatu s. marpiqatu


marpaqatu s. marpiqatu


marpiqatu, marpaqatu, narpiqatu, narpaqatu “seal mount”; Ebla: “stand, pedestal(?)”; Mari, WSem. Lw.

1. In Ebla marpiqatu (mar-pi-ga-tum) is mentioned only in the context of vessels and therefore denotes something else, perhaps a stand or pedestal (s. disc. Pasquali 2005, 168).

2. OB 1 na-ar-pí-qa-at [BAR.ZIL] / li-ib-ba-šá KŮ.GI G[AR.RA] / ŠŔ.BA na4:1-KIŠIB ZA.GĚN (M.12668: ii 8-10, for other passages s. Arkhipov 2012, 87, s. ib. 86 for Mari variants marpiqatu (ma-ar-pí-qa-/mar-pí-qa-); marpaqatu (mar-pa-qa-tum); narpiqatu (na-ar-pí-qa-); narpaqatu (na-ar-pa-qa-at).

3. On etym. s. Arkhipov 2012, 87 with previous literature; for the archaeological evidence s. Collon 2001, 24f.



maršu “thongs, straps”

ša GN i-ma-ar-ší-im qaqqadātīšunu arkus OA Sarg. 58 “I tied the heads of GN with straps”.



mārtu “daughter; girl”


marű I “fattened, fat”

SB AfO Bh. 32: ma-ra-a WBC iva 10. ma-ru-⌈ti⌉ WBA iv 29. ma-[ru-ti] WBC vii 52. ⌈NIGA-um⌉ WBA vii 3.


māru “son, descendant; boy”


+ mār damqi “nobleman”, usu. as charioteer

MA BATSH 4/1: A.SIG5 8: 34’. DUMU.MEŠ SIG5 8: 38’, 42’, 46’. S. Canick-Kirschbaum 1996, 136-138; CAD M/1 258.


masāru “to obstruct, impede”

For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015, 249–251.



masdaru B “knife”

Stol 2007, 238.


masḫaru “a vessel?”; + Ur III

Ur III é-lůnga é-kíkken ů ma-as-ḫa-ru-um é-mualdim-šč ba-a-gar CUSAS 3, 1299: 5 (s. also CUSAS 4, 115) “(26 bushels (and) 135 liters of dried bitumen…) were placed for the brewery, the mill and the m. of the kitchen”. After Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 150, “etymology suggests a place served from, or serving to, all sides”.



maṣāru “to stride about (?)”s. pazāru.


maṣű “to correspond, comply with (s.th.); be sufficient, suffice”

am-si ni-ta-na máš-anše dŠakan-ka níg-gá-gi-na-am al-di-me-en nu-gál na-ab-bé-a al-ti-ri-gu mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4 ů gá-e i-gi4-te-mu-uš za-a-gi-nam al-di-me-en-e-še = umma pīrum ina ramaniša ina būl Šamkan ša kīma yâti ma-ṣú-ú ul ibaššī si-pi-di-qá-ar ippal u anāku kīma kâti ana manâtiya ma-ṣi-a-ku Borger, BiOr 61, 470 “An elephant spoke to himself and said, ‘Among the wild creatures of Šakan, there is no one equal to me’. The s.-bird answered, ‘And yet, I, in my own proportion, I am equal to you’”.

Less preferable is the reading of Alster 1997, 121 (s. also id. 2005, 366; PSD A/3, 156 and 186a; CAD P 418f.): … yâti-ma zu-ú … manâtiya-ma zé-a-ku “(… there is no one) who can defecate like me. (The s.-bird answered) … in my own proportion I can defecate (like you)”. This reading does not correspond to the Sum. parallel (di-me syll. for dím = maṣű); furthermore, neither zu-ú nor zé-a-ku can be derived from a verb attested in Akk.



mašāku “to adhere”; Emar

Emar ti-im-ša-ak ana PN ASJ 13, 23: “she gave support to PN”, s. disc. Pentuic 2001, 181f.



maškaru s. maškuru


maškuru, maškiru, maškaru “(inflatable) animal skin”

S. also barkarrű.


mašku “skin”

rubâm ša GN maš-kam ulabbiš OA Sarg. 51 “the prince of GN I dressed in an (animal) skin”.



mašlu “half”


mašlű, mašliʾu “leather bucket”; + Ur III

Ur III kušmaš-lí-um kuša-gá-láá CUSAS 3, 963: 1 “various leather buckets (and) leather sacks”; kušmaš-lí-um udu-niga CUSAS 3, 912: 4, 932: 1, 968: 15 “leather bucket (made) of fattened sheep skin”; 28 kušmaš-lí-um CUSAS 3, 930: 1. S. also Hilgert 2002, 81.



+ MAŠtappu “an aromatic”; NB

NB 10 MAŠ-tap-pi PTS 2374, s. Jursa 2009, 163; cf. úMAš.TAB.BA BAM 379 iii 48 (cit. CAD M/1, 402b), s. also iššitabbātu.



mašű II “to forget”

+ Dt “to make oneself forget”: ú-um-ta-aš-ši awâtījya CUSAS 10, 9: 9 “I made myself forget my words”.



mašű III “to spend the night”

OB lit. erbamma rēʾű…ma-ša-am-ma rēʾű ḫar[ām Ištar] JAOS 103, 26f.: 1f. “come in, shepherd…, spend the night (here), shepherd, [Ištar’s] lov[er]”.



mātu I “land, country”


+ maṭiurnu “measure”; Greek lw.

1. NB n ŠE.BAR ina ma-ṭi-ur-nu ša 16 kappīšu ana PN GÍR.LÁ idin CT 49, 123//122//182: 6 (Jursa, Persika 9, 191) “Give to PN, the butcher, n barley, (measured) by the measure of 16 handfuls”;

2. ina gišma-ṭi-ur-nu ša 18 kappīšu BM 54555: 7 (Jursa, AOAT 254, 115); cf. [gišma-ṭi-ur]-nu ša 16 kappīšu CT 49, 129: 2 (Jursa, AOAT 254, 116).

3. After Jursa, Persika 9, 191f. a loan from Greek métron.



melemmu “fearsome radiance, aura”


mēlulu “to play”

G OB lit. me-li-il tulîni PRAK 1 B 472 i 14 “play with our breasts!”

+ Š OB lit. mu-uš-me-li-il ku-NI-NI UET 7, 73 iv 162 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) “who plays with kuninnu-bowls/dragonflies (ku-lí-lí)” (following list of musicians and entertainers).



mersu “a cake”

OB lit. mi-ir-sa JAOS 103, 26f.: 14, s. mallatu.



mesukku “a bird of prey”

OB me-su!-kummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 49 (in list of birds). The section contains other words for birds of prey, such as surdű “falcon” l. 45 and erű “eagle” l. 47.



mešēltu “whetstone”

OB lit. patram u me-še-el-ta-am anaššâ CUSAS 10, 12: 18 “I will bring a knife and a whetstone”.



midarʾu “sown land, cultivated field”; Ug., Emar (?). WSem. lw.

On mi-TA-ar-ú! PRU 3, 47a: 12, cit. AHw s.v. midru I, CAD s.v. miṭar s. also Huehnergard 1987, 119 and Olmo Lete / Sanmartin 2004, 528 with prev. literature. Cf. alph. mdrʿ “sown land, cultivated field”.

Cf. also madaru.



miḫḫūru “offering”

MB lit. mi-iḫ-ḫu-ri ALL no. 11 r. 1.



+ mik(k)u “a profession”

OB /⌈⌉?mi-ki UET 7, 73 i 41f. (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) (between mālikī “counselors” and dayyānī “judges”). Connection with mākű “a spy or scout” (CAD M/1, 140 makű B, AHw 1572 māk/)?



miksu “tax”

OB šūt NÍG.KUD UET 7, 73 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) iii93 “tax collectors”.



mimma “anything, something; everything, all”


mimmű “all (things, possessions)”


minītu “measure, dimension”; pl. “(normal) dimensions; limbs”

Note the pl. ma-ni-a-ti-šu ALL no. 11 r. 9, s. erēšu. Elsewhere this pl. is only rarely attested in OB, s. CAD M/2, 86 and 87 m. 1e.



miserru, musarru “girdle”

ina lasāmiya musarrī ibbitiqma OA Sarg. 15 “when I was running, my girdle was cut”.



miṣru “border”

MB lit. mi-iṣ-ra-tim ALL no. 11: 3, s. taw/mṣītu.



mīšaru “justice”


mišlu “half; middle, centre”


mīšu “oblivion”; + OB

OB inbūʾa ul ša mi-ši CUSAS 10, 9: 23 “my fruits are unforgettable”.



mitḫāru “corresponding (to one another); of equal size”

OB lū mi-it-ḫa-ar šidda[š]a u pūs[sa] Finkel 2014: 8 “Let her length and breadth be equal”.





mubabbilu “acrobat, juggler”

OB mu-ba-bi-lu-tum FM 1 p. 138–140 A.486+M.5319: 28, 39, s. wabālu D. In broken context ib. 68, 70.



mubannűtu, + mubunnűtu “prebend of the temple cook”

mu-bu-un-nu-ú-tu⌉ Or. 86 p. 59 no. 5: 1, 4.



mudarriktu “a cultic ceremony, a ritual?”; NA

The mng. “woman thresher” (AHw. 1575b, on SAA 13, 135 r. 7) is based on the assumption of a word darāku “to thresh”, which is now eliminated on the grounds of improved readings (Cherry 2016, 260f.; s. **darāku III). The mng. “a cultic ceremony?” was proposed by Parpola 1979 based on context. The interpretation of this term remains uncertain.



muddulu “pickled, salted (meat, grain)”; + Ur III

Ur III 1 mu-du-lum udu-niga CUSAS 3, 375: 1, 3 “1 salted, fattened sheep”; 5 sěla zě-kum mu-du-lum CUSAS 1090: 2 “5 liters of salted kum-flour”. S. also Hilgert 2002, 81.



+ mu-gu (?) mng. uncert.; Ur III

Ur III [é] mu-gu dů-a CUSAS 3, 146: 33’, 147: 35 (s. also CUSAS 4, 123) “(workers) having constructed a m.-house”.



muḫḫu “skull; top”


muḫtanbu “waxing, profuse”

OB lit. mu-úḫ!-ta-an-bu inbūka PRAK 1 B 472 i 7 “your fruits are profuse” (shortened Gtn form instead of muḫtannibu).



+ mukazzibtu “one who fawns”

OB lit. ul aḫaššiḫ la mu-ka-zi⌉-ib-tam CUSAS 10, 10: 2 “I have no desire for (the girl) who does not fawn”.



mulṭu s. mušṭu


mummu “creative spirit, vital energy”

OB lit. patīyitku abul šulmim u balāṭim mu-um-ma qerbūš erub ṣī lū šalmāta RB 59 = Fs. Reiner 192: 67 “for you the gate of prosperity and life is open. Enter it with vital energy, go out, may you prosper!”



munāttu “time of sleeping, early morning”

OB lit. in-utlika … ši mu-na-ma-ti PRAK 1 B 472 i 5 “in your lap, that of sleeping time”.



munű I “a type of bed”; + OB

OB lit. ša kanakāti mu-ni-i PRAK 1 B 472 i 8 “of kanaktu-incense is my bed”.



munű II “a foot disease”

S. also būšānu.


**mupaqqirānu “claimant”

CAD M/2, 209b; AHw 674a; CDA 217b

Read ⌈LÚ⌉ paq-qir-ra-nu (CAD P 139a).



+ mupiqqu “the one who heeds, adjutant(?)”; OB

OB mu-pi-(iq-)- ša ālik pāni ummānika nakru idâk CUSAS 18, 25: 11’, 12’, 13’ “the enemy will kill an adjutant(?) of the leader of your army”. S. George, ib. p. 176.



+ muppiru “provider”; OB

OB lit. šumma nadīʾat mu-pí-ir-ša limqut YOS 11, 87: 9f. “if she is a cloister-lady, may her provider perish”. Cf. George, CUSAS 10 p. 68 with n. 2.



+ muqqaru, muqquru “cut/whetted (lower) millstone”

1. OB kīma mu-qá-ri-im kupputma u dan YOS 10, 56 ii 27 “(If a malformed newborn lamb) is curved(?) and hard like a whetted (lower) millstone”. CAD M/1, 33a, b, interprets mu-GA-ri-im here as magarru “wheel”.

2. Ug. na4-an!-ta = nŕr-ka-bu “upper millstone” / na4-šu-[gul]-gul = mu-qu-rum “lower millstone” MSL 10, 45: 213f. (s. also Stol 1979, 90, cf. gul = na-qa-ru šá NA4.ḪAR CT 18, 34 iii 32 and CT 19, 43 K. 11182 r. 2’).

3. SB šumma sinniltu mu-qa-ra KIMIN TCS 4, 35: 44 “If a woman gives birth to a cut millstone”; cf. šumma šaḫītu mu-qá-ra ūlid SpTU 3, 168 no. 94: 83 “If a pig gives birth to a cut millstone”. S. Stol 2000, 161: “millstone” refers to a “mole”, a calcified stone “which could remain in a woman’s body for many years”.



murabbītu “foster-mother”


murammiktu “washbasin”

OB [m]u-ra-mi-ik-ti id-dīni dīʾānim ALL no. 1 i 5 “my washbasin (said), when judging the judgement:”



murtâmu “lover”

OB lit. i nīpuš šipram ša mu-ur-ta-mi kal mūšim ē niṣlal YOS 11, 24 i 20f. “Let us practice the work of lovers, all the night let us not sleep!”



museppű “supplicant”

Cf. CAD M/2, 235 (“abductor”), AHw. 678 “Beter” (OB Lu)

JCS15, 7 ii 10 has now a parallel in la mu⌉-sé-ep⌉-[...] CUSAS 10, 10: 1, transl. by George “the girl who will not worship (me)”//mukazzibtam l. 2.



mūṣű “exit”


mušallilu “plunderer”

CAD M/1, 256; AHw 1142 šalālu D.

OB PN mu-sa-li-il-šu-nu⌉ Haul 2009, 330: 8 “PN, their despoiler”, with Westenholz 1997, 234 and Wilcke 1997, 30 (OAkk. orthography).



+ mušengallu “big bird, duck (?)”; NA, Sum. lw.

NA GUD.NÍTA u 2 UDU.NÍTAmeš MUŠEN.GAL-lum SAA 13, 77: 12 “(Concerning the offerings...): a bull and 2 rams, and a big bird”. S. Borger 2008, 438 (not paggallu or paspasu!). S. also iṣṣūru rabű.



mušḫuššu “serpent-dragon”


mušītu “night”

OB lit. išāt mu-ši-ti-im CUSAS 10, 13: 2 “during the (watch) of the night”.



muššu “breast, breast-shaped object”

The references mentioned in CAD M/2, 281 muššu b 2’ without context are the following:

MB 2 GUR ŠE.BAR 1 GUR ṭurű aB-lu-ú 3(b) mu-uš-šu 3 (p)? karkarātu … PN u PN2 ilqű MBLET 52: 3 “2 kor of barley, 1 kor of dried(?) opopanax(?), 3 seah of muššu, 3 bushel(?) of karkartu”; n mu-uš-uš-šu ib. 7 “n (seah) of ašmuššu”; [n] ⌈1 (b)⌉ mu-uš-šu 3 (p)!? karkarātu 3 SĚLA ZAG.Ḫ[I.L]I “[n] ⌈1 seah⌉ muššu, 3 bushel(!?) of karkartu, 3 liter of cress” ib. 8.

S. O. R. Gurney, ib. p. 143: “There is muššu ‘breast’, allegedly used for a breast-shaped loaf ... and the ‘áš’ has therefore been taken for 3 BÁN, though one would not expect loaves to be measured in this way”. Maybe a different word designating an edible plant or foodstuff.



mušṭu, mulṭu “comb”; + Ur III

Ur III 1 kušš mul-ṭum-šč ba-a-gar CUSAS 3, 923: 6 “1 goat-skin (used for) covering a comb(?)”. For early št- > -lt s. Krebernik 1982, 217 und Streck 2006, 238. Cf. also Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 359.



mūšu “night”