D

daʾāmu I “to become dark”

 

MB lit. du-um ṣuḫḫum ALL no. 11 r. 11 “laughter is darkened(?)” (or belonging to daʾāmu II?).

MPS

 

daʾāmu II, dâmu (ū) “to stagger”

 

First OB (ref.), new byform dâmu (ū): kīma Belili ta-du⌉-um-mi ta-su-úr-ri CUSAS 10, 10: 47f. “like Belili you stagger, you dance around”.

MPS

 

daʾāpu “to push away”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD daʾāpu): “S. 1a, Z. 4-1 von unten. = F. W. König, Handbuch der chaldischen Inschriften I, S. 44, 37.”

 

dabābu II “to speak, talk”

 

1. G MB ana pān PN dajjāni id-bu-bu-ma “They argued their case before PN, the judge” MBLET 9: 5.

 

2. Gtn OB lit. ti-da-ab-ba-a[b?] ZA 75, 202: 70 “talk repeatedly!”. Note the a-vowel in the last syll. instead of u.

MPS

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: a-da-bu-⌈ub⌉ 28: 4’. ad-bu-⌈bu⌉-[šu] 17: 17’. ⌈i⌉-da-bu-ub 21: 6. i-da-bu-ba 29: 10’. [li]-id-bu-ba-ak-ku 9: 21.

 

Gtn [ta-ad]-da-na-⌈ab⌉-bu-ub 9: 37.

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 453 (CAD dabābu v.): “CAD, D, p. 10b, 17e ligne du § 5: lire TCL 18 et non 17; — p. 105a, 7e ligne: lire cf. ibid. iii 96, et non 92.

 

Matouš 1964, 131 (CAD dabābu v.): “S. 11b: zu dubbubu to importune” vgl. auch Laessře, ShT 66.

S. 12a: zur Verbindung ul itâr ul udabbabka vgl. IM 51559 (Ḥarmal), 12 f.: lā tatâr la tudabbabšu (Sumer 14, 49). Zum Stat. dubbub “to be sued” s. ib. 51.”

 

dabdabu (a creeping(?) animal)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB lex. ur-me = da-ab-da-bu-um UET 7, 93: 39 (after insects and before asqūdu “hamster(?)” or a sort of snake). Sjöberg 1996, 228 connects the word with arab. dabba “to walk slowly, to creep” and thinks of a creeping animal.

MPS

 

dabdű “defeat, bloodshed”

 

Secondary literature

 

Dhorme 1960, 160 (AHw dabdű): “Sous la lettre d, l’un des mots les plus intéressants est dabdű (p. 148), qui est destiné ŕ supplanter da-wi-du de l’expression consacrée dawidam dâku dans les textes de Mari. D’apres les exemples accumulés, il semble évident que dawidum est une variante, graphique ou phonétique, de dabdum «défaite», ŕ distinguer de son synonyme tapdű. Il en résulte que dawidam dâku signifiera «infliger une défaite». Fidčle ŕ sa méthode de fournir la référence décisive pour une nouvelle acception de racine ou de mot, l’auteur place en tęte de son article Tadmor: JNES 17, 129 ss., qui reparaîtra sous dâku, p. 152.”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dabdű): “S. 15b, Z. 7-9, sowie Z. 9-7 v. u. // Scheil, RT 36, S. 188 ff.”

 

Matouš 1964, 131 (CAD dabdű): “S. 15a: zu dabda dâku “to defeat” vgl. auch Laessře, ShT 56.”

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw dabdű): “S. 148a: zur Etymologie dab/wdum „Niederlage“ s. Gelb, JNES 21, 196. Nach CAD “D” 16a sum. Lw aus bad.ba(d), nach AHw Lw. u. H.”

 

dābibu “(legal) advocate”

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dābibu 2’ dābibtu): “S. 16b läßt sich unter dābibtu keine der beiden von ZA 49,166ff. abweichenden Lesungen e-ra-da-nim (statt -ni-ši) und ú-ša-ak-kat? (statt -ba) aufrechterhalten, da sie mit der Photographie unvereinbar und auch grammatisch

bzw. orthographisch nicht vertretbar sind; denn es gibt keine Nebenform errad zu urrad im Altbab., und der Lautwert hat ist erst mittelbab.”

 

Bottero 1962, 458 (AHw dābibu): “p. 148b, dâbibu est connu en aB, ŕ Mari: voir la lettre citée dans RÉS, 1937, p. 110 (2e ligne du texte cité), et comp., du reste, CAD, D, p. 16a, au bas de la page.”

 

dabru I “aggressive”

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD dabru): “Lastly dabrat šapṣi, in which šapṣu is left untranslated, means “fierce in might” (iii, 16).”

 

dabru II (?) (a desease) EA; WSem. word

not in the dictionaries

 

Both signs after ina mu-ta-a-an in EA 244: 32 are not clear. Campbell 1965, 193 and Albright 1969, 485 propose the translation “disease” probably on the basis of the context. Moran 1992, 299, note 5, suggests the spelling dáb-ri (see Hebrew deber “pestilence”) and interprets it as “a virtual gloss and synonym of Akkadian mūtānū, which is here treated as singular”.

NR

 

dabű “bear”

 

Already Salonen 1959–60, 158 connects dabű with Egyptian db(j) “hippopotamus”. Civil 1998, 11f., not quoting Salonen, assumes that dam/dím-šaḫ = da-bu-ú in Ḫḫ XIV 156f. (MSL 8/2) means the crocodile (di/amsah as loan from Egyptian), confused by the scribe with another river animal, the hippopotamus; according to him, there are two homophones, dabű “bear” and dabű “hippopotamus”. According to Militarev/Kogan 2005, 95, Sem. dabű/dabbu is related to Egyptian db(j) “hippopotamus”, the Afrasian etymon having the basic mng. “large animal”.

            The position of the entry in Ḫḫ, between hare and pig, makes the interpretation of dam/dím-šaḫ as “crocodile” doutbtful. Moreover, it is improbable that the scribe described a foreign animal by another foreign word not known in Akk. We would rather expect that he either again uses the Egyptian word for “crocodile”, this time Akkadianized by the case ending, or that he describes it somehow in good Akk. words, as he does with another exotic animal, the (Bactrian?) camel described as pīl šadî “elephant of the mountain/east” in l. 54. Finally, besides living in the water, crocodile and hippopotamus do not resemble each other at all. Therefore, the most likely interpretation is still that of Landsberger 1934, 13 and 82: dam/dím-šaḫ means something like “similar to a pig” (cf. muš-dam/dím Ḫḫ 372), put in the list here because the šaḫ “pig” section follows, equated with dabű, the usual word for “bear”. Landsberger thought that bear and pig are “similar” because of their noses and skin. Another possibility is that their similarity is based on the fact that both are omnivores.

MPS

 

daddaru (a foetid plant, phps.) “centaury”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 131 (CAD daddaru): “S. 18a: die von Langdon in AJSL 28, 219 ff. publizierten sumerisch-akkadischen Sprichwörter werden jetzt nach W. G. Lambert’s Neuausgabe als BWL 239 ff. zitiert.”

 

daddu “sole”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw daddu): “S. 149a: nach AHw 364b ist daddum „Sohle“ zu streichen und iddatum (PL v. iddum „Spitze“) zu lesen.”

 

dadmū pl. tant. “villages, settlements; the inhabited world”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈da-ád-me⌉ WBA ix 9. ⌈da⌉-[ad-mi] WBC ix 7.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dadmū): “S. 19a, Z. 8-1 v. u. Man möchte doch annehmen, dass die Varianten auf Kopierfehlern, sei es von Scheil, sei es von Meissner und Rost, beruhen. Vgl. das Photo bei Paterson, Palace of Sinacherib, pl. 36.”

 

dagālu “to see, look”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: a-da-gal 16: 13. i-da-gal 2: 52; 9: 42.

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 458 (AHw dagālu): “p. 149b, sub dagâlu, il est faux que le verbe ne soit pas attesté en aB: on peut citer BIN, VII, 43 15 et 21 (que rapporte d’ailleurs CAD, D, p. 23b, sub b; il renvoie du reste, ibid., sub 1’, ŕ un autre passage aB, ŕ savoir le fragment de Yale de l’Épopée de Gilgameš”.

 

dāgilu “looking; one who sees”

 

NA da-gíl MUŠEN[meš] “observer of birds” (in broken context) SAA 9, 2 iii 2.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Weidner 1959-1960, 155 (CAD dāgilu): “25: dāgilu. Hier ist übersehen, daß der Text ACh, Ištar V, 5, in AfO 14, S. 313, Anm. 133 a, nach VAT 10218 berichtigt wurde.”

 

Bottero 1962, 458 (AHw dagālu): “p. 149b, sub dagâlu, il est faux que le verbe ne soit pas attesté en aB: on peut citer BIN, VII, 43 15 et 21 (que rapporte d’ailleurs CAD, D, p. 23b, sub b; il renvoie du reste, ibid., sub 1’, ŕ un autre passage aB, ŕ savoir le fragment de Yale de l’Épopée de Gilgameš).”

 

dagn(at)u, pl. dagnātu “grain, cereal”; Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

Pentiuc 2001, 43 discusses two possible readings of DA-AG-na-[(x)] in Emar 6, 455: 9’, which presents the monthly order with the days and “actions / offerings prescribed for them”: [u4]-mi da-ag-⌈na⌉ /ūmi dagna/ “day of the grain” and [u4]-mi da-ag-⌈na⌉-[ti] /ūmi dagna/āti/ “day of the grain(s)”. Both forms could be related to the root dgn attested in Northwest Semitic: in Phoenician as dagon, in Hebrew as dāgān “corn, grain”, in Babylonian Aramaic as dəgānā, in Ugaritic as dgn “grain”.

The form dagna instead of dagni could be explained as a scribal error or as a diptotic form with the case vowel a for genitive (Pentiuc 2001, 244f.). The second option dagna/āti, which Pentiuc prefers here, is a feminine singular or feminine plural form of the root dgn. Both forms correspond to the Northwest Semitic pattern qatal(-a/āt) with vowel syncope in Akkadian.

NR

 

dā’iṣu “arrogant”

only CAD

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD *dā’iṣu): “Statt dā’iṣu (S. 27 a) habe ich dāwű (AHw. 166a) gelesen, was mir wegen der sumerischen Entsprechung auch jetzt noch den Vorzug zu

verdienen scheint.”

 

dakāšu “to press in”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 131 (CAD dakāšu): “S. 35a: Das Verbum dakāšu wird mit hebr. dageš etymologisiert und mit “to pierce” übersetzt. Da im Kommentar zu Izbu mit rabi erklärt, wird man es wohl besser mit AHw 151b “ausbeulen” übersetzen und zu arab. dakasa stellen.”

 

dakkannu, dukkannu “dais, platform”

AHw dakkannu “Türöffnung?”

CAD: takkannu A “chamber, niche, bench”

 

Akkadian dakkannu is a Sumerian loanword, known already from OB lexical lists (CAD T 74; AHw 151f.), which apparently was then borrowed in Aramaic as dűkān “place to stand on, stand, stage” (Jastrow 1996, 285).

Beaulieu 1992, 101-103 translates dakkannu as “room, bedroom, private quarters”. On the basis of the meaning of this word in Aramaic Dietrich 2001, 77 interprets the Akkadian term as “ein Terminus technicus für ein Podest <…>, auf dem die Priester und ihre Gehilfen die Lehrtätigkeit und den Kult durchgeführt haben”. After him, the writing dúk-kan-ni (ZA 36, 188, 27), which is marked as “Hörfehler” in AHw 152a, could reflect the Aramaic pronunciation. As support for this assumption see also the comment of George 2003/1, 303, n. 22 on Gilg. VII 115 (UET 6, 394: 22): d[i]-in-nu-ut la-⌈le⌉-ki lu-údak⌉-kan ka?!-x[(…)] “May the bed you delight in be the bench of a […!]” (George 2003, 298f.). After George dakkannu in this passage “appears to be what she sleeps on, rather than in, and a translation ‘bedroom’ would be too broad”.

NR

 

Borger 2010, 345 (CAD takkannu A): “S. 74 takkannu A) DAG = dak oder ták (MesZL Nr 438), “NA4” = dŕk oder tŕk (Nr. 385). Von Soden, AHw 151f. und 1306b liest dakkannu.”

 

dakšiu s. takšium

 

dakšu “pressed down”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dakšu): “S. 35b, dakšu. Die Angabe “dupl. CT 18 24 K. 6842: 2” ist genau genommen nicht korrekt, da K 6842 nach der Joinliste des British Museum ein Zusatzstück zum Hauptexemplar von CT 20, 39 ff. ist. Ebenso S. 138b, Z. 12-15.”

 

dâku “to kill; beat”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: ⌈i⌉-d[u-uk] 4: 9. id-du-ku 2: 49.

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD dâku 2b)): “Several phrases incidentally included are also mistranslated: for example, ina bâbišu “in bis precinct” means “in his doorway”, where the offender was hanged (iii, 400), and šu ikkallu “who is detained” means “who holds himself back, refrains (from the ordeal)” (iii, 40; for the offender if retained, i.e. drowned, in the river would not have to be put to death afterwards).”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dâku): “S. 35 ff., dâku. Auch in CT 19, 14, I 7.

S. 36a, Z. 19-14 v. u. Vgl. Thureau-Dangin, RA 39, S. 7, mit Anm. 10 und 11.”

 

Bottero 1962, 454 (AHw dâku): “p. 152a, sub dâku, 18e ligne du § G: ajouter Ug. devant Pl. da-i-ku-. . ..”

 

Matouš 1964, 131f. (CAD dâku): “S. 39a: die s. v. dâku zitierte Stelle aus dem aA Brief CCT 4, 9b: ša duākīka tēpuš “you did something deserving death” wird in “E” 227 a mit “you have done (everything) to ruin yourself” erklärt; die erste Übersetzung ist vorzuziehen, da duākum i. S. v. “ruinieren” aA nicht belegt ist.”

 

The infinitive of G possibly occurs in EA 241: 17 in its Canaanite usage as a finite verb in an independent clause (for this use see Rainey 1996, vol. 2, 383-385): 17 ša-nuda⌉-k[i-i?/mi?] 18 i-⌈na qa-ti⌉-ia “Another he (king) smo[te] through my services” (transl. after Moran 1992, 296). Moran 1992, 296, note 1 discusses also the possibility to render ⌈da⌉-k[i-i?/mi?] as passive “another was smitten”.

NR

 

dalāḫu “to disturb, stir up”

 

1. G a) OB lit. ta-⌈ad⌉-lu-uḫ māmī RB 59 = Fs. Reiner 190: 30 “you stirred up water”.

 

b) Ug. dal-ḫat-e-re-tum (sandhi) “the omens are confused” ORA 7, 208: 5’.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw dalāḫu): “S. 152b: dalāḫu „trüben“ von Gemüt (sub G 3) auch in Verbindung wir qerbum (Ludlul II 65).”

 

dalālu I “to be small, wretched”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw dalālu I): “S. 153a: dalālu etym. auch mit arab. dalla „gering sein“ verwandt.”

 

dalālu II “to praise”

 

G Ug. ša da-la-li Marduk “Marduk is to be praised” ORA 7, 208: 25’.

MPS

 

dalāpiš “awake”

only AHw, CDA

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD s. 47): “A certain number of omissions may be noted (unless the words are really concealed by the arrangement and not lost). Such are <…> dalāpiš “restlessly” (von Soden in Z.A. XLI, 221-2).”

 

dalāpu I “to stir up; be sleepless”

 

1. Š Ug. šu-ud-lu-pa-k[u] “I was caused to be worried” ORA 7, 208: 23’.

 

2. Š NA an-ḫa-[k]u!-ma šá-ad-da-lu-pu-ka la-a-ni-ia „I am worn out and my body is exausted for your sake“ SAA 9, 9: 15

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD dalāpu): “S. 48b: zu dalāpu s. jetzt auch Held, JCS 15, 16.”

 

*dalāpu II (mng. uncert.)

only CAD

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dalāpu B): “dalāpu B (S. 49a) ist m. E. zu streichen, da ta-da-lip in AMT 18,9,4 wahrscheinlich in ta-ša!-paḫ zu emendieren ist, auch wenn keiner der mir sonst bekannten Belege des in medizinischen Ritualen nicht seltenen Verbums šap/bāḫu, etwa „ausbreiten“, ganz gleichartig ist.”

 

dalbānu “intervening space”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: dal-ba-na-a-ti WBA vi 24. dal-b[a-na-a-ti] WBC iiib 12*.

 

Secondary literature

 

Weidner 1959-1960, 155 (CAD dalbānu): “49: dalbānu (dulbānu). Eine weitere Stelle ist K 10141, 7 (unveröffentl.): a-na dul-ba-an-ni ki-i e-ru-bu.

 

dalḫu “trubled, disturbed”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dalḫu): “S. 49b, Z. 23 f. Nicht genau. Für die syntaktische Einteilung des zitierten Sin-šar-iškun-Textes siehe Rez., BiOr 18, S. 154, zu S. 362a.”

 

daltu “door”

 

OB lit. siparra retītān da-al-ta-an Westenholz 1997, 198: 49 “the fixed double doors were made of bronze”.

MPS

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: [g]išIG WBC vii 44. [I]G.MEŠ ib. vi 58. gišIG.MEŠ WBA vi 34. giš[I]G.MEŠ ib. iv 21. ⌈giš⌉⌈IG⌉.MEŠ ib. vi 39. [gišIG.]MEŠ NeKA i 13’. gišIG.gišIG WBC iiib 23*. gišIG.gišI[G] ib. iiib 19*. gišIG.gišIG NeKA ii 35’.

 

dâlu I “to move, roam around”

 

Indices

 

G MA BATSH 4/1: i-du-lu 13: 22. i[d-du?-lu?] 15: 20.

 

 

1. Note the usage of dâlu G in Mari: 50 ki-ma da-lu-um-ma 51 i-da-al a-wa-tam ki-a-am aq-bi-šum um-ma a-na-ku-ma 52 mi-na-am ta-da-al “Comme il tergiversait, je lui ai dit ceci: ‘Pourqoui tergiverses-tu?’” (transl. after Charpin 1988, 222). The meaning “tergiverser” in this context was suggested by Durand (Charpin 1988, 222, note k).

 

2. The verbal form ti-da-lu-na occurs in EA 109: 48 and in EA 114: 65: 47 [ů] an-nu-ú DUMUmeš mUR[DU]-a-ši-i[r-ta 48 ti]-da!-lu-nameš KUR mi-iṣ-ri [ki-ma UR].GI7meš “[but] now the sons of ʿAbdi-Aširta make men from Egypt prowl about [like do]gs” (EA 109: 47f.; transl. after Moran 1992, 183); 65 ů ti-da-lu-na 66 ḫa-za-na ša-a yu-ra-du-ka i-na 67 ki-ti “they make a mayor who serves you with loyalty prowl about” (EA 114: 65-67; transl. after Moran 1992, 189).

It could be explained as a Cannanite form 3. m. pl. (for similar forms see Rainey 1996, 2, 43-45) from the Akkadian verb dâlu “to roam around”. The emendation to ti-da-<ga>-lu-na (so CAD D 59b under dâlu B) is not necessary. Since the meaning of ti-da-lu-na is certainly transitive in both cases, Moran 1992, 184, note 11, assumes either a confusion of the intransitive G and transitive D-stems or an example “of the sporadic replacement of u/tu-person marker by i/ti” in the D-stem.

NR

 

*dâlu II “to watch carefully”

only CAD

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dâlu B): “Zu streichen ist auch dâlu B (S. 59b); für ABL 724, 8 vgl. AHw. 170b sub dīlu, und statt a-di-il-ma ist in ABL 248,14, wie mir W. G. Lambert auf Anfrage nach Kollation freundlichst bestätigte, [ma!]-a di-il-pa! is-si-šú „wache bei ihm!“ zu lesen (diese Form ist auch in AHw. nachzutragen),”

 

damāmu “to wail, moan”

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD damāmu “to mourn”): “Occasionally words are mistranslated: for example damāmu “to mourn” instead of “to moan” (for the word is derived from an onomatopoeic base describing a low sound).”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD damāmu): “S. 59 ff., damāmu. Auch in CT 19, 14, I 6.”

 

damāqu “to be(come) good”

 

Indices

 

D SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-da-mě-iq WBA vii 53. ú-da-am-mi-i[q] WBC ivb 11*. mu-dam-mi-i[q] ib. viii 14.

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 158 (AHw damāqu): “damāqu «gut sein», auch amharisch, tigriña dnq «to be wonderful», tigriña denqi «good, beautiful», tigré dänäqä «to be marvellous», guragué

adännäkä-m, atänäqä und aymallal dämäqä «to be agreeable», Leslau, JAOS 64 (1944), S. 55.”

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD damāqu): “S. 63a: dammuqum (aA), vom Silber gesagt (z. B. ICK I 28, 9) heißt nicht “to give as a favor”, sondern “(das Silber) verfeinern” (vgl. Hirsch, Untersuchungen 19 f.). Vgl. jedoch Garelli, Les Assyriens 251, Anm. 1.”

 

damāṣu “to humble o. s.”

 

For ZA 4, 241: 39 (copy id., 256: 17) see now ZA 61, 60: 217 and CAD U 336b.

 

damāšu “to wipe (?)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD damāšu): “S. 64a: damāšu vielleicht auch im D-Stamm du-um-mu-šu in K 8413 (BWL 166), 16 belegt (auch in AHw 156b zu ergänzen).”

 

damiqtu “good fortune”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD damiqtu): “S. 66b, Z. 14-19 und S. 73a, Z. 16-19 sind einander doch zu ähnlich um unter verschiedenen Wörtern (damiqtu bzw. damqu) aufgeführt zu werden.”

 

DAM-KAR!-ra!-tu4 (mng. uncl.); Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

The reading of this word attested in the letter Emar 6, 25: 4 is very uncertain: 1a-na fTa-ta-sa 2qí-bi-ma 3um-ma-a mA-la-za-a-a 4um-ma-a DAM-KAR!-ra!-tu4 5a-di a-na!-ku a-ka-ša-da 6 munusTUR mKi-[din]-dGu-la 7la ú-še-ṣi “Say to Tattašše – Thus says Alazaia: DAM-KAR!-ra!-tu4 must not let go the slave girl of Ki[din]-Gula until I arrive”.

Arnaud (Emar 6/3, 35) interprets DAM-KAR!-ra!-tu4 as tám-kar!- ra!-tu4, the feminine form of tamkāru “merchant”, noting, however, that this form is unknown outside Emar texts. Pentiuc 2001, 44 discusses the double -rr- here as a morphographemic writing or as a Hurrian spelling (see Hurrian damqarrašši- “merchant” with the same consonant doubling). He suggests also a alternative explanation for DAM-KAR!-ra!-tu4, connecting it with the Hurrian damkarḫu or damkarri (the last sign is uncertain) “une coleur?”, which, however, doesn’t seem to fit the context.

NR

 

damqu “good”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: DUMU.MUNUS.MEŠ SIG5 10: 10. [DUMU.MUN]US.MEŠ SIG5 17: 7. A.SIG5 8: 34’. DUMU.MEŠ SIG5 8: 38’, 42’, 46’.

SB AfO Bh. 32: da-am-qá WBC vii 15. ⌈da⌉-am-qá ib. viii 30. ⌈da-am-qú⌉ NeKC2: 2. da-am-qu-ma WBC iva 13. dam-qá-a-ti ib. viii 29. da-am-qá-a-ti ib. viii 39. da-am-qá-⌈a⌉-[ti] ib. vii 10. dam-qa-a-⌈ti⌉ ib. x 37. da-am-qá-a-ti-ia ib. vi 7. ⌈da-am-qá⌉?-[a-ti-ia] NeKC2: 6. da-am-qá-tu-ú-a WBC x 28. da-am-qu-ú-ti ib. vii 17. dam-⌈qú⌉-[ú-ti] WBA iv 34. SIG5-ta ib. vii 14. SIG5-tim ib. iv 45; WBC vii 25. [SIG5]-⌈tim⌉ ib. iia 1’. [SIG5-t]i NeKA ii 16’. ⌈SIG5-ti-iá⌉ WBA ix 32.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD damqu adj; damqu s.): “S. 69a, Z. 23-20 v. u. Besser nach Gelb, JNES 7, S. 267 ff. (dort II 30) zu zitieren. Ebenso S. 116b, Z. 23-19 v.u.

S. 70a, Z. 26. nasiq.

S. 72a, Z. 16 v.u. ḫaṭṭam.

S. 73a, Z. 7-9. Der Keilschrifttext RA 44, S. 41, 21. Über die Ergänzung [īn]īn kann ich nicht recht begeistert sein.

S. 74a, Z. 5-9. = Kraus, TBP, Nr. 57a.”

 

See also EA 109: 49: da-mi-iq mu-tu a-[na ia]-ši “Death would be sweet to me” (Moran 1992, 183 and 184, note 12; see also CAD Q 76 under **qamādu).

NR

 

damtu I O/jB mng. uncl.; Mari phps. “blood, lineage”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD damtu A): “S. 74a, damtum. Siehe demnächst meine Rezension von BWL in JCS.”

 

Bottero 1962, 455 (AHw damtu): “p. 158a, 5e ligne de l’article damtu: le texte porte da-am-tim et non point dam-tim.

 

damu “blood”

 

1. Ug. [d]a-mi-šu-nu ramkū “they bath in their blood” ORA 7, 208: 11’. da-ma-am (as a drink) ib. 18’.

 

2. 2/3 da-mi gišEREN a-na pi-iš-ša-at gišIGmeš “2/3 (liter) of cedar blood as lubricant of doors” CUSAS 9, 143: 2–4.

 

3. SB nēšu ākilu da-mi ... tābik da-mi ... lāpit da-mi Westenholz 1997, 46: 62–64 (Sg. Birth Legend) “the lion, devourer of blood ... (the ...), spiller of blood, ... (the ...), smearer of blood”.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 158 (AHw dāmu): “dāmu: langes a ist etymologisch unmöglich. Es ist nur ein Resultat der akkadischen Silbengesetze (wie bi-i-la < bila, Imperativ von wabālu). Im

Arabischen ist es dam, im Hebräischen dām (nicht *dōm!) usw. Vgl. das Chicago Assyrian

Dictionary, wo damu!

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD damu): “S. 76a, Z. 16. kīniš.

S. 78a, Z. 11-9 v.u. = S. 79b, Z. 3-6.”

 

Bottero 1962, 457 (AHw dāmu II): “p. 158a, sub daʾmu, seul MUD est signalé comme idéogramme usuel (10e ligne de l’article), mais quatre lignes plus bas, dans une citation, figure tout ŕ coup DAR4.

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD damu): “S. 76b: statt šumma martum rēssa in dem aB Omentext YOS 10, 31 III 45 lies wohl KA-ša, d. h. appā-ša (vgl. auch “E” 84b).

ib.: vor da-ab-bu-um ib. IX 26 fehlt wohl nichts; s. AHw 162b s. v. dappu(m) II “Klumpen?”.

S. 78a: nach Kronasser, Friedrich-Festschrift 276 soll die Redewendung dāma epēšu “Bluttaten vollbringen” vom heth. esḫar iya- beeinflußt sein.”

 

daʾmu “dark”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD daʾmu): “S. 74 ff., daʾmu. Auch CT 19, 11, S 550.”

 

Beaulieu 2003, 380 discusses the adjective daʾmu as a reading for the logogram MUD, which might mean “dark-colored fabric” when referring to a garment: “1 gu-ḫal-ṣa šá MUD ‘1 scarf of dark-colored fabric’” (YOS 7, 183: 7, 13, see Beaulieu 2003, 152, 201). “The expression ša daʾmu might therefore be the functional antonym of ša pēṣu [sic!]”. See also CAD D under daʾmu for a relevant meaning “dark red earth used as a dye”.

NR

 

danānu II “to be(come) strong“

 

For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015, 246f.

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: [ú-da]-⌈an⌉-[ni]-⌈in⌉-[ma] WBA viii 46. du-un-nu-nim WBC vi 67. du-un-⌈nu⌉-nim ib. vii 55. d[u-un-nu-nim] WBC vi 46.

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 158 (AHw danānu): “danānu «stark sein», auch amharisch dännänä «to be thick, dense», Leslau, op. cit. (JAOS 64 (1944) – N. R.), S. 55.”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD danānu): “S. 83b, Z. 3 v. u. Die Form tarbaṣašu ist verdächtig.”

 

Bottero 1962, 454 (AHw danānu II): “p. 159b, 27e ligne du § D: intercaler jB/nA avant la référence ŕ Asb A I 115.

 

Note the verbal form yi-⌈da⌉-ni-en from danānu G in EA 91: 12: [ů] yi-⌈da⌉-ni-en lěb-bu-šu “his intention was re[in]forced” (Moran 1992: 165, note 2).

NR

 

danānu III

only AHw

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw (danānu III)): “S. 160a: der R-Stamm von danānu III wird als Denom. von dinānu mit der Bedeutung „Vertretung übernehmen“ betrachtet. Vgl. aber Kienast, JCS 15, 59 ff., wonach es in den Apodosen der aB Omina YOS X „sich starker erweisen“ bedeuten muß.”

 

dandannu, dandanű “all-powerful”; OB, M/NB, NA (lit.)

 

Byform dandanű in OB lex. dděm-tur-⌈tur?⌉ = dan-da-nu-ú-um UET 7, 93 r. 19, name or epitheton of a demon, see Sjöberg 1996, 232.

MPS

 

daništu (a type of service obligation)?

 

Secondary literature

 

Edzard 1961, 251 (CAD daništu): “S. 87 links Z. 2 v. u. lies TCL 10.”

 

danakku “1/8 shekel”, Old Pers. lw.

not in the dictionaries.

 

LB 3 da-nak-ku BM109972. Etymology: *dānaka- (cf. *dānā “grain”). See J. Hackl, NABU (in press).

MPS

 

dannatu “fortress; binding (agreement); distress”; pl. dannātu “strict (command), firm (order)”

 

For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015, 237–231, for the pl. dannātu s. ib. 240 and 242.

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dannatu): “Die Emendationin ABL 633, 15, mit deren Hilfe auf S. 89a unten das in AHw. 160a verzeichnete dannatānu eliminiert wird, erscheint mir wenig einleuchtend, schon wegen des vor einem Pronominalsuffix angenommenen langen a; dannatānu und maṣatānu sind vermutlich vom Schreiber ad hoc geschaffene Neubildungen.”

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dannātu): “S. 91 a, Z. 10 kann altass. da-na-at-ku-nu kein Plural sein!”

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dannatu): “S. 88 ff., dannatu. Vgl. Rez., BiOr 18, S. 154, zu S. 425a.

S. 90b, Z. 6 v.u. Nach den Parallelstellen wohl sicher <ša> zu lesen.”

 

Bottero 1962, 455 (CAD dannātu): “CAD, D, p. 91s, sub dannatu, 2: «you have. . . read» pour rendre tašammeu (que du reste, pour ma part, j’aurais plus volontiers transcrit tašammeʾu) est peut-ętre un peu large dans un dictionnaire.”

 

dannina/u “nether world”

 

Secondary literature

 

Dhorme 1960, 160 (AHw dannīnu): “Le mot rare dannînu, généralement rendu par «terre ferme», d’apres la racine danânu «ętre fort», désigne plus probablement les enfers, Unterwelt (p. 160).”

 

dannu “strong, powerful, mighty, great”

 

1. For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015, 235–237.

 

2. Note the expression KALAG.GA (dannū) ina pānīšunu in EA 108: 42, literally “they are strong in their face”, i.e. “they are bold”, which reflects a Canaanite idiom. See Proverbs 7: 13: hēʿēzā pānęhā “she makes bold her face” (see Moran 1992, 182, note 7, for other examples).

NR

 

2. NA 1 SĚLA NINDA dan-ni “1 litre of strong(?) bread” SAA 9, 11: 8.

MPS

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: dan-nu WBC vi 77. da-nu⌉ WBA iii 35. ⌈dan-nu⌉ ib. viii 23. da-[núm] ib. X 3’. dan?-[nu?] WBC viii 64. da-n[u-ti] WBA iv 4. da-[an]-nu-ti ib. vi 16. d[a-nu4-te] ib. iv 16. [da]-an-nu-⌈tim⌉ WBC iia 20. dan-nu-tim ib. vi 70. dan-nu-ti ib. ix 39. dan-⌈nu⌉-ti WBA vi 9. ⌈dan⌉-nu-tim WBC vi 64. ⌈dan⌉-nu-ti ib. vi 75.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dannu): “S. 93b, Z. 21-22. Nach ähnlichen Stellen (siehe S. 84b, Z. 18-20) la <tu> -da-an zu lesen.

S. 94b, Z. 15 v.u. Worauf bezieht sich die Bemerkung “first occurrence”? Die Belege auf S. 95b, unter b scheinen ihr doch zu widersprechen.

S. 96a, Z. 23-25. Vgl. Rez., Or 29, S. 346.

S. 96a, Z. 3 v.u. išassűka.

S. 97b, Z. 22 v.u. ikkibka.

 

Bottero 1962, 455 (CAD dannātu): “CAD, D, p. 91s, sub dannatu, 2: «you have. . . read» pour rendre tašammeu (que du reste, pour ma part, j’aurais plus volontiers transcrit tašammeʾu) est peut-ętre un peu large dans un dictionnaire.”

 

dannūtu “strenght”

 

For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015, 242–245.

 

**danū

only CAD

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD **(danū)): “S. 100a, danū. In CH XLI (besser als XLVIII zu zählen) 39 steht á-ni-tam, in XLIV (bzw. LI) 85(!) da(lies á)-ni-a-tim.

 

DA-nu-tu-ni not identified

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: 7: 21’’.

 

dapānu “to bear down on violently, hurtle towards”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dapānu): “S. 104a, dapānu. Auch II R 44, Nr. 7, 67.”

 

dapāru “to press towards”

 

Note in the rare G-stem (see AHw ṭapāru): OB lit. akkuš di-pi-ir lā teseḫḫēma CUSAS 10, 12: 3 “I am going. Move on! Do not make trouble!”

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD duppuru): “S. 188a, Z. 6-3 v. u. Vgl. EAK I, S. 100 ff.”

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD duppuru): “S. 186ff.: zu duppuru s. oben sub S. 104a und bei Laessře, ShT 83.”

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD dapāru): “S. 104a: dapāru (G-Stamm, wohl eher ṭapāru) ist vom D-Stamm (s. v. 2) der Wendungen zīzu duppuru mēsu in den Kontrakten aus Susa zu trennen und zu duppuru ("D" 186 ff.) „fernhalten" zu stellen (vgl. AHw. 177b). Die s. v. dapāru zitierte Stelle aus dem GE II II 40 ist nach OLZ 1935, Sp. 145 = ZA 53, 223 zu un(aššaqū šēpēšu) statt dem vorgeschlagenen up(allaḫūšu) zu ergänzen.”

 

dāpinu “overbearing, savage”

 

OB Girra da-pí-nu AnSt. 33, 148: 16.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Weidner 1959-1960, 155 (CAD dāpinu): “S. 105: dāpinu (2). Es fehlt die Stelle VAT 9427, Rs. 21 = OLZ 1919, Sp. 13, Anm. 1.”

 

Bottero 1962, 458 (CAD dāpinu): “CAD, D, p. 105a, sub b), 4e ligne avant la fin du §: comme Aššur-uballiṭ ne saurait se comprendre, dans le contexte, pour désigner Tukulti-Ninurta I, mieux vaut lire, avec AHw, p. 162b, lignes 4 et 5: Aššur tîba dapna.

 

dapnu “aggressive”

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 454 (AHw dapnu): “p. 162a, sub dapnu: lire a/jB, au lieu de m/jB (compte tenu

de la référence donnée, plus loin, ŕ Bab. 12, 11, 10).

 

dappānu “warlike”; OB, M/jB

 

OB lex. giš-ma-ra-gíd-da “wagon” = da-pa-an UET 7, 93 r. 7. Cf. Sjöberg 1996, 229.

MPS

 

dappu I s. adappu

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dappu): “S. 106, dappu. Auch Asarh. AsBbE, Rs. 5 (S. 87).”

 

dappu II “blood clot (?)”

CAD: ṭappu A

 

daprānu, duprānu, daparānu “juniper”

 

See also diprānu.

 

daqqu “minute; fine”

 

In the legal text from Emar HANEM 2, 6: 12 the form da-qú-ti-šu occurs, which Pentiuc 2001, 44 interprets as a suffixed substantivized plural form daqqūtu from the common Semitic root dqq “to be fine, small” (Akkadian daqqu) with the meaning “links of a chain”: [1] ḫi?-šu? GUŠKIN qa-du da-qú-ti-šu “[one] gold necklace together with its links”. After him it is a Peripheral Akkadian formation.

NR

 

dār s. dāru I

 

daraggu, tarqu “way, track”; SB, Ug.(?). WSem./Ug. lw.?

 

The form TAR-QU, which is known only from the version of Ḫḫ II from Ras Shamra, is open to question. tarqu could be a variant of Akkadian daraggu, which in turn could be a West Semitic loanword (compare Hebrew derek “way”, Arabic daraqa “to walk hastily”, see Huehnergard 1987, 120).

            On the other hand TAR-QU could also be an Ugaritic word with the reading dar6-qu (compare the alphabetic tdrq “nimble step, march”, so Huehnergard 1987, 120 and Olmo Lete / Sanmartin 2004, 860). Note, however, that the reading dar6 for TAR is otherwise attested only once in Ugarit Akk: in the Hurrian loanword (Huehnergard 1987, 120). Less likely are the readings dar6-ku13 (ku13 is otherwise unattested in Ugarit Akk.), which coud be compared with the alphabetic drk “trader” (Olmo Lete / Sanmartin 2004, 281), and ṭar-qu, which Huehnergard 1987, 120 connects with the Arabic ṭurqa and ṭarīq “way, road”.

            To the passages, known from AHw and CAD, one more passage must be added: <…> ip-ru-su (x) ⌈da-rag(?)-gu(?)⌉ [(…)] (Or. 68, 38: 41) “<…> blocked the trails” (Frame 1999, 41: 41, see also p. 47 with the comment).

NR

 

darāku II “to pack up”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD darāku): “S. 109a: illibbi ṣubātī in CCT 2, 4a, 26 ist Versehen für ubātīa!

 

darāru I “to move freely”; N “to become free”

 

N MB Ekalte (silver) ul uṣṣab ul id-da-ra-a[r] “does not yield interest and does not diminish” WVDOG 102, 68: 4.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 455 (AHw darāru I): “p. 163a, sub darâru, N, 2: pour l’incertitude, voire l’impossibilité matérielle dans ce texte de ARM VIII, de la lecture andurârum, que von Soden maintient, voir déjŕ Orientalia, NS, XXIX (1960), p. 117.”

 

darāru II “to intercalate”

 

Secondary literature

 

Weidner 1959-1960, 155 (CAD darāru B): “S. 109: darāru. Für Thompson, Reports 70, 7 f. vgl. ZA 27, S. 387; die dort gegebene Deutung halte ich auch heute noch für richtig.”

 

darāšu I “to try (?)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw darāšu): “S. 163b: das sub darāšum angeführte ad?-da-ri-iš aus dem aB „Hohen Lied“ (vgl. oben zu S. 91b) ist wohl mit Held, JCS 15, 6 zu dāriš < ana dāriš „für immer“ zu stellen.”

 

dāriš “for ever”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dāriš): “S. 113b, Z. 20 v. u. Vgl. Rez., EAK I, S. 27.”

 

dārītu “perpetuity, eternity”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: da-rí-⌈a-ti⌉ WBC x 38. da-rí-⌈a⌉-[ti] ib. ix 51. da-⌈rí⌉-[a]-⌈ti⌉ ib. vii 37. d[a]-a-⌈rí⌉-[a]-ti ib. viii 23.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dārītu): “S. 114b, Z. 8 v. u. Das Ausrufezeichen ist an dieser Stelle missverständlich.”

 

darku “following, later; successor, posterity”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD darku): “S. 115a, Z. 21 f. Laessře, bît rimki, S. 58, 78.”

 

darű “to last forever”

 

The first instance of the infinitive of this verb, hitherto only attested in the stative, is found in OB šu-lum bala-ṭi ů da-ri-i lu-uš-me “May I here greetings of long life and of lasting forever” CUSAS 9, 6: 22–24. Cf. S. Dalley, CUSAS 9 p. 24: “One expects  a noun form da-a-ri ‘eternity’”.

MPS

 

dāru I “era; eternity”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dār): “S. 108, c 2’. ana dūri dāri auch Asarh. Bab. A-G, Ep. 39b, 7 (S. 27).”

 

dārű “lasting, eternal”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: da-ra-a-am WBC vi 12. ⌈da-ra-am⌉ WBA ix 38. da-⌈ra⌉-a ib. vi 11. ⌈da-ri-i⌉ WBC viii 34.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dārű): “S. 116 f., 1 d. Vgl. EAK I, S. 58, Bauer, Inschriftenwerk

Assurbanipals, S. 53, Anm. 1 zu Z. 9, BBSt, S. 118, 15.”

 

Bottero 1962, 454 (AHw dārű): “p. 164b, ligne 3 de dârű: insérer aB aprčs 1).”

 

dâru see dūʾāru

 

*dasű s. takšium

 

This lexeme, which occurs only in AHw, must be deleted (s. remark of von Soden, AHw 1308b, under takšium: “LL q dasű (hierher!)”).

NR

 

dâṣu “to treat unjustly, with disresprect”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dâṣu): “S. 118 f., dâṣu. Auch En. el., IV 79.”

 

dašāpu “to be sweet”

 

D AHw. 2: BE 40294 = MIO 12, 52f.: 9.

MPS

 

dašpu “(honey-)sweet”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: ⌈da⌉-áš-pu WBC iva 23. da-aš-pa WBA vii 17.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dašpu): “S. 120, dašpu. Vgl. Or 26, S. 3.”

 

daššu “buck; ram”

 

Early OB: ⌈da-šu-um É DN “buck for the temple of DN” KTT 46: 3f. Note that the only other OB instances are from the simultaneous šakkanakku Mari texts.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 458 (AHw daššu): “p. 165b, sub daššu, il faut savoir que le mot, au moins sous son sumérogramme MÁŠ.GAL, est connu ŕ Mari (ARM, VII, 224 9), ainsi qu’ŕ Chagar-Bazar (Iraq, VII 1940, p. 45b, s.v.), et également ŕ Nuzi (voir par exemple, D. Cross, Movable Property in the Nuzi Documents, p. 31.”

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw daššu): “S. 165b: zu daššu s. auch Landsberger, MSL VIII1 59.”

 

datű “member” of a family (?)

 

Secondary literature

 

Aro 1971, 467 (AHw datű): “S. 166a datűm jetzt auch AbB 3, 52, 22 da-te-e ša bīt abīja.

 

dawű, damű “to jerk”

 

D OB lit. aklāk du-wa-ku CUSAS 10, 9: 15 “I am consumed, convulsed”. For another OB ref. see AHw. Ntr. p. 1550. The D-stem is attested in SB: see CAD D 80 and AHw. 176 s. v. dummű (the ref. belong here!).

MPS

 

dayyālu “scout”

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dajālu s.): “dajjālu (S. 27bf.) ist mit AHw. von dâlu „umherlaufen“ abzuleiten.”

 

dayyānu “judge”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: DI.KUD WBC vi 1. D[I.KUD] WBA ix 24. [DI.K]UD NeKC2: 1.

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 457 (AHw dajjānu): “AHw, p. 151a, sub dajjânu, on eűt pu mentionner l’idéographie DI.KUD.DA dans VAS, XVI, 71 9 (lettre aB).”

 

dayyānūtu “judicature, judgeship”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dajānūtu): “S. 33b, Z. 17. ušetbűšuma.

 

dayyiqu “siege wall(s)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD dāiqu): “Occasionally words are mistranslated: for example <…>

 dāiqu “siege-wall” instead of “siege-tower” (for it seems to have been an engine wheeled up to the walls of an invested city to enable the besiegers to overlook them; cf. Syr. dâq “kept watch, observed”).”

 

dekű “to raise, shift”

 

dekű “to raise”

 

OB lit. šumma aṣṣalal di⌉-ke-en-ni att[i] CUSAS 10, 12: 2 “if I fall asleep you wake me up!”

MPS

 

Indices

 

Š SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-ša-ad-kan-ni WBC viii 43. [ú]-šad-ka-[an]-ni WBA v 10. ú⌉-[šad-ka-an-ni] WBC iib 12*.

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 158f. (AHw dekű): “Unter dekű, S. 166b behandelt von Soden den Beleg BE 17, Nr. 66, 6 und unter dādu(m), S. 149 a, den Beleg STT 1, Nr. 70, 9. An beiden Stellen

kommt das Wort šarrumma vor, das von Soden S. 166b mit «zu Unrecht» und S. 149a mit «kein König» übersetzt (das Chicago Assyrian Dictionary läßt das Wort unübersetzt)… ” (for the discussion of the lexem šarrumma s. šurrumma.)

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dekű): “S. 123 ff., dekű. Auch AfO 18, S. 113, 10 f.”

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw dekű): “S. 166: dekűm, auch in der Bedeutung „übertreffen“, zB. ša nība idkű (Sg. 8, 325) „die alle Beschreibung übertrifft“.”

 

dēkű “summoner (for taxes and corvée work); (night-)watchman”

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 456 (AHw dēkű): “AHw, p. 167a, sub dękű, ŕ la 6e ligne: von Soden lit awîlam de-ki-a-am sans męme un point d’exclamation ou une note avertissant que le texte a été collationné, alors que l’autographie de Driver porte exactement et sans l’ombre d’un doute, ce qu’on avait lu jusqu’ici (voir du reste CAD, E, p. 34b, 5e ligne) et ŕ quoi rien ne paraît s’opposer, awîlam we-di-a-am.

 

dēpu II (a thrusting weapon?)

CAD: ṭēpu and ṭīpu 2.

 

1. Beaulieu 2003, 380f. adds two more references (both from the Neo-Babylonian Eanna archive: NCBT 2338: 4 and YOS 19, 245: 4) for dēpu as a weapon, which until now was known only from UCP 9, 275: 9 (see CAD ṭēpu and AHw dēpu II). In addition, dēpu designates also a “weapon” mark on the exta. In one of such hepatoscopic texts dēpu is described as the “weapon of Ištar”. It corresponds with both passages of the Eanna archive mentioned above, where dēpu is defined as belonging (as insignias) to two goddesses from the circle of Ištar, Bēltu-ša-Rēš (NCBT 2338: 4) and Uṣur-amāssu (YOS 19, 245: 4). Further, Beaulieu questioned von Soden’s supposition that dēpu is derived from dępu “to shove” (hence von Soden’s translation “eine Stosswaffe”), despite the identical logogram for both words DUN4, which Beaulieu explains by assonance of dēpu and dępu. The syllabic writing of dēpu in NCBT 2338: 4 seems to exclude the reading nīru for DUN4 in YOS 19, 245: 4.

 

2. CAD Ṭ 2006 distributes the passages, which all belong to dēpu, incorrectly between two lexemes: ṭēpu “(a weapon)” and ṭīpu “attachment; addition” (see the meaning 2. “(a feature of the exta)”).

NR

 

dešű “to be abundant”

 

D “to make abundant”: OB lit. attama mu-de-ši!(text: ti)-i-ma CUSAS 10, 9: 19 “you are the one providing me abundantly”. mu-de-{ud}-ši! eqlim ib. 13: 8 “who abundantly provides the field”.

MPS

 

Indices

 

D SB AfO Bh. 32: ú-⌈da-aš⌉-[ši] WBA vii 20. ú-⌈da⌉-[aš-ši] WBC iva 25. du-ši-i WBA vii 2. du-uš-ši-i WBC iva 8.

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 159 (AHw dešű): “dešű: vgl. auch hebräisch dāšā «grünen», arabisch thaʾdun (Metathesis) «Feuchtigkeit, Tau, nasse Erde», thaʾādatun «Fettheit».”

 

dēšű “abundant, flourishing”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: de-šu-tú WBA vii 11. de-šu-tim WBC vii 22. [d]e-šu-ti WBA xii 2’. [de]-šu-[tu] WBC iva 18. de-[šú-tim] NeKA ii 10’.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dešű adj.): “S. 129b, dešű adj. Auch MDP 28, S. 13 f., Nr. 12, 6?”

 

diʾāgiram “register of taxable property”; LB (Hell.; Gk. lw. < διάγραμμα /diagramma/)

 

The word diʾāgiram was identified in the lines 34 and 38 of the hellenistic lease contract VAT 9175, published first in 1974 by Sarkisian (FuB 16, 59f.; see also the second publication in van der Speck 1986, 222-232), thanks to collation of the tablet by G. Frame in 1986 (s. McEwan 1988, 418 n. 49): 34/38šá šaṭ-ṭárdi-ʾa-gi-ra-am “according to the writing of the diagramma”. The new edition of this text is presented by van der Speck 1995, 227-234. For the meaning of diagramma in this text, which “denotes always royal regulations, often concerning administrative matters of the royal economy”, see van der Speck 1995, 234.

NR

 

diānu “to judge”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dânu): “S. 101a, Z. 18-16 v.u. Vgl. Weidner, AfO 16, S. 323 f.

S. 101b, Z. 10-5 v.u. Vgl. Rez., AfO 17, S. 346.

S. 103a, Z. 14-16. Vgl. Rez. bei Hinz, Zur Entzifferung der elamischen Strichschrift, in Iranica antiqua 2.”

 

diāšu “to tread down; thresh”

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 159 (AHw diāšu): “diāšu «dreschen»: wie verhält sich das ugaritische

dwṯ «dreschen» (Gordon, Handbook, s. v.) dazu?”

 

diʾ(a)tu “knowledge, information”

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 454, 456 (CAD diʾatu): “męme page, un peu plus haut, ŕ la 3e ligne du § c): da-ʾa-tam, au lieu de da-ʾa-ta-am de l’original. <…> CAD, D, p. 131a, 4e ligne du § b): restituer tu[p-pí-ya], et non tu[p-pi]; en CAD, E, p. 191 a, 7e ligne avant la fin, le męme passage est cité

sans tu[ppiya], mais, ŕ tort, avec diʾatiya.

 

dibbatu “argument, chatter”

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 454 (CAD dibbātu): “CAD, D, p. 131b, sub dibbâtu, 7e ligne du § a): ana x x, alors que le texte porte manifestement a-na k[i]-m[a].

 

dibbīru

 

Pentiuc 2001, 44f.; see dibiru.

 

*dibbūtu “claim, suit”

not in the dictionaries

 

Driver 1960, 157 introduced a new lexeme dibbūtu “claim, suit”, which occurs in the transliteration of Scheil, A.J.S. I, 7, 11 (= MDP 22, 7, 11). The lexeme dibbūtu, however, does not exist. For the right interpretation of this passage s. CAD lupnu: lu-pu-un-šu-[nu u mašrâšunu] “their poverty and their wealth”.

NR

 

dibiru “calamity”; Emar, SB, WSem. lw.

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD dibiru): “S. 135a: daß dibiru “calamity” auf Grund der Gleichung mit tamṭātu “Verluste” in Igituḫ ein sum. LW ist und nicht zum sem. Stamm dbr. (vgl. AHw 168a) gehören soll, scheint unwahrscheinlich.”

 

Pentiuc 2001, 44f. discusses the connection of the Emarite word, written di-bi-ra /dibbīra/ or di-bi-ri /dibbīrī/,with the Akkadian dibiru, which is known from the Standard Babylonian omen texts (AHw 168; CAD D 134-135). Pentiuc interprets this word as a qittīl- noun (hence his normalisation dibbīru) and as a Northwest Semitic loan-word in Akkadian.         Etymologically dibbīru could be related to Ugaritic dbr “pestilence”, Hebrew dśbśr “illness, pestilence”, Arabic dabr “death” and dabara “ulcer” (see already AHw 168). Note that after CAD the Akkadian dibiru is probably a Sumerian word, having no relations to the Semitic root. Pentiuc  believes, however, that one must distinguish between the Sumerian word DI.BI.RI with the Akkadian equation tamṭâtu “losses” and the word dibiru / dibbīru of Emaritic and Standard Babylonian texts.

NR

 

diddigu “chaff (?)”

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD diddigu): “Auf S. 135 a streiche diddigu, da in BE 14,114 a, 7 mḪa-<aš>-mar-gal-di id-di-in! „Ḫ. gab“ zu lesen sein dürfte.

 

didibbű “(court) judgement”

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD didibbű): “or again didibbű “acceptance of a suit by a court” (as it is translated) is cited as occurring only in a native glossary, but it occurs in fact in the title of

several sections of Hammurabi’s Code preserved on an Old Babylonian tablet, where it means “case with judgement” or the like (Driver and Miles, B.L. II, 114, 204).”

 

dīdū (female garment)

 

dīdū also occurs in OB Emar (Emar 6/3, 33, cf. Durand 2009, 33): 27 ů DUMU.MUNUS PNf ša la-a ŠŔM 28 di-i-di-i ta-laq-qě “The daughter of PNf  will take the d.-garments without buying them”.

NR

 

dikkuldű? “legal opponent (?)”

only CAD D 137a, CDA 59b

 

Borger 2008, 442 (see also Borger 1962, 252) proposes an alternative reading for di(-in)-kul-di in 1R 70 iii 16 and BBSt. No. 8 iv 11 (NB kudurrus): dUTU DI.KUD.GAL AN-e u KI-tim  lu-ú di-in NUMUN(zēri) DI(dīn)-šú-ma ina pa-rik-ti li-iz-zis-su 1R 70 and dUTU di-qu-un-gal AN-e ů KI-ti lu-ú DI(dīn) NUMUN(zēri) DI(dīn)-šu-ma ina pa-ar-<x>-ti li-iz-zi-su BBSt. No. 8. The meaning, however, remains unclear. Paulus 2014, 535 (1R 70) and 546 (BBSt. No. 8) follows, however, the interpretation of CAD D 137a (hence her translation “Gerichtsgegner”) without commenting on the topic.

NR

 

dikmennu, dikmēnu s. ṭikmēnu

 

dīktu “fighting, slaughter”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dīktu): “S. 140a, Z. 5-7. Zu streichen.”

 

dīktu occurs also in peripheral Akkadian, once in Ugarit and probably also once in Amarna: di-ik-ta ra-ba-a lu ad-du-uk “Certes, je remportai une grande victoire” (RS 34 139 r. 37, transl. after Lackenbacher 1982, 149); 37 a-na 38 di-[ik-ti/ka-at mÚRDU-a]-ši-ir-taIn view of the mur[der of ʿAbdi]-Aširta” (EA 124: 38; transl. after Moran 1992, 203).

NR

 

dīku I “killed”

 

OB 1 SILA4.GUB di-ik-ti UR.BAR.RA “1 half-weaned female lamb killed by a wolf” CUSAS 9, 316: 1–3. 1 ÁB.MAḪ di-ik-ti UR.MAḪ “1 mature cow killed by a lion” ib. 317: 2–4. 1 AMAR.GA ... di-ik-ti UR.BAR.RA “1 suckling female calf killed by a wolf” ib. 321: 1–5. 1 U8 di-ik-ti UR.BAR.RA “1 ewe killed by a wolf” ib. 326: 1–3. [1] ÁB MU 2 di-ik-ti UR.MAḪ “1 2-year-old cow killed by a lion” ib. 328: 1–3. 1 ÁB.GA ... di-ik-ti UR.MAḪ “1 suckling cow killed by a lion” ib. 337: 5–8.

MPS

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: di-ku-ú-te 8: 42’; di-ku-te 8: 43; di-ku-ú-ni 8: 39’.

 

dikuggallu “chief justice”

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 129, 137 (AHw diqu(n)gallu): “Die Ansetzung des emphatischen Lautes im sumerischen Lehnwort diqungallu < di-ku5-gal (AHw 173a) gegen dikuggalu im CAD “D”

140b bringt mit sich die noch ungelöste Frage (vgl. Schreibungen wie ṬU-mu für dumu, QA-al-la für kal4-la bei A. Falkenstein, Das Sumerische § 7c Anm. g), ob es im Sumerischen emphatische Konsonanten gab. <…> S. 173a: zur Ansetzung diqungallu statt dikuggallu in CAD “D” 140b vgl. oben S. 132 (error for „S. 129“ – N. R.).”

 

*dilpu “night attendance (on a sick person)”

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD dilpu): “Auf S. 142b streiche dilpu und s. AHw. 170b zu dīl pę (dīlu Ende).”

 

*dimgallu

only CAD

 

Secondary literature

 

Edzard 1961, 251 (CAD **dimgallu): “S. 143 links: **dimgallu ,,see šitimgallu.

 

dimtu I “tower”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dimtu): “S. 144 ff., dim/ntu. Auch Sanherib Prisma, IV 66 und 71.”

 

dimtu II “tear”

 

Secondary literature

 

Aro 1971, 467 (AHw dimtu): “S. 171 a: dimtu mit reziproker Assimilation di-in-di indalâ īnâšu STT 366, 28 und ina di-in-du u ú-ba-ṭu áš-ba-ku HS 117, 15-16 (erscheint demnächst in den Sitzungsberichten der SAW).”

 

dinānu “substitution”, ana dinān X alāku “to go as a substitute for X; give o.s. up to X, lay o.’s life down for X” freq. in introduction of letters

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: di-na-an 2: 3; 4: 3; 10: 3; 11: 3; 12: 3; 13: 3; 14: 3; 16: 3; 17: 3; 19: 3; 20: 3; 25: 3. di-na-a[n] 3: 3. [di]-⌈na⌉-an 22: 3. [di-n]a-an 5: 4. d[i-na-an] 18: 3.

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 457 (AHw dinānu): “p. 171b, sub dinânu, pourquoi nous forcer d’attendre la parution de l’article pűḫu, dans un trop lointain fascicule, pour connaître l’idéographie de dinânu?

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD dinānu): “S. 148b: zu dem s. v. dinānu angeführten addanika vgl. auch W. G. Lambert, JSS IV 15.

S. 149a: die angeführte Stelle aus dem kappad. Brief Cont. 5 wird hier in: bābtī mala ṭé-mi-kŕ lu epšat “let my ... be according your orders” emendiert, dagegen in “E” 204a s. v. bābta epēšu als: “my business should be taken in a sensible way” (ṭé-mě-ša!) übersetzt. Die richtige Emendation bei Lewy, ZA 36, 144 Anm. 2: mala ūmēme-ša!, d. h. “soll termingerecht erledigt werden”.”

 

dingiruggű “the dead (primordial) gods”

 

Secondary literature

 

Dhorme 1960, 160 (AHw dingiruggű): “Dans l’épopée de la Creation (IV, 120), les dieux infernaux sont considérés comme des dieux morts, dingir-ug5-ga-e, dont la lecture accadienne serait dingiruggű (p. 171).”

 

dīnu “legal decision; lawsuit, trial”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dīnu): “S. 151a, Z. 27. ú-qi-ju-ú.

S. 153a, Z. 5. narî(NA.RU-i).”

 

dipalű “distortion of justice”

 

Secondary literature

 

Edzard 1961, 251 (CAD D): “Hier und da vermißt man Verweise bei Wörtern, die (wider Erwarten) nicht unter D gebucht sind; wo sind dip/balű ,,Rechtsverdrehung” und der Monatsname duʾūzu behandelt?”

 

dipāru “torch”

 

Secondary literature

 

Salonen 1959-1960, 159 (AHw dipāru): “dipāru «Fackel», vgl. eventuell soqoṭri dejer «flame», šhauri defor id.”

 

Weidner 1959-1960, 155 (CAD dipāru): “S. 156: dipāru (a). ACh, 2. Suppl. CVII, 3 ist nach VAT 9417, Vs. 13 (Neugebauer und Weidner, BSGW 67, 2, S. 56) zu ergänzen.”

 

diprānu, pl. diprānūma “juniper”; Ug., WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

diprānu, the Ugaritic word for “juniper”, occurs in the Akkadian legal text from Ugarit PRU 3, 64, 16.190: 4 in the Ugaritic oblique plural or dual as /diprānīma/ : PN <…> it-ta-din A.ŠŔ.ḪI.A : dě-ip-ra-ni-ma “PN <…> gave (him) the juniper fields”. The reading dě-ip-ra-ni-ma for TI-IB-ra-ni-ma was suggested by Kühne 1974, 163 on the basis of the alphabetic writing gt dprnm “jard of junipers” (UT 386b, no. 693). The Akkadian cognate is daprānu with the variant duprānu (see also gišda-ap-ra-ni in Akkadian text from Ugarit PRU 4, 194, 17.385: 10). Some attestations from Mari also demonstrate a probably older form daparānu (Kühne 1974, 163). See also Sivan 1984, 214 and Huehnergard 1987, 119. See daprānu.

NR

 

diqāru “large bowl, tureen”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: ÚTUL UD.KA.BAR.MEŠ 6: 29’, 30’.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD diqāru): “S. 157 ff., diqāru. Wohl auch TCL 3, Z. 183 (kīma KAM-ri, d.h. diqāriri).

 

diʾiqētēsu “controller; financial officer”; LB (Hell.; Gk. lw. < διοικητής /dioikētēs/)

not in the dictionaries

 

After McEwan 1988, 416 diʾiqētēsu is the only Greek administrative title which occurs once in the Akkadian (BRM 2, 31: 8) during the Seleucid period: 7<…> ar-ku 8⌈PAD⌉.ḪÁ MU.MEŠ AŠ kušši-pi-iš-tu4 šá mdi-ʾi-ki/qé-te-e-su 9[šá É] šar-ri ů šá-ṭarmeš NÍG.GA dAN É DINGIR.MEŠ  šá UNUG.KI <…> 11[šul]-lum-mat “afterwards this ration was delivered in full according to the legal document of the financial officer [of the house] of the king and records of the property of Anu of the tempels of Uruk” (see also McEwan 1981, 150).

Note a “Personenkeil” before this word which led Doty 1979, 196 n. 6 (see there also for the previous literature) to the conclusion that a scribe “mistook the title of a Greek official for a Greek personal name”. Despite the absence in CAD D, diʾiqētēsu is quoted in CAD Š/3, 66b under šipirtu A as diʾkitēsu without translation and in CAD Š/2, 224b as mdiʾqetēsu with the translation “dioiketes official”.

NR

 

dirku “packing sack” OAkk Mari

 

The term dirku, a derivation from OA darāku II “to pack; to stow (textiles)” (Veenhof 1972, 44f.), was not recognized in the dictionaries as an independent word with the meaning “packing sack”. After Durand 2009, 175 the passages from Mari, which are quoted in AHw 1349 under te/irku, the meaning 2, and in CAD T 460 under terku, the meaning 3, belong here: e. g. 1 mašʾanān u 3 dir4-ku šu KASKAL.KUR.KI (ARM 19, 280: 4) “one pair of shoes and 3 packing sacks for a caravan (?)” (for an alternative interpretation of KASKAL.KUR.KI see Durand 2009, 175). See also the lexical entry in CAD D 160 under dirku B, where dirku is equated with GADA “linen”: ga-da = GADA = di-ir-ku MSL 2, 134 viii 53 (Proto-Ea).

            Etymologically Veenhof 1972, 44 relates darāku and Hebrew dāraḵ “to tread, to trample”. It also seems possible that darāku could be connected with Akkadian turruku “to beat (textiles)” (CAD T 205) as well as dirku with terku, which occurs in Mari also in combination with textiles and denotes after Durand 2009, 124 and 603, a method of weaving (see terku).

NR

 

dirratu “lash (of whip)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Weidner 1959-1960, 155 (CAD dirratu): “S. 160: dirratu. Die in AfO 4, S. 73ff. veröffentlichte Uranographie gehört keinesfalls zur Serie mulAPIN, wie hier irrig angegeben ist.”

 

diš/ziptuḫḫu “sweet beer”

 

First OB ref. di!-zi-ip-tu-uḫ-ḫi-im ARM 21, 106: 3, see ballukku.

MPS

 

dišpu “honey, syrup”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: LŔL NeKA ii 17’.

 

dīšu II “(spring) growth; spring”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dīšu): “S. 163 f., dīšu. Auch Asarh., § 63, Rs. 13.”

 

ditānu “wisent”?

 

Emar: a-lim = te!(copy: li)-šá-nu Emar 551: 46. In Ḫḫ XIV 144a (MSL 8/2, 18) corresponds ditānu. This correspondance makes a connection between ditānu and tišānu, doubted by Kogan 2005, 296, more probable; for an attempt to explain these two variants phonologically see Streck 2000, 216–218. Furthermore, the spelling with te! points to a possible relation with the enigmatic tešēnu “a wild animal” (CAD; see also Kogan ib.).

MPS

 

diʾu II, duʾu, “(deity’s) throne-platform”;

 

Correction for Streck Asb. 234: 18 (CAD D 166b; Borger 1962, 252 with ref. to Weissbach, WVDOG 59, 77): ina ūmešuma di-ʾ-a-ni u parakkē ša siḫirti Esagila … lu addi “On that day … I founded the platforms and daises in surroundings of Esagila”.

            Correction for VAB 4, 158 vi 43 (CAD D 167): read ap-tíq instead of abni (AfO Bh. 32, WBA vi 43; WBC iiib 26*). S. patāqu.

NR

 

diʾu III “wattle-and-daub screen (?)”;Ur III

not in the dictionaries

 

1. After Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 177, d. is the same wort as diʾu II “(deity’s) throne-platform”. However, the connection between the two terms is not clear. diʾu II denotes a “throne-plattform” of solid brick. d. III in Ur III was a construction (some art of screen?) in wattle-and-daub technique made of reed and earth and used in buildings (not only for roofs pace Waetzoldt, BSA 6, 142 ad 84). S. Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 177ff. S. also duʾu II (an unidentified structure), which also occurs in Ur III Garšana. After Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 357, duʾu II (du-ú-um) might be a spelling variant of diʾu III.

 

2. Ur III Garšana: ŮR É UŠ.BAR.KA dě-um ĜÁ.RA SACT 2, 104 “having placed d. on the roof of the textile mill”; GI GI.SAL ů GI di-um-ma SIG7.A ů GA6.ĜÁ MVN 16, 929 “reed for gisal and reed for d. cut and carried”; 1 KID KI.LÁ.BI 1 SAR 15 GÍN dě-um É MUŠEN.KA.ŠČ Syracuse 30 “1 mat of 1 sar 15 shekels (45 m2) for d. of the house of birds”; IM dě-um LU.A Nik 2, 147 “mixing d. earth”; IM dě-um-ma ů IM SUMUR.RA LU.A GUR7.A IM -um DU8.<A> ů A ĜAR.RA NATN 620 iii 2’f. “earth of d. and earth of plaster mixed; d. earth applied as adobe on the granary and waterproofed”; 605  SA GI.IZI dě-um-ŠČ CUSAS 3, 1286: 11 “605 bundles of fire reed for d.”; 2 ĜURUŠ 4 GÉME <IM> dě-um LU.DČ GUB.BA CUSAS 3, 84: 19 “2 male workers and 4 female workers employed at mixing d. earth”.

NR

 

s. diʾu II

 

dūʾaru “to surround, enfold”

 

See AHw. 1551 for OAkk. du-ri-ni MAD 5, 8: 21. The next line contains another form of the same word, not mentioned in AHw. (but see already W. von Soden, ZA 72 [1971] 273): du-ri-ni it-taskarinnī kī rāʾiʾum ě-du-ru ṣaʾnam enzum kalūmaša laḫrum pūḫāssa atānum mūraš MAD 5, 8: 21–24 “surround me between the boxwood trees, as the shepherd encircles the flock, the goat its kid, the sheep its lamb, the mare its foal!” Others have derived both forms from târu; this verb, however, is construed with dat. and never with acc. Note that CDA 61 has, by mistake, “stat. only”.

MPS

 

DU-a-šu

 

Pentiuc 2001, 45; see tuwaššu.

 

dubbuqu (?) “to join together”; Ug.

 

The verbal form ú-TAB-bi-qa-an-ni  in the Hymn to Marduk from Ugarit (Ug. 5, 162: 37’) is a matter of debate. Von Soden 1969, 191 (see also AHw 1549 s. v. dabāqu) reads the line 37’ as ú-par-ri-ra-an-ni ú-dáb-bi-qa-an-ni “er löste mich auf und fügte mich zusammen”. He connected dubbuqu with dbq D in Hebrew and Aramaic, assuming a semantic opposition of purruru and dubbuqu. See also Huehnergard 1987, 117f., Oshima 2011, 214, 37’ and Dietrich 2012, 211, 37’ who follow this assumption, too. Note the akkadianized form of this West Semitic word. The problem with this interpretation is that the value DÁB for the sign TAB doesn’t occur otherwise in the corpus of the Akkadian texts from Ugarit.

An alternative interpretation was proposed by Nougayrol 1968, 268f., who considered ú-tab-bi-ka4-an-ni as the verb tabāku and translated it “il a répandu ma (vie)”. CAD P 162b reads ú-tab-bi-qa-an-ni “(Marduk) made me limp(?)”. It seems that the verb tabāku is meant here, too. Compare CAD T 8: tabāku D “to render limp(?)”. This understanding was recently supported by Cohen 2013, 168f. and 171: uparriranni u utabbikanni “He shattered me and rendered me limp”. After A. R. George (via Cohen 2013, 171) “the metaphoric language used in this passage is partly taken form the handling and storage of barley”.

Finally Arnaud 2007, 111 alternatively emends ú-TAB-bi-qa-an-ni to ú-tab-bi-la!-an-ni and translates this line as “lui qui m’dispersé et qui m’a emporté” (Arnaud 2007, 112). See also tabāku.

NR

 

dubgallu s. tupgallu

 

dubsarmaḫḫu s. tupšarmaḫḫu

 

dudittu s. tudittu

 

duggūru

 

Pentiuc 2001, 46; see tugguru.

 

duḫnu,  tuḫnu “millet”

 

1. n du?-uḫ-nu ša MŮNU “n millet(?) for(?) malt” CUSAS 9, 177: 1–2. S. Dalley, ib. p. 121 suggests emendation to duḫḫu “residue, pulp”.

MPS

 

2. duḫnu possibly occurs also in EA 224: 9 after the suggestion of Na’aman 1973, 78, note 78, who reads <du>-uḫ-ni (see Moran 1992, 287, note 1): inūma šaparmi šarru bēliya ana ŠE.IM.MEŠ <du>-uḫ-ni : mu-ḫu-ṣu “As to the king, my lord’s, having written concerning the grain of millet: it has been spoiled”.

Note that after this interpretation mu-ḫu-ṣu coud not be a gloss here. Compare CAD M/1, 83 g) with the unexplainable reading “[u]ḫ-ni (or -ir) : mu-ḫu-ṣu ‘it is .... (gloss) spoiled’”.

NR

 

Secondary literature

 

Mayer 2009, 436 (CAD tuḫnu): “[455a] tuḫnu: hier wird auf duḫnu verwiesen, für das CAD D und AHw nur aus dem Babylonischen und Nuzi Kontextbelege kennt. Hinzukommt: mA tu-uḫ-ni u šamaššammī ... lęrušū “Hirse und Sesam sollen sie... anbauen” E. Cancik-Kirschbaum, Die mittelassyrischen Briefe aus Tall Šēḫ Ḥamad (1996) Nr. 4 Rs. 14’-15’.”

 

duḫšű s. dušű I

 

DuK(K)ut(t)u (?) (a garment); OB Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

DuK(K)ut(t)u is attested twice in the early OB texts from Mari (Durand 2009, 33): TÚG Du-Ku-tu-t[u] (T.101); GÚ! Du-Ku-tu (T.110) “D. cloak”. Durand considers the possibility to interpret DuK(K)ut(t)u as a sg. of (2 TÚG) tu-uq-na-tumḫi.a (SLB 1/1, 2: 18, 35), which CAD T 481 understands as a plural form of tuqnu B. However, the form Du-Ku-tu-t[u] looks like an adjectival plural of a PuRRuS noun.

NR

 

dulbu “plane tree”

 

1. Also in Ur III Garšana: n ḪAR gišdú-ul-bu-um n-TA CUSAS 3, 1256: 29f.; 1375: 31 “n plane tree seedling(s), n (units) each”.

NR

 

2. MB Ekalte [d]u-ul-bá ... umalli “he has fully paid(?) the [pl]atane” WVDOG 102, 77: 5.

MPS

 

dulīqātu “roast corn (?)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 252 (CAD dulīqāte): “S. 173a, dulīqāte. Auch CT 14, 26, 81-2-4, 271, Z. 13.”

 

dullu “trouble; work, service”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD dullu): “176a, Z. 26. Die Form annie ist nicht sonderlich schön.”

 

du(l)luḫtu “hurry, despatch”

 

The passage in CAD D 179a from EA 11 r. 27 should be corrected to ki-i du-ul-lu-uḫ-t[i-iš] “as soon as poss[ible]” (Moran 1992, 22 and 23, note 24).

NR

 

dumāmu I “leopard”

 

Secondary literature

 

Bottero 1962, 455 (CAD dumāmu A): “p. 179a, sub dumâmu, noter que le mot turaḫu est laissé pour compte dans la traduction du passage de Gilgameš (VIII 16).”

 

*dummű “to bring to tears”

 

The ref. in AHw. 176 “weinend halten” in fact belong to dawű D, now attested in the D-stem in OB with w as second radical.

MPS

 

*dumqiš “well”

 

Secondary literature

 

von Soden 1960, 489 (CAD *dumqiš): “Auf S. 180a streiche dumqiš, da auch in Alalakh 109, 3 SIG5gí-iš = damqiš „gut“ zu lesen ist (s. AHw. 157a).”

 

dumqu “goodness, good (thing)”

 

1. OB ēpiš du-um-qí UET 7, 73 (Sg. letter, Westenholz 1997, 148ff.) iii111 “who prepares choice food” (following nuatimmu “cook”).

MPS

 

2. Note the expression dumqa epēšu (itti), which occurs in EA 69: 17f. and 39 and apparently means “to make friendship / peace”: 17 [ů ú]-ul i-le-<i> i-pí-iš 18 [SAG10]-q[a] it-[t]i-šu-n[u] “[and] I have not been able to make [pe]ace wi[t]h them” (Moran 1992, 138 and 139, note 4).

NR

 

dunnu 1. OAkk, Bab. “power, strength” 2. Ass. “(fortified) farm(stead)”

 

Indices

 

MA BATSH 4/1: du-un-ni-a 2: 6. [du-u]n-ni-ia 25: 7’.

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD dunnu A): “S. 184b, Z. 4-7. Statt dun-ni u [gaš]rūtu ist vielmehr dun-ni z[ik]-ru-tú zu lesen (BiOr 17, S. 166, zu S. 108b).

S. 185b, Z. 5-12. Man muss immer wieder Winckler nach Botta überprüfen. Bei Botta, Tf. 152b steht (sic?)-NU (wohl Kopierfehler für šú oder ši)-šin, aber in Tf. 130 und 134a []-ši-šin!”

 

Salonen 1966, 97 (AHw dunnu): “S. 177a: zu dunnu «Bett» s. Salonen, Die Möbel des alten Mesopotamien, S. 140.”

uq-šu-nu WBC ix 40.

 

DU-un-nu (mng. uncl.); Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

The reading of DU-un-nu, which occurs in the omen text Emar 6, 678: 17’ as an attribute to ṣiḫḫu “ulceration” ([BE] AŠ É.GAL ti-ra-ni ṣí!-ḫu DU-un-nu ŠUB!), remains unclear (Pentiuc 2001, 45f.). Arnaud (Emar 6/4, 304, note 17’) assumes that dunnu could be a form of dannu “hard”. Pentiuc 2001, 46 noticed that the next four lines have the logograms for colors attributiveto ṣiḫḫu. However, it remains uncertain whether this can explain the adjective DU-un-nu here.

NR

 

Dup(p)aššu I (a type of  wool or wool colour); Ug., WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

Dup(p)aššu occurs in the Akkadian text from Ugarit Ug. 5, 48: 9-13: 9 SÍG.ZA.GĚN ḫaš-ma-na SÍG.ZA.GĚN : ḫa-an-da-la-ti 10 ů SÍG.ZA.GĚN : DU-pa-aš-ši 11 ů NA4 ga-bi 12 ma-ʾa-dě-iš NIN?-ya 13 li-še-bi-la “may my lady(?) send me a great deal of ḫašmānu-colored blue wool, ḫandalātu-type blue wool, dupašši-type blue wool, and alum” (translation after CAD U (uqnâtu) 194).

            DU-pa-aš-ši denotes a type of  wool (CAD U 194), most likely a colour or a hue (van Soldt 1990, 344; Lackenbacher 2002, 297). Heltzer 1978, 58, note 129 (after Nougayrol, Ug. 5, 136, note 1) connects DU-pa-aš-ši with the West Semitic root dbš “honey”, which is known in Akkadian as dašpu, duššupu “sweet” and dišpu “honey”: “wool of honey color(?)”.

Sivan 1984, 215 interprets Dup(p)aššu here and DU-up-pa-aš-ši in PRU 4, 151, 17.59: 18 as the same Northwest Semitic word dup(p)aššu “purpure wool”. Most scholars, however, consider DU-pa-aš-ši and DU-up-pa-aš-ši as two different words. For DU-up-pa-aš-ši see Dup(p)aššu II.

NR

 

Dup(p)aššu II (mng. uncl.); Ug., WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

Dup(p)aššu II is known from the phrase É DU-up-pa-aš-ši in the Hittite letter, which was written in Akkadian and found at Ugarit: 17 LUGAL kurú-ga-ri-it 50 ma-na KŮ.SIG17 18 iš-tu 10 ḫa-ar-ra-ni ša É DU-up-pa-aš-ši 19 a-na dUTU-ši it-ta-din (PRU 4, 151, 17.59: 18) “Le roi de l’Ugarit a donné au Soleil 50 mines d’or, provenant de 10 caravanes, du Bît-ṭuppašši” (translation after Lackenbacher 2002, 102).

É DU-up-pa-aš-ši is understood mostly as bīt tuppašši “house of tabletship; accounting house; sealed storehouse” (Sasson 1966, 135, note 52; Archi 1973, 213; Arnaud 1996, 60; Beckman 1999, 183; Lackenbacher 2002, 102). Sasson 1966, 135, note 52, explains the element –šši in tupašši as a Hurrian suffix added to the Akkadian word tuppu “tablet”  to form an abstract substantive. See, however, Richter 2012, 473 (Glossar des Hurritischen), who does not translate tuppašši and marks it as a word with uncertain “Hurrizität”.

Archi 1973, 213f. connects Ugaritic É DU-up-pa-aš-ši with Hittite É d/tuppaš, which he understands as “casa delle tavolette”. Tischler 1991, 442-444 (Hethitisches Etymologisches Glossar) thinks in the same direction. He, however, interprets Hittite d/tuppaš as a genitive of tuppa- “ein Behälter” and understands É tuppas of Hittite texts as “‘Haus der Behälter’ also wohl ‘Lagerhaus’”. He refers to DU-up-pa-aš-ši as a Luwian genitive adjective /duppassi-/ from the same word (Tischler 1991, 443f.).

A third alternative would be to connect DU-up-pa-aš-ši with Akkadian duppussű “younger brother”: “on (from) 10 caravans of the house of the younger brother (of the king)” (Heltzer 1978, 149). See also Dup(p)aššu I, Sivan 1984, 215 and Vita 1995, 14, note 3.

NR

 

DU-PI-aš-šu

 

Pentiuc 2001, 45; see tuwaššu.

 

duppuru I “to move away, withdraw; stay away” (CDA 62b)

s. dapāru

 

duppussű, tuppussű “younger brother”

 

duqāqu “tiny”

 

Secondary literature

 

Dhorme 1961, 160 (AHw duqāqu): “la synonymie de duqaqűtu et ṣeḫḫerűtu, au sens de «petitesse» est illustrée par l’emploi de dq «petit» ŕ Ugarit (footnote 3: Déjŕ dans ma premičre traduction de RB, 1931, p. 35 ss.).”

 

durdű “goddess”

 

Secondary literature

 

Edzard 1961, 251 (CAD durdű): “S. 191 links: Die sumerische Herkunft von durdű ist zweifelhaft.”

 

durga(r)rű (a stool or chair)

 

Secondary literature

 

Driver 1960, 157 (CAD durgarű): “Why too is durgarű “chair set up (in position)”, as the Sumerian terms shows, translated “ornate chair”, although no idea of ornamentation is contained in the root?”

 

Salonen 1966, 97 (AHw durga(r)rű): “177b: durgarű «Sessel». Ursprünglich ist es ein Schemel, also ein Sitz ohne Rückenlehne, für Götter, dann für Könige. S. Salonen, Die Möbel, S. 75f.”

 

durgu “innermost, central part”

 

Secondary literature

 

Dhorme 1961, 160 (AHw durgu): “le sens propre de durgu, d’aprčs l’arabe, serait la partie la plus cachée, la vallée impénétrable.”

 

dú-ri-in4

 

Pentiuc 2001, 46f.; see turinnu.

 

durru (SB), ṭurru III (LB) “rectum, anus, rump”

only CAD: ṭurru D

 

Secondary literature

 

MacGinnis 2008, 85 (CAD ṭurru D): “ṭurru D: to the list of animals with marks branded on their rump, add the example of a donkey with the sign LÚ written on its neck and rump quoted sub tikku above.”

 

Stol 2010, 176 (CAD ṭurru D): “urru D: BM 40547 jetzt Weszeli, WZKM 87 (1997) 231.”

 

For the reading of this word as durru and ṭurru s. Streck 2009, 136-140.

 

durű s. ṭūru

 

dūru I “(city) wall, rampart”

 

Indices

 

SB AfO Bh. 32: BŔD WBA x 3’; WBC vi 5, 25, 77. ⌈BŔD⌉ WBA viii 31, 47, ix 30. ⌈BŔD⌉? WBC viii 64. BŔD.BŔD-šu ib. v 7. ⌈BŔD.BŔD⌉-šú WBA viii 15.

 

Secondary literature

 

Dhorme 1961, 160 (AHw dūru I; dūru II): “les homonymes dűru «enceinte, mur» et dűru «durée» sont rattachés a deux racines distinctes: dwr «entourer» et darű «ętre durable»; on remarquera les noms de personnes oů dűru «mur» intervient comme élément de protection divine, alors qu’en hébreu, c’est plutôt ṣűr «rocher» qui joue ce rôle.”

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD dūru A): “S. 192 ff., dūru. Auch CT 19, 38, K 11228, 6.”

 

Matouš 1964, 137 (AHw dūru I): “S. 178b: für du-rů (s. v. dūru I 6) lies nach AHw 295a gub-rů!.

 

dūru II “permanence”

 

For samān dūrim (AHw. 178 d. 2c) see here sāmānu: belongs to dūru “wall”.

MPS

 

Secondary literature

 

Matouš 1964, 132 (CAD dūru B): “S. 198a: zu eqlum dūrum in TCL 7, 16 s. Djakonov, EOS XLVIII1 52.”

 

durummu (a bird)

s. also turunnu I

 

duruššu “foundation (platform)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD duruššu): “S. 198 f., duruššu. Auch Meek, RA 17, S. 162, K 9133, 10.”

 

dusinnu (potential claimant)

s. also tusinnu

 

duššű “abundant, copious”

 

Secondary literature

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD duššű): “S. 199f., duššű. Auch id., ib. (s. Sec. lit. under duruššu – N. R.), S. 174, K 14889, 1.”

 

duššuptu “sweetness”

not in the dictionaries

 

OB lit. [li]bbī ītegram du-šu-up-ta⌉-ka CUSAS 10, 9: 8 “your sweetness coiled around my [hea]rt”.

MPS

 

dušű, duḫšu I “quartz, rock-crystal; untanned leather (?)”

 

Secondary literature

 

Aro 1971, 467 (AHw + duḫšű): “S.174b + duḫšum, vgl. ARM X 18, 6-7.12 (patinnu ša) du-uḫ-ši-im.

 

The form duḫšu (dú-uḫ-šu), currently known from an Old Babylonian text from Mari (Landsberger, JCS 21 (1969) 171; see also Aro 1971 above), occurs also in the lexical text Emar 6, 556: 18’, 20’ as a gloss to uq!-ni-tu4, a variant of uqniātu “blue(-green) wool”, and as an equivalent to ḫa-aš-ma-nu “(a coloured stone; coloured wool)”. duḫšu (Sumerian DUḪ.ŠI.A) in the meaning “untanned leather” could be compared with Hebrew táḥaš “eine nicht sicher bestimmbare Lederart z. Bedeckung d. Stiftshütte u. d. Geräte beim Transport” (Gesenius 1987, 1434b; see also Pentiuc 2001, 47; for derivation of the meaning “untanned leather” from the name of the mineral see Steinkeller, ZA 72 (1982) 249-50).

NR

 

dūtu “virility, manliness”

 

Secondary literature

Dhorme 1961, 160 (AHw dūtu): “noter encore dűtu au sens de «puissance génitale, virilité, etc.».”

 

Borger 1962, 253 (CAD dūtu): “S. 202 f., dūtu. Auch IV R 59, Nr. 2, Rs. 19 // LKA, Nr. 29k, Rs. 17 (du-ut-ka lu-mid/lu-mě-da zu lesen).”

 

duʾu I s. diʾu II

 

duʾu II (an unidentified structure); Ur III

not in the dictionaries

 

Ur III Garšana: n GÉME du-ú-um AK … AL.TAR KI.SÁ.A CUSAS 4, 239 “n workwomen having made a d. … (for) construction of the foundation terrace (of the brewery-kitchen-mill complex)”; n GÉME du-ú-um AK … AL.TAR É.LŮNGA É.MUḪALDIM ů É.KÍKKEN  CUSAS 4, 239 “n workwomen having made a d. … (for) construction of the of the brewery-kitchen-mill complex”; 1 GÉME du-ú-um KE4.DČ AL.TAR BŔD GUB.BA CUSAS 4, 240 “1 workwoman employed to make a d. for construction of the (enclosure wall)”. For further ref. s. CUSAS 4, 239ff. Cf. also Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 250. After Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 357, duʾu II (du-ú-um) the word is perhaps a spelling variant of diʾu III “wattle-and-daub screen (?)”.

NR

 

duʾʾumu “very dark”

 

Secondary literature

 

Edzard 1961, 251 (CAD duʾummu): “S. 203: Statt duʾummu ließ duʾʾumu. Zur Frage des gelängten Alif (ʾʾ) im Akkadischen s. unten S. 260 f. CAD erkennt weder ʾʾ noch jj an (CAD dajānu, AHw. dajjānu).

 

Duʾūzu “Tammuz”

only in AHw, CDA

 

Secondary literature

 

Edzard 1961, 251 (CAD D): “Hier und da vermißt man Verweise bei Wörtern, die (wider Erwarten) nicht unter D gebucht sind; wo sind dip/balű ,,Rechtsverdrehung” und der Monatsname duʾūzu behandelt?”

 

DuZ(Z)uru (a fabric); OB Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

DuZ(Z)uru is attested in the documents from Mari as Du-Zu-rum (M.6711+: 10’’; ARM 22, 324 iv 5, etc.); Du-Zu-ru (M.18229: 2); túgDu-Zu-ru (ARM 22, 110: 4).

Since DuZ(Z)uru often occurs in lists with equipment for animals (appatu “bridle”, naplastu “blinker”) and chariots (kammakku “a part of the chariot”), Durand 2009, 33f. assumes that DuZ(Z)uru is “une étoffe grossičre et solide <…> le tapis sur lequel reposait la selle (kussűm) de l’animal”.  Durand suggests to read tuṣṣuru “protection”. The noun pattern, however, would be difficult, and the form looks more like a PuRRuS noun.

NR