gabbu I “the totality, all (of)”




MA BATSH 4/1: gab-bu 3: 27, 41; 8: 33’; 9: 41; 10: 30, 31. gab-b⌈e⌉ 30: 2’. gab-ba 12: 36; 18: 24, 36.




Normally attested in the D-stem, s. CAD, AHw gullubu. An OB ref. for the Š-stem is listed in AHw. 1557. A second ref. is found in OA: ša GN qabalti qaqqadātīšunu ú-ša-ag-li-ib OA Sarg. 61 “I shaved the middle of the heads of (the men of) GN”.



galālu “to roll”




NA a-ga-lal⌉ “I will roll” (in broken context” SAA 9, 2 iii 4’.


gāmilu “merciful, sparing”




SB AfO Bh. 32: ga-mi-il WBC vi 78.


gana “come on”


Note the plene spelling in MB lit. ga-a-na ALL no. 11: 15.



gapšu “arisen, proud; numerous”




SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈gap-ša⌉-tim WBC ix 42.


garāḫu “to copulate”

not in the dictionaries


AHw. 282 mentions s.v. garāś/šu the lex. synonym garāḫu = na-[a-ku]. The first ref. in context is found in a MB love incant. from Bo.: ag-ra-aḫ-ki Nanāya ag-ra-aḫ-ki Nanāya kīma immeri KBo. 36, 27: 15f. “I am copulating with you, oh Nanāya, I am copulating with you like with a sheep”. The a-class of the verb is further proof that garāḫu is not a variant of garāś/šu since the latter has u in the pret.



gergīlu (a bird)


OB ge-er-gi-lummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 55 (in list of birds).




See gir(i)madű


gerű “to be hostile to, attack”


For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015, 247–249: “to attack, exert pressure”.


gību (a locust?)

not in the dictionaries


OB lex. ... (broken and unclear) = [g]i-bu UET 7, 93 r. 3, between lamṣatu “dust fly” and kurṣiptu “butterfly”. Sjöberg 1996, 229 connects the word with hebr. gēbīm, aram. gōb, arab. ğābīʾ “locust(s)”.



gimru “totality; costs, expenses”




SB AfO Bh. 32: gi-mi-ir WBC ix 7. gi-mi-[ir] ib. vii 34.


*Gi-na-(aB)-tum, (mng. uncert.); Ur III

not in the dictionaries


G. ocurs passim in the Ur III texts in the expression é Gi-na-(aB)-tum (for references s. CUSAS 4, 679f. and CUSAS 5, 163f.). Kleinerman/Owen 2009, 13 include é-gi-na-tum (Garšana spelling) in the list of the Akk. words. Heimpel 2009, 164f. derives G. from kinātum, kinattum “servants” and interprets é Gi-na-(aB)-tum as “house of servants” or “barrack”. Sallaberger 2011, 357, however, argues for é GI.NA.TUM as a Diri compound for é šutum. Cf. [šu]-tu-um = é Gi-na-ab-du7 = šu-tu-um-mu Diri v 298. For further lex. references s. CAD Š/3, 412b under šutummu.



ginű I “regular contribution (to temple)”




MA BATSH 4/1: gi-na-e 12: 36.

SB AfO Bh. 32: gi-né-e WBA v 15; WBC iib 10*, 17*, 20*. ⌈gi⌉-né-e WBA v 17. [gi]-né-e ib. iv 58. [g]i-né-⌈e⌉ ib. v 6. [gi]-né-[e] WBC iib 3*. [gi-né]-⌈e⌉? ib. iib 7*.


gipšu “uprising, welling up”




SB AfO Bh. 32: g[i]-pi-iš WBC vi 72.


gir(i)madű “pole for the slipway”




60 nāḫam ana ⌈gi-ri-ma-de-e “60 (kor of) lard for the poles of the slipway” Finkel 2014: 57.


giškanakku (part of a doorframe)




SB AfO Bh. 32: giš-ká-na-ku WBC iia 9. ⌈giš-ká-na⌉-ku WBA vi 34. giš-ka!-[na-ku] ib. iv 20. giš-[ká-n]a-k[u] WBC iiib 18*.


gišnugallu “alabaster”

CDA: ašnugallu


Secondary literature


Alabaster as a material for a tablet occurs in the colophon of the New Babylonian recipe for making incense BM 54060: 1 [GABA.R]I tup-pi šá NA4.GIŠ.NU11.GAL šá mdAMAR.UTU-KAM <…> 4 ki-i pi-i [gišle]-⌈u5⌉-um GABA.RI [  ] “(it is) copy of the alabaster tablet of Marduk-ēreš <…>. According to the wooden tablet, (which is) a copy of [   ]”.

After Jursa 2009, 150 the alabaster tablet must be the original from which the copies were made. This recipe was copied from the last copy in the row of the copies of the alabaster tablet, namely the wooden tablet.


gištalgiddű “barrier”

s. also talgiddű


guḫlu “kohl, antimony paste”; SB, LB


Potts et al. 1996, 291-305 question the traditional interpretation of guḫlu as “antymony”, regarding its large quantities in the passages about tribute. They interpret guḫlu as bdellium (gum of Commiphora mukul) and suggest that the Sanskrit term for bdellium, guggulu, was borrowed from Late Babylonian into Sanskrit during the Neo-Assyrian period (Potts et al. 1996, 297, 301).

Compare, however, the traditional identification of bdellium with Akkadian budulḫu (see budulḫu): see, e.g., the discussion in Jursa 2009, 158, note 51.



gullubu s. *galābu.


gumāḫu “prize bull”




SB AfO Bh. 32: GU4.MAḪ WBA vii 3; WBC vii 16. GU4.MAḪ NeKA ii 2’. [GU4].MAḪ WBA iv 28.


gumālu mercy, clemency”; jB; < gamālu

not in the dict.


lušalmidma nišī qitruba gu-ma-al-šin Iraq 60, 193, Ludlul 1: 39 (s. also Oshima 2014: 80) “let me teach the people how close their salvation is”. Note with George/Al-Rawi, Iraq 60, 198, ad. 39 that Nimrud offers common gi-[mil-…] as a variant of gumālu, s. the partitur in Oshima 2014, 384.



gurnu “of average quality”


First OA ref.: gu5-ur-na-am OA Sarg. 37(?), cf. nuḫatimmu.