L

“not, no; without, un-”

 

Prohibitive before stative (to the ex. in AHw. 521 B 5b): OB lit. ú-ul dagilaḫu [a]ḫiššu karṣī ibrim ibrašu la ⌈a⌉[kil] RB 59 = Fs. Reiner 190: 15 “does a brother not look after his brother? His friend should not s[lander] a friend!” Note the meaningful alteration between ul and , not correctly analysed in the existing editions and translations of the text.

MPS

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: la 2: 59; 3: 16; 4: 12’, 13’; 7: 12’, 22’, 25’; 12: 41, 44; 15: 19; 16: 15, 25; 17: 17’, 21’; 23: 5’. la-a 2: 12, 16, 42, 56, 57, 65; 3: 7, 8, 9, 13, 28, 29, 32, 34; 4: 17’; 5: 6’; 6: 7’, 12’, 25’, 39’; 7: 3’’; 8: 23’, 27’, 28’, 35’, 51’; 9: 42, 44; 11: 8, 12; 12: 11, 33; 17: 8, 5’, 10’, 14’; 18: 37; 21: 6; 22: 6, 10; 23: 3’; 24: 11’, 15’; 25: 9’, 14’; 26: 16’; 27: 8’, 8’’; 29: 7’.

SB AfO Bh. 32: la WBA ii 5, iii 12, iv 2, vii 41, viii 16; WBC iva 1, v 8, vi 49, 65, 75, ix 18, 33, 49, 50, x 16; NeKA ii 21’. ⌈la⌉ WBA vi 52; WBC ix 17, x 17. [l]a ib. iia 17, v 7’, vii 29, viii 54. NU NeKA i 2’.

 

labanātu “frankincense” LB; Aram. lw. (?)

 

3 GÍN ŠIM la-ban-na-tú/tu4 FS W. G. Lambert 153f., 3: 1 “3 shekels of frankincense”. After Finkel id. 154 labanātu is an Aram lw.

NR

 

labāru “to be(come) old, long-lasting”

 

Indices

 

D SB AfO Bh. 32: lu-la-ab-bi-ir WBC x 32.

 

labāšu “to clothe o.s.”

 

Indices

 

Š SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-šal-biš WBA vii 27; WBC iiib 19* . ú-šal-bi-iš WBA vi 19. ú-ša-al-bi-iš WBC iiib 15*, vi 17. ú-šal-[bi WBA v 24, vi 35. ⌈ú⌉-[š]a-al-bi-iš WBC iiia 5. [ú]-ša-a[l-bi-iš] ib. iva 31. [ú-ša]l-biš WBA vi 30. [ú-šal]-bi-WBC iiib 8*. ú-ša-al-bi-iš-ma ib. iia 10, vi 13. ⌈ú-šá-al-bi⌉-[iš]-⌈ma⌉ WBA ix 39. ú-ša-a[l-bi-iš-ma] WBC ib 8*. [ú-šal]-biš-ma WBA iii 40. ⌈ú⌉-[šá-al-bi-iš-ma] NeKC2: 11.

 

labīru “old; former, previous, long-standing”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: la-bi-ru-ti WBA v 13. la-bi-ri-im-ma WBC vii 58.

 

labku (a type of beer)

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: la-ab-ku NeKC1: 5’. ⌈lab-ku⌉ WBA iv 48.

 

laḫannatu “bottle”

not in the dictionaries

 

Cf. AHw. 528 laḫḫi/anatu “eine Angestellte”, CAD L 38 laḫannatu “mng. uncert.”. See also AHw. 165 s. v. dašpu: laḫanatu “Müllerin”.

Hapax, referring to a woman in an incipit of a love text: Nippurītī la-ḫa-na-tu dašuptu KAR 158 vii 18 “my girl from Nippur, sweet bottle”.

MPS

 

laliu “kid, young goat”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: la-la-ʾa-ú 12: 28.

 

lallāru “white honey; a dessert, pastry”; Ur III

 

Also in Ur III: 1/2 NÍĜ la-la-rum TLB 3, 29: 3, Puzriš-Dagan (among other products); NÍĜ la-la-rum-ŠČ YBC 3637 i 23, Puzriš-Dagan (list of ingredients for l.); NÍĜ la-la-rum-ŠČ STA 3 iii 18, Umma (list of ingredients for l.); NÍĜ lá-lá-rum-ŠČ <…> SÁ.DU11 KI.A.NAĜ PN CUSAS 3, 972: 64, Garšana “(6 liters of pressed sesame, 4 liters of [malt porridge], 4 liters of [fine flour], 4 liters of dates, 1/3 liter of pressed sesame oil:) for a l.-dessert <…> (for) regular offerings of the funerary libation place of PN”. S. also CUSAS 3, 975: 65 with a similar list of ingredients for l.-dessert.

            Brunke 2011, 212 and Kleinerman/Owen, CUSAS 4, 132, note 84 tentatively connect Ur III la/á-la/á-rum with SB lallāru “white honey”.

NR

 

lalű I “plenty, exuberance”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: la-la-a WBA vii 11, 36; WBC vii 22. lá-lá-a NeKA ii 11’. la-la-[ a] (WBA iv 41. [la]-la-a NeKC1: 1’.

 

lamādu “to learn”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: ni-la-am-mu-du-ni 11: 8.

 

lammu “almond tree(?)”

 

MB lit. kiri lam-mi ALL no. 11 r. 2 “orchard of almond(?) trees”.

MPS

 

laqātu “to pick up”

 

OB lu-qú-ta-at kabattī ALL 1 ii 6f. “you have plundered my interior”.

MPS

 

laqlaqqu, raqraqqu „stork“

 

First OB ref.: ⌈ra-aq⌉-ra-qummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 34  (in list of birds).

MPS

 

larű “branch, twig”; Ur III

 

Ur III Garšana gišla-ri-um gišAPIN CUSAS 1255: 2 “’branch’ of a plow” (s. Kleinerman/Owen, CUSAS 4, 110). Cf. with Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 358, (geš)á-apin “plow handle”.

NR

 

lasāmu “to run”

 

Indices

 

G SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈a-la⌉-su-um WBA ii 12.

 

lāṣimu “runner”

 

First OA ref.: 3 līmē lá-sí-mu-ú-a OA Sarg. 23 “3 thousand are my runners”.

MPS

 

laššu I “(there) is not, are not”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: la-áš-šu 2: 18, 21; 5: 8. ⌈la-áš-šu⌉ 6: 1’. [la-á-š[u] 15: 11. la-⌈áš⌉-šu 16: 27. la-áš-šu-ni 6: 9’.

 

lâtu, laʾātu “to swallow”

 

First OB (lit.) ref.: a-la-a-at CUSAS 10, 10: 42, see išḫilṣu.

MPS

 

lâṭu “to curb”

 

MB lit. [dala]t? ulli imittim u šumēlim la-ṭá-a-ma ALL no. 11 r. 14 “the ‘collar’-[doo]r(s) of the right and the left are curbed (=(?) locked)”.

MPS

 

laʾű “small child, baby”

 

1. OB lit. ammīni kīma ṣeḫrim la-ḫi-im irnittaka lemnet ZA 75, 200: 54 “why is your triumph-cry as bad as that of a little child?”

 

2. MB lit. alkīmmi šittum la-ḫi-iš⌉ ALL no. 11: 8 “come to me, oh sleep, like to a baby!”

MPS

 

lawű I “besieged, fenced, curled”

 

OB lit. la-wi-a-am uznīn ZA 75, 204: 100 “with curled ears”.

MPS

 

lawű II “to surround; besiege”

 

OB lit. ṣīḫātiya a-la-am-mi AOAT 267, 192 i 8 “I embrace my delight”, cf. ib. 13.

MPS

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: li-il-bi-ú 8: 26’.

 

Š SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-ša-al-mi WBC v 24. ú-šal-me WBA viii 22; NeKA i 6’. ú-⌈šá⌉-[al-me] WBC vi 52. uš-ta-al-mi WBC vi 64, 73. uš-tal-me NeKA i 19’.

 

lęku “to lick”

 

D OB lit. kīma būrim lu-i-ki-ni YOS 11, 87: 22 “lick me like a calf!”

MPS

 

lemű II “to be unwilling”

 

OB lit. putṭura le-e-mi JAOS 103, 26f.: 33, 35 “he is unwilling to loosen”.

MPS

 

lēmu II “bread; food”

not in the dictionaries

 

This word could occur in Emar 6, 367: 2, if one reads the signs TU-UD after Durand 1989a, 35 as the sign LE here: nindale-mu. The Akkadian verb lęmu “to take food or drink” (CAD L 126-127), which is derived from the same root lḥm, seems, however, not to occur in Emar (s. also TU-UD-MU and Pentiuc 2001, 184). Moreover, after Pentiuc 2001, 184 // is indicated usually with Ḫ-signs in Emar.

NR

 

lęmu “to consume”

 

OB lit. la-i-im abnim CUSAS 10, 10: 44 “who consumes a stone”.

MPS

 

leqű II “to take, take over”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: il-te-qe 2: 44; 4: 9. il-te-[qe] 30: 7’’. il-te-qe-ú 6: 21’. ⌈il⌉-te-qe-ú-né 3: 6; 6: 24’. il-te-qe-ú-ni-šu 2: 63. il-qe-ú-ni 6: 22’. ni-il-qu 22: 18. l[e-qe] 4: 11’.

 

D MA BATSH 4/1: ú-la-qi-šu 19: 2’.

 

letű II “to split”

 

Indices

 

D SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-la-at-ti-ma WBC ix 35.

 

lēʾu “(writing-)board of wood infilled with wax; (wooden) board”

 

Secondary literature

 

lēʾu in the meaning of “wooden tablet” also occurs in the colophon of the NB recipe for making incense BM 54060 as a tablet from which this recipe was copied: 1 [GABA.R]I tup-pi šá NA4.GIŠ.NU11.GAL šá mdAMAR.UTU-KAM <…> 4 ki-i pi-i [gišle]-⌈u5⌉-um GABA.RI [  ] “(It is) copy of the alabaster tablet of Marduk-ēreš <…>. According to the wooden tablet, (which is) a copy of [   ]”. See also gišnugallu.

 

libittu “brick”

 

OA li-bi4-tam ana nārim addīma OA Sarg. 13 “I lay a brick into the river”. li-bi4-tám im-māʾē ušēlī ib. 17 “I rose the brick out of the water”.

MPS

 

libbu “inner body; heart; interior”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: lěb-bi 1: 6; 18: 26. lěb-[bi] 31: 6’. lěb-bi-ka 9: 12, 36. lěb-bi-ka-a 9: 39. lěb-be-ku-nu 9: 31. lěb-bi-šu 16: 8. lěb-bi-š[u] 18: 27. []b-bi-šu-nu 5: 8’; 18: 31.

SB AfO Bh. 32: lib-ba WBA iii 2. li-ib-ba WBC iva 5, ix 30. li[b-ba] WBA v 9. ⌈li⌉-ib-⌈ba⌉ WBC iib 12*. [li-ib]-⌈ba⌉ WBA vi 56. [li-ib-b]a? WBC vii 39. lěb-bi WBC viii 43. li-[ib-bi] ib. iva 9. [li]-ib-ba-[ia?] NeKA ii 32’. ⌈li-ib-bi-šu⌉ WBC vi 80. [li-ib-bi]-⌈šu⌉ WBA viii 42. lěb-⌈bi?-šu?⌉-[nu] NeKA iii 25’. [li-ib]-⌈bi⌉-ši-na WBC viii 20. ⌈ŠŔ⌉ WBA ix 20.  [Š]Ŕ? WBC vii 39. Š[Ŕ-ba] WBA ix 4. ŠŔ-šu-nu ib. iii 1.

 

līdānu “chick, young bird”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: AMAR UZ.TURmušen WBA iv 37 (here? S. paspasu).

 

lilāʾu (a singer or musician)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB li-la-i UET 7, 73 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.)  iv 150 (between LÚ.DAM.DAM.DI “drummer” and ḫābibī “murmurer”). Note that the sequence ā-ī is preserved.

MPS

 

līlu “evening”

 

MB lit. īlilam le-e-lam libbī ittawir ALL no. 11 r. 10 “in the evening my heart became pure, bright”.

MPS

 

līm “thousand”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: LIM 3: 10; 8: 25’, 34’.

 

līmu I “eponym (of year)”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: li-mu 1: 20; 2: 67; 3: 45; 4: 18’ (<li>-mu); 6: 2’’; 9: 47; 11: 19; 12: 47. [li-m]u 13: 30. [li-mu] 20: 3’. l[i-mu] 21: 9’. [l]i-mu 22: 30.

 

lipittu  work-levy; a disease; birthmark”

 

First OB (lit.) ref.: tīšî li-pi⌉-it-tam [ina p]ūtim? CUSAS 10, 10: 19 “you have a birthmark [on] the forehead(?)”.

MPS

 

liptu “undertaking, job”; in l. qāti/ī “handiwork”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈li-pi-it⌉ WBA v 57.

 

līpu “descendant”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈li⌉-pu-ú-a WBC x 38.

 

liqtu “gathered material, selection, leftovers (?)”; Ur III

 

Also attested in Ur III Garšana: 2 MA.NA al-lu-ḫa-ru-um li-iq-tum CUSAS 3, 668: 1 (s. also CUSAS 4, 111) “2 minas of dye leftovers (?)” (for alluḫaru s. annuḫaru). Elsewhere in Ur III written lí-iq-tum (Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 357).

NR

 

lišānu “tongue, language”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: li-ša-na 16: 9.

 

lišdu “cream”

 

MB lit. ḫimētam li-iš-dam ALL no. 11 r. 6 “butter, cream”.

MPS

 

līšu “dough”

 

OB lit. (oldest ref.) li-šu-um [ša?] qātīša limqut YOS 11, 87: 14–16 “may the dough fall [from(?)] her hand”.

MPS

 

littūtu “(extreme) old age”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: li-it-tu-⌈tu⌉ WBC x 35.

 

līṭu I “hostage”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: li-ṭu 2: 19. li-ṭu-ma 2: 20.

 

līṭu II (a garment or cloth)

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: le-ṭa 7: 17’.

 

liwītu “environs”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: li-be-t[e] 13: 21. li-be-[te] 15: 21.

 

“let it be; or”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: lu 4: 12’; 6: 11’; 8: 33’; 17: 23’. lu-u 5: 9’; 21: 10.

SB AfO Bh. 32: lu-ú WBC x 33.

 

... / ... ū lū “either … or”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: lu-ú ... lu-ú 2: 19. lu ... lu 6: 4’. lu-ú ... ů lu-ú 10: 10-11, 30-31, 32. lu ... ů lu 8: 33’.

 

or luʾu (a rope); OB Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

Secondary literature

 

occurs in a list of ropes from Mari (for context see Bu-ut-ta-tum): 2 éšlu-ú GÍD.DA (M.9889: 8, see ARM 30, 226f.) “2 long l.-ropes”. Durand 2009, 143 and 184 connects this word with ÉŠ.LAmeš lu-ḫu-ma from an Ugarit text (PRU 6, 126: 5), which contains a list of ropes, too.

 

lulű I “plenty, luxury, splendour”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: lu-le-e WBA v 30; WBC ib 14*, iiia 11. ⌈lu⌉-le-e WBA iii 46. [lu]-le-⌈e⌉ ib. vii 40.

 

lūman “if only”

 

OB lit. lu-ma-an YOS 11, 24 i 7, see ištēn.

MPS

 

lurmu “ostrich”

 

OB lu-ur-mu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 7. For further ref. see Stol 2011–2013.

MPS

 

luʾu

See .