D


daʾāmu I, + dâmu “to become dark, dull”

G Var. dâmu: SB i-da-mu SpTU 1, 36: 2, s. D 2, below.

D 1. SB du-um ṣuḫḫum ALL no. 11 r. 11 “laughter is darkened(?)”.

2. SB du-ʾ-um i-da-mu : MUD : da-a-mu SpTU 1, 36: 2 (comm.) “it becomes very dark : MUD: to become dark”.

3. SB liptīya ú-da-i-mu ḫasīsīya iṣbatū diglīya umaṭṭű KAL 2, 8 (= KAR 80) r. 32 “(the demons) dulled my sense of touch, seized my hearing, and reduced my vision”, after Landsberger 1967, 148 (pace AHw 146 “meine Male machten sie noch dunkler”).

                                       JW (D), MPS (G, D)

daʾāmu II “to stagger, wander around”; + OAkk., OB

1. OAkk. (concerning the sheep of some city elder) [l]ā a-dú-mu-ni FAOS 19 Di 2 = MVN 3, 101: 15 “I am cer­tain­ly not going to run around”.

2. OB kīma DN ta-du⌉-um-mi ta-su-úr-ri CUSAS 10, 10: 47f. “like DN you stag­ger, you dance around”.

                                             JW (1), MPS (2)

daʾāpu, + deʾēpu “to push (away), struggle”; + OB, + NB

G 1. SB šumma immeru i-de4-e-ip Emar 6/4, 698: 3 “if the sheep strug­gles”.

2. NB DN [d]a?-ip ḫīṭ[āti] SAA 17, 87: 6 “DN, who pushes back cri[mes]”.

3. NA i-de-i-pi SAA 13, 27 r. 19 “he pushed (the case)(?)” (perf.).

4. NA issu libbi GN di-ʾ-[p]a kattemāšunu SAA 19, 183: 14 “push (the troops) away from GN (and) over­whelm them!”

D OB aššum ana GN alākiša iltu ú-da-ap-ši ARM 26/1, 222 no. 83: 13 “the goddess puts pressure on her because she went to GN”, s. Durand ib. p. 223 n. c.

N “to be knocked over”: NA ina muḫḫi akkussi ša šurinni ša šarru bēlī iqbűni mā asseme ramānša ta-ad-dip(// ta-ad-di-ip) šulmu adanniš SAA 13, 28 r. 12; 29 r. 4 “concerning the pole of the di­vi­ne emblem about which the king, my lord, said: ‘I have heard: ‘It was knock­ed over on its own accord’’, it is in ex­cellent condition” (taddîp < taddiʾip).

                                       JW (D), MPS (G, N)

dabābu I “speech, complaint”

1. OB da-ba-bi panam irtašī AbB 9, 156: 2 “a complaint against me has be­come apparent”.

2. OB d. purruku “to make a complaint” (Wilcke 1978, 209 n. 8): šumma da-ba-ba-am uparrak AbB 7, 86: 38 “if he raises any objections”, also AbB 11, 78: 17.

3. OB d. nussuqu “to look for trouble”: da-ba-ba-am lā tunassaqma AbB 13, 71: 12 “do not look for trouble”, s. van Soldt ib. n. b.                                                                  JW

dabābu II “to speak, talk”

G 1. OA ēkallum yâti i-da-ba-ba-ni VS 26, 56: 28 “the pa­lace is ar­guing with me(?)”, cf. GOA § 6.4.1.1 on atawwu.

2. OB āmur kīma PN libbam gamram ittīya i-dá-bu-bu FM 1, 61 A.2995+ M.14337: 14 “I see that PN speaks honest­ly with me”, cf. ARM 26/2, 64f. no. 307: 10; 308: 27.

3. OB pret. a-du-ub-bu-šum ARM 26/2, 254 no. 402: 28, cf. Joannčs ib. p. 255 e.

4. MB ana pan PN dayyāni id-bu-bu-ma MBLET 9: 5 “they argued their case before PN, the judge”.

**Gt s. Streck 2003a, 80.

Gtn 1. OB also with a instead of u in the last syllable:

a) OB lit. ti-da-ab-ba-a[b?] ZA 75, 202: 70 “talk repeatedly!”

b) OB ammīni atwâša lā tagmurma i-da-na-ba-ab AbB 7, 20: 11 “why haven’t you settled her matter? She complains all the time!”

2. OB ṭapāltīya ta-ad-da-na-bu-bi AbB 5, 138: 5 “you (f.) constantly speak scorn­fully of me”.

D 1. OA “to harrass, to call to account”: ana bēt kārem ušēribūni ú-dá-bi-bu-ni umma šunūma VS 26, 56: 5 “they made me enter the bēt kārem (and) called me to account, saying (…)”.

2. OB kayyān ú-da-ab-ba-ba-ni Shem­shara 1, 38: 7 “permanently he impor­tunes me”.

3. OB kīma du-ub-bu-ba-at īdēma Sumer 14, 51 no. 26: 5 “I know that the suit has been brought”, s. Goetze 1958, 51f.

4. OB du-bu-ub-šu la tamaṭṭī AbB 13, 114: 31 “do not desist concerning the com­plaint (against) him!”, s. Streck 1997, 144.

5. For general disc. s. Kouwenberg 1997, 100.

Š On sinništam šudbubu “to make a woman talk (in her sleep?)” s. Reiner 1990; Durand 2001, 128.

+ N LB perku itti PN ina panī bēliya id-da-bu-u[b] mamma perku ina panī bēliya ittīšu lā i-dab-bu-ub CT 22, 210: 8 “Slander is spoken against PN before my lord. Nobody shall speak slander against him before my lord!”

EZ (D), JW (Gtn, D, Š), MPS (G, Gtn, D, N), NJCK (G, D)

d/tab/padu s. dappātu

dabāqu “to join together”; NWSem. lw.

SB Ugar. uparriranni u ú-dáb-bi-qa-an-ni it-bu-ka-an-ni u īsipanni Oshima 2011, 210: 37 “he smashed me and join­ed me, he poured me out and col­lec­ted me”. Cf. AHw 1549 “zu­sam­men­fü­gen” with lit. The emendation of Ar­naud, AuOr. Suppl. 23, 111 and 114, to ú-tab-bi-la!-an-ni is unnecessary. Cohen 2013, 168 and 171, prefers a rea­ding utabbikanni “rendered me limp”. However, the text carefully dis­tin­guishes qa (also l. 39) and ka (besides it-bu-ka-an-ni in the next line also in ll. 1, 17, 20, 21, 44); moreover, ll. 37–41 all contain antithetical state­ments.

dabaru s. tabarru

**dabāru s. ṭapāru

+ dabdabu “a creeping(?) animal”; OB

Lex. ur-me = da-ab-da-bu-um UET 7, 93: 39 (after insects and before asqūdu “hamster(?)” or a snake). Sjöberg 1996, 228 connects the word with arab. dabba “to walk slowly, creep”.

dabdű, dawdű, dubdű “defeat; blood­shed”

1. OB da-aw-du-um damqiš [ša! G]N dīk ARM 26/2, 132 no. 357 r. 28 “[G]N was well defeated.”

2. SB miqittašunu dub-da-šú-nu u kamār­šunu lā išakkanū MesCiv. 13, 1: 73 “they will not bring about their col­lapse, defeat and annihilation”.

                                          JW (2), EZ/MPS (1),

+ dābibānu “gossipy person, plotter”; NA

[ša] ⌈da⌉-bi-ba-nu-ti le-p[u-šú] SAA 10, 240 r. 25 “(these) plotters should be afflicted!”, s. Parpola 1983a, 179.    JW

+ dabriš “aggressively”; OB

Lit. da-ab-ri-iš tazzazz[ī…] Ištar Louv­re vi 9 “you stand aggressively”.             JW

+ dabru II? “plague”; EA, NWSem. lw.

ina mūtān ina ⌈dáb⌉!?-ri EA 244: 32 (Moran 1992, 298f. with n. 5) “(con­su­med) by pestilence, by plague”.

                                                             MPS/NR

+ dabru III “plants, pasture”; OB, Amor. lw.

Lex. [d]a-ab-rum = ša-am-m[u] MARI 5, 412 BM 38590: 17 “pasture = grass” (synonym list of rare words (?)), cf. Aram. dabrā (Geller 1992, 206f.).

                                                             JW/MPS

dabű “bear”

Already Salonen 1959–60, 158 con­nected Akk. dabű with Egyptian db(j) “hip­po­potamus”. This interpretation is e­la­borated by Militarev/Kogan 2005, 95 who think that Sem. dabű/dabbu is related to Egyptian db(j) “hippo­po­ta­mus”, the Afrasian etymon having the ba­sic mng. “large animal”. Civil 1998, 11f., not quoting Salonen, assumed that the Sum. column of the equation dam/dím-šaḫ = da-bu-ú in Ḫḫ XIV 156f. (MSL 8/2) shows an Egypt. lw. for the crocodile (cf. Arab. timsāh), equated by the scribe with another river animal, the hippopotamus; therefore, ac­cor­ding to him, we should dis­tin­gu­ish two homophones in Akk., dabű “bear” and dabű “hippopotamus”.

However, the position of the entry in Ḫḫ, between hare and pig, makes the iden­ti­fication of dam/dím-šaḫ as “cro­co­dile” doutbtful. Moreover, it would be surprising if the scribe translated a foreign animal by another word foreign to Akk. The right column of Ḫḫ XIV ei­ther contains the normal Akk. cor­res­pon­dances of the Sum. words in the left column (including loans from Sum., Akkadianized by attaching the case end­ing), or literal translations of the Sum. phrases like pīl šadî “elephant of the mountain/east” Ḫḫ XIV 54 for Sum. am-si kur-ra. Finally, besides li­ving in the water, crocodile and hippo­po­tamus do not resemble each other. Therefore, the most likely inter­pre­ta­tion is still that of Landsberger 1934, 13 and 82: dam/dím-šaḫ means “simi­lar to a pig” (cf. muš-dam/dím- “similar to a snake” for the “gecko” Ḫḫ XIV 372), found in this position of the list be­cause the šaḫ “pig” section follows. Ac­cor­ding to Landsberger, nose and skin of bear and pig look similar. This inter­pretation is also favored by the Prac­ti­cal Vocabulary from Assur (vgl. MSL 8/2, 68), in which az “bear” in l. 372 is followed by dam-šaḫ in l. 373. This means that there is only a single word dabű “bear” in the Akk. lexicon.

dadānu, + tatānu “neck muscles”

1. Ur III? lex. ⌈sagú-ĝu10 = ta-ta-a-nu CUSAS 12 p. 156 vi 14 (Ugumu).

2. For the plant d. s. Simons 2017, 111f.: “Green-barked acacia (Vachellia Oerfota (syn. Nubica)(?))”.

3. Since UM 5, 137: 6 has the spelling di-a-da-a-nu-ú-a, AHw 148 analyzes the word as diadānu > dâdānu. The new ref. above, from a text which nev­er contracts /ia/ > /â/ (s. ra-bi-a-tum CUSAS 12 p. 155 v 18; e-pi-pi-a-tu-ú-a⌉ ib. iii 12), does not favor this ana­ly­sis. Therefore, the first syllable is ana­lyzed here with a short /a/. di-a-da- might a mistake.

daddaru “an ill-smelling plant, stink­weed”

1. OB lit. (you filled the mouth with bit­ter­ness) [x]-tu-šu īwī da-da-ar-šu Fs. Rei­ner 190: 29 “its […] became stink­weed” (for the suff. -šū(m) cf. GAG § 67g).

2. OB lit. da-da-ru-um BiOr. 75, 21: 3.

3. For etym. s. Kogan 2012, 234f.

                                            JW (1, 3), MPS (2)

daddu “sole”

Matouš 1964, 137: del. da-da-tum UCP 10, 141: 12 (AHw 149a), read id-da-tum (pl. fem. of iddu, coll. in CAD I 9a), s. AHw 364b.                                                                  EZ

daddu s. dadmu

dadmu, + daddu, pl. dadmū, + dadnū “vil­lages, settlements, land, the inhabited world”; Amorite lw.(?) (Streck 2001, 87f.)

1. Lex. da-ad-mu // da-ad-du // [d]a-ad-dum = mātu AOAT 50, 315: 191 (malku). There is no need to postulate, with Hrůša ib. p. 315 and 478, another new var. dattu.

2. In OB Mari, d. is always used in the sg. (but not exclusively: sg. also in the lex. ref. 5, below). According to Durand 1989d, 29–31; 1990a, 274f., d. refers to the area of Yamḫad (Aleppo), but the PN under 2, below, prob. shows that this is not always the case:

a) da-ad-mu-um [ka]lűšu u GN [ul] kűmma u mātkama FM 7, 21 no. 7: 25 (Durand 1989d, 30) “the whole ‘land’ and GN, are they not yours and your country?”, cf. ib. 20.

b) ištū da-ad-[m]i-im ana GN illikūnim FM 7, 18 no. 6: 9 “they will come from ‘the land’ to GN”, s. Durand 1989d, 31.

c) ḫa-al-la-tum ša ina da-ad-mi-im u GN sadrat illakam A.2237: 27 “the goats that are regularly in ‘the land’ and GN are coming here” (s. Durand 1987c, 171).

3. OB in PNN: Da-ad-mi-tum ARM 9, 291 iii 50, Da-ad-mi-im ib. iv 49 “Inhabitant of ‘The land’(?)” (Durand 1990a, 274: “Yamḫadean”, but actually a man from the clan of Niḫad, s. Streck 2000a, 87f.).

4. OB lit. x-DA da-ad-ni im-mātātu uddű binītaš Ištar Louvre v 36 “… the settle­ments have made known her stature in the lands”; for the var. dadnū cf. OECT 11, 1: 5, 9, 36 (Streck/Was­ser­man 2018, 34).

5. MB DN bēl da-ad-mi Emar 6/3, 373: 91; 380: 20; 381: 14; 382: 11 “DN, lord of the inhabited world”.

                                        JW (2–4), MPS (1–5)

dādu I “darling, favorite; uncle”

1. Mayer 2016, 198: OB lit. š[um]ma qašdat limqut ⌈da⌉-du-ša-a YOS 11, 87 (= ALL 26): 8 “if she is a qadištu, her lover shall fall”

2. OB lit. of babies in birth incan­ta­tions:

a) Mayer 2016, 198: kīma da-di-[im] šūṣī ramānka YOS 11, 86: 26 “like a darling, make yourself come out (from the womb)”.

b) da-du-um-mi da-du-um ukkupamma BiOr. 75, 22: 1 “o, beloved one! The be­loved one (the child) has drawn near”.

c) kīma da-di-im šulup ramānka CUSAS 32, 28: 17 “unsheath yourself like a darling”. For interpret. s. George ib. (d. as euphemism for penis), diff. Stol 2000, 11 (the d.-fish (dādu II) is meant, metaphorically emerging from water).

3. On d. in Gilg. in the context of love-making s. George 2003, 797.

4. Rarely “uncle” (Durand 1983c). Is this use a loan from Amorite (for d. in Amorite PNN s. Streck 2000a, 407)?

a) OB ana PN da-di-šu waššur ARM 21, 560 no. 414: 4 “he has been released to PN, his uncle”.

b) maḫar PN mār PN2 da-di-šu! ARM 8, 1: 41 “in the presence of PN, son of PN2, his uncle”.

c) Lambert 1995, 136: The mng. of d. in OAkk. (and perhaps also in younger) PNN (s. di Vito 1993, 199) is unclear: “uncle” or “beloved one”.

5. Del. CT 37, 3: 63 and read it-ti (RIME 4, 377: 70) (Mayer 2016, 198, but read OB instead of OAkk.).

                                    JW (1, 4–5), MPS (2–4)

dādu II “a fish”

OB šumma šulmum kīma da-di-im ARM 26/1, 66 no. 3: 21 “if the cleft is like a d. fish”.

dādu s. also dīdu.

dadurru, dudurru s. tutturru

dagālu “to see, look”

G 1. OA “to watch, look at”:

a) (I have quarrelled with him) ṣuḫārūka i-da-gu5-lu AKT 6B, 350: 16 “(while) your servants were watching”.

b) ṣīt ṣubātē u kaspem du-gu5-ul CCT 3, 2b: 25 (= OAA 1, 16) “observe the departure of the textiles and the silver”.

c) maḫīram lā ta-dá-ga-al kt 92/k 428: 19 “you are not keeping an eye on the market” (s. Erol 2015, 92).

d) u kuʾāti šunātim i-da-gu5-lu-ni-ku-um kt n/k 650: 20 “and as to you, peo­ple are seeing dreams about(?) you”, i.e. are seeing you in their dreams (s. S. Çeçen/L. G. Gökçek 2017, 466).

2. OA “to watch, look at” with sen­ten­ti­al object: “to see that”, with -ma and more rare­ly kīma:

a) šumma ta-da-ga-lá-ma ana ṣubātē kaspam ina GN ibaššī KTH 13, 41 “if you see that in GN there is silver (to be obtained) for textiles”.

b) lā ta-da-ga-al kīma kaspum mādum­ma ina ēkallem ḫalqīni Sadberk no. 10: 20 “do you not see that I have lost a lot of silver in the palace?” (Donbaz 1999, 21).

3. OA with kīma “to regard as”: kīma aḫe[m u ebrem] a-da-ga-al-[kŕ] AKT 4, 36: 9 “I regard you as a partner and colleague”.

4. OA “to look at s.o. with in­dif­fer­en­ce”: mīššu ša aḫūkunu ištū 2 šanat mar­ṣū­ma u ta-dá-ga-lá-[š]u-ni CCT 3, 3b: 7 (= OAA 1, 33) “how is it possible that your (pl.) brother has been ill for 2 years and that you are (just) looking at him?” (sim. TC 3, 94: 35 = OAA 1, 15).

5. OA “to pay attention to, to count on”:

a) ibissāʾēʾa lā ta-dá-ga-al TC 3, 39: 13 “do not consider my losses” (sim. AKT 6A, 75: 62).

b) tappāʾēka lā ta-da-gal CTMMA 1, 94 no. 72: 33 “do not count on your partners”.

c) ana aklem u šikrem lā i-da-gal CCT 4, 28a: 33 “let him not be intent on bread and beer!”. S. also Prag 607: 13 (ta-<<ag>>-da-ga-lá-ni).

6. OA “to look to s.o. for support” (+ ana, but some or all of these instances may belong to takālu + dative “to trust”): ana mannie šanīʾem a-da-gal Prag 468: 3 “to whom else can I look?” (and pass.).

7. OA “to wait for, to expect” (+ ana or acc.):

a) a person: annākam du-ug-lam TPAK 1, 57: 32 “wait here for me!” S. also CCT 3, 35b: 23; AKT 3, 88: 53.

b) an asset or a commodity: awīlum ana erbem i-da-gal kt n/k 388: 24 (Gün­battı 1996, 31) “the man is ex­pec­ting a present (or: bribe)”. S. also CCT 2, 1: 8; CCT 4, 10a: 23 (= OAA 1, 44); CCT 3, 7a: 11 (= OAA 1, 50); CUSAS 34, 10: 24f.; VS 26, 56: 16.

8. OA “to claim as a surety, to lay a claim on, to hold liable, to call to ac­count” (s. Bayram/Veenhof 1991/2, 94; Veenhof 2001, 129):

a) “to claim as a surity, to lay a claim on”: ana kaspem annīʾem bētam ṣuḫār­tam u amtam i-da-gal BIN 4, 190: 8 “for that silver he will have a claim on the house, the young woman and the slave-girl”. S. also AKT 10, 23A: 19; AKT 10, 24A: 14; Prag 837: 23, 30.

b) “to hold s.o. liable, to call to ac­count”: ilū annīʾūtum … i-da-gu5-lu-kŕ Fs. Larsen, p. 253 kt 00/k 6: 89 “these gods … will call you to account”.

c) “to own” (?): (why do you (sg.) keep sto­ring straw and wood in [my?] house?) bētātēkunu lā ta-da-ga-la BIN 6, 119: 21 “do you (pl.) not have hou­ses of your own?” (but perhaps rather: “will you not consider your own hou­ses?”).

9. OA ana panē … dagālum: tamkārum ana panīya i-da-gal AKT 6B, 322: 24 “the merchant is relying on me” (tr. M. T. Larsen, or: “waiting for me”?).

10. OB ina ⌈da⌉-gal tuppikunu AbB 5, 239: 28 “while looking at your tablets”.

11. MB “to own”: ina libbi ša ta-da-ga-lu … 2 puḫādē šūbila CUSAS 30, 23: 18 “send me 2 lambs from what­ever you own”. Cf. van Soldt, ib. p. 66.

12. For PNN of the type Panī-DN-adaggal s. Mayer 1985, 485f. n. 5.

13. SB ana Ezida uzammī sippī lalę dag-ga-li SAA 3, 12: 7 “I have longed for Ezida, to behold the door-jambs of delight” (inf. dagāli).

14. SB Adapa … da-gíl-ki (var. [da-g]i-il-, da-gil-) ina Eridu inaṭṭalki kâši Lamaštu II 23 (Farber 2014, 99) “Adapa … who can see you, in Eridu will have a close look at you”.

15. SB i-dag-gal Gilg. SB II 46 re­places inaṭṭal u ippallas Gilg. OB II 88.

16. NA perf. ina muḫḫi šēpī it-ta-gal SAA 16, 20 r. 4 “he looked at the feet”; for ittagal instead of iddagal cf. the comm. of Luukko/van Buylaere ib. p. 14.

17. LB adi muḫḫi suluppē panīya du-gu-ul panīka kī a-di-gu-ul mimma ina qatīka ul āmur OECT 12, A 135: 11f. “‘wait for me until the dates (come)!’ After I had waited for you, I did not see anything from your hands”.

Gt intensive to G, s. ref.s. cit. AHw s.v. and CAD D s.v. dagālu 2c 2’. S. Streck 2003a, 65 for disc.

                     NJCK (G), JW (G, Gt), MPS (G)

+ dāgiltu “look-out”; SB

ēbiltu u da-gi-il-tum MesCiv. 13, 1: 107 “the bird-catchers and the look-outs (who leave this city daily)”. For fem. collective nouns of this type s. Lambert ib. p. 144.            JW

dāgilu “sighted, observer”

1. MB da-gi-il-ia nakru ileqqē KAL 5, 2 r. 5 (omen apod.) “the enemy will take my obser­vers away”, cf. ib. 10 and 63 r. 3.

2. MA in personell lists:

a) 3 LÚmeš da-gi-lu, KAJ 180: 1 “3 ‘seeing’ men”.

b) PN da-gi-lu BATSH 18, 3: 13 “PN, the ‘blind man’”, s. ib. p. 77. Usually written logogr. (IGI.NU.DU8, s. BATSH 18 p. 336 for ref.).

c) The terms d. and lā d. are used to differentiate between skilled and un­skil­led wor­kers (Garelli/Charpin/Du­rand 1982).

3. NA da-gíl iṣṣūr[ē] SAA 9, 2 iii 2 “observer of birds” (in broken context), s. McEwan 1980, 63 + n. 31 for ref. and disc. (Hittite origins, imported in MA period). JW (1–2), MPS (3)

+ dagnātu? “grain, cereal”; Emar, NW­Sem. lw.

[ū]mi da-ag-⌈na⌉-[ti?] Emar 6/3, 455: 9 “day of the grain(?)”, s. Pentiuc 2001, 43.          MPS/NR

daḫru “fierce”

SB 12 nēšū erî namri zīmē da-aḫ-ru-ti RINAP 3/1, 121 vi 75 (Senn.) “12 strid­ing lions of shining copper (and) fierce demeanor”, s. Frahm 1997, 85.

                                                             JW/MPS

daḫtu s. diʾ(a)tu

daḫű I “pressed (in)”; + NA

A.ŠŔ NUMUN da-ḫi-i BATSH 6, 107: 3 “field with pushed in seeds (?)”, other­wise A.ŠŔ (ŠE).NUMUN.

                                                                     JW

daḫű II “to beat, press down”, + NA/SB

mātu ana māte lid-ḫu-šú-nu(-ti) SAA 2, 2 r. v 11 “may one country beat them (PN and his soldiers) into (another) country”.

dāʾiku “murderer”; + OA

1. OA šumma dāmu ina mātika ittabšī dá-i-kē lū taddunūniʾātima lū nidukku Bil­giç 1992, 65 kt n/k 794: 9 “if there is bloodshed in your land, do give the mur­der­ers to us and we shall kill them”.

2. SB rašbu da-i-ku lemn[ūtī] KAL 2, 12: 14 “fearsome one, killer of the evil ones”.    JW

daʾīmu “spear, lance”

SB ušṭīb šaptīya kī da-ʾi-i-mi ašṭā Ludlul I 117 “I sweetened my lips but they were hard as a lance”, s. Oshima 2014, 219 pace George/al-Rawi 1998, 201 who take the word to be derived from daʾāmu.          JW

**dāʾiṣu “arrogant”

Von Soden 1960, 489 ad CAD D 27: read da-wu-ú!-um, from dāwű “Tau­melnder” (AHw 166). EZ

**daʾiš “toward” (CAD D 27)

The OAkk. ref. (Rīmuš) and RA 46, 94: 9 (OB Anzu III) read DA- for idiš, s. RIME 2, 68: 17. In Agušaya read with AHw 1340 tāʾiš from tāʾu “inner room”.

dāʾišu “thresher”

1. Lex. lú-še-bad-da = da-i-šu Emar 6/4, 542: 247 (Ḫḫ). Cf. lú-še-bad(-da) = pētű MSL 5, 77: 338.

2. OB ÁB.GUDḫi.a da-i-i[š]-ti AbB 7, 170: 6 “threshing cow”, sg. ÁB.GUDḫi.a da-i-iš-tam ib. 10; cf. GUDḫi.a da-i-šu-ti AbB 7, 3: 28; cf. AbB 11, 86: 24; JCS 24, 61 no. 53 r. 5; cf. GUDḫi.a mu-di-ša!-tim YOS 12, 421: 2, s. Stol 1995b, 184f.

                                                JW (2), MPS (1)

dakāku I “to crush”, D “to wear out”; + OB

D OB (I brought the drum safely to GN) alűm ṣābam kalâšu ud-da-ak-ki-ik ARM 26/1, 132 no. 20: 15 “(carrying) the drum wore out my entire troop”. Less likely Heimpel 2003, 187: “kept hopping”, deriving the form from dakāku II “to gambol”, for which no D stem is attested so far.

dakāku II “to gambol, scamper; to make (a joyous) noise”

G 1. Mayer 2016, 198: Lex. gů-dé-a = da-ka-ka Or. 74, 160: 29.

2. Mayer 2016, 199: SB šumma gušūru issīma giš[…]-nu issű i-da-ak-ku-ku Or. 40, 133 no. 44: 3 “if a beam creaks and the wooden […] creak (and) make noise, (you gather dirt from the beams)”, s. Caplice ib. p. 134 (“to make a joyous noise”).

3. Del. a) Antagal F 241 (read ⌈ra⌉-qŕ-⌈du⌉ after MSL 17, 219; s. Mayer 2016, 198).

b) RA 36, 112: 11 (cit. CAD D 34a), read I-da-ma-<ra>-aṣ (coll. ARM 26/1, 133).       JW

dakāšu, +dakāsu “to pierce, become severed, bulge”

G 1. Lex. da-ka-šu = kanāšu AOAT 50, 387: 128B (malku) “to press in = to bow down”. Cf. Hrůša ib. 245.

2. SB šumma martu ana imitti/šumēli da-ki-is-ma u di-ki-sŕ kami Emar 6/4, 669: 23f. “if the gall bladder is severed to the right/left and its severed part is attached”. Cf. da-ki-is ib. 21f.

3. On d. in math. texts “to extend for­ward every­where (by a given fraction)” s. Friberg/Hunger/al-Rawi 1990, 488ff.

4. NA martudak-šat SAA 4, 320 r. 5 “the gall bladder is swollen”.

Gt s. Jeyes 2000, 365, 367; Streck 2003a, 73.

D 1. OB lit. du-uk-ku-šu CUSAS 18, 31: 12 “(if the intestines) are bulged”.

2. OB lit. šumma rēš rēʾîm du-uk-ku-ša CUSAS 18 p. 296: 15 “if the head of the shepherd bulges in several places”.

                                  JW (G, Gt), MPS (G, D)

dakkannu, dukkannu “dais, platform; bedroom, private quarters”

1. The ref. cit. CAD T 74 s.v. takkannu B belongs here: širku ana muḫḫi dak-kan-ni-šú ittalku u liginnī ultaqab­bű ḫīṭu ša šarri išaddad YOS 19, 110: 7 “if a temple slave goes to his (PN’s) bed­room, and he lets him recite the ex­cerpt tablets, he (PN) will bear the pu­nish­ment of the king”, s. Beaulieu 1992, 101–103; George 2003, 303 n. 22; AOAT 414/1 p. 134.

2. Cf. Hebr./Aram. dukkān(/ā), s. Dietrich 2001a, 77.

3. For Gilg. MB Ur 22 (CAD T 74 takkannu A a) cf. dinnű(tu).

                                            JW (1–2), MPS (3)

dakkassu s. takkassu

dakšiu s. takšiʾu

dâku “to kill, beat”

G 1. OA awāta d. “to clear up an affair”: šumma ištē PN awātam i-du-uk ṣuḫāram ištēn lā tabeʾʾel uznī pitē(ma) AKT 1, 16: 18 “if he has cleared up the affair with PN, do not economize on just one servant and inform me!”

2. OA ina idīnim i-du-ku-šu (s. CAD D 40 2b 1') s. AKT 10 p. 46 with further ref. and disc.

3. OA tuppam d. “to break (a tablet)” (also figuratively) s. Veenhof 1987, 46ff.; Michel 1995, 19f.

4. OB ʿayra dâku instead of ʿayra qatālu: ḫa-a-ri [i]ttī Ḫurrāyī i-du-uk ARM 28, 66: 7 “he killed donkey foals with the Ḫurraeans”.

5. OB ina qanîm i-du-ku-šu ARM 26/2, 292 no. 413: 22 “they killed him with a reed”.

6. OB akalam ina berîkunu napištam a-da-ak ARM 26/2, 193 no. 380 r. 16 “I will let you hunger for bread and let (you) die”.

7. OB PN akalam u šikaram imšuʾ u 1 warad ēkallim adī napištim i-du-uk ARM 27, 56: 22 “PN took away bread and beer and he killed (lit. killed until (the end of) life) 1 slave of the palace”.

8. OB PN ana niqim ṣuḫārī wardīka ana da-ki-im ušēṣűšuma FM 8, 110 no. 32: 7 “they brought him out to kill (him) to avenge the boys, your ser­vants”.

9. OB lit. “to beat”: i-du-ka-an-ni-ma ana bābim uštāṣânni CUSAS 10, 17: 29 “he beat me and drove me out through the gate”; i-du-ka-an-ni šalam­tī iddī ib. 35 “he beat me and threw away ‘my corpse’”.

10. OB in transferred mng. “to harass, disrupt, to beat up(?)” (s. CAD D 39):

a) ana palgīya petęm alikma u yâtini i-du-ka-ni AbB 9, 227: 25 “I went to open my canals, but then he ‘killed’ me”, cf. further ref. AbB 9, 259: 18; 255: 10 (ana da-ak-ki-šu), ib. 15.

b) awīlū annűtum i-du-ku-ni-i[n-ni] FM 2, 112 no. 71 r. 3 “those men ‘killed’ me”.

c) PN maṣṣarī i-du-kam AbB 13, 4: 2’ “he ‘killed’ PN, my guard”.

d) epēšum annűm damiqkum ša tušāḫizuma nukarippam i-du-ku AbB 12, 166: 8 “does this behavior seem right to you, that you gave instructions to ‘kill’ my gardener?”

11. OB sarabu[m] panīya i-da-ak ARM 26/1, 432 no. 203: 8 “cold is beating my face”.

12. SB šumma immeru uzun imittišu ana šumēlišu i-dá-ak Emar 6/4, 698: 16 “if a sheep – its right ear beats in the di­rection of its left (ear)”. Cf. i-da-ak ib. 18.

13. NB lā di-ka-nu-ma mārūna ana maškanūtu ṣabtū SAA 17, 152 r. 18 “we have not been killed, but our sons are being held as hostages”.

14. LB “to cut down (trees, dates)”:

a) (carpenters enter the forest) ana da-ku ša ḫuṣābu kuburru u ūrē JCS 28 no. 7: 20 “in order to cut trees, saplings, and branches”, s. van Driel 1992, 172.

b) raṭbu … ul i-da-ka-a TMH 2/3, 135: 21 “he(!) will not strike off the fresh (date palms)”.

Gt “to fight” (CAD D 42, 7; CAD T 396 s.v. tidūku A and **B), s. Streck 2003a, 23:

1. OB eqlam amkurma ti-du-ku AbB 7, 55: 5 “I irrigated the field, but they are fighting”; ṣuḫārum ti-du-ku-um-ma ul illikam ib. 12 “the lad is quarrelling (with me) and did not come”.

2. OB anāku ittī PN ti-du-ku-ú ad-da-ak OBTR 121: 13 “must I fight with PN?”

+ Gtn SB (šumma ṣēru) nammašti bīt amēli ⌈id⌉-da-na-ak KAL 1, 9 iii 9 “if a snake keeps killing the animals in a man’s house”.

             JW (G, Gt, Gtn), MPS (G), NJCK (G)

dalāḫu “to disturb, stir up”

G 1. OB lit. ta-⌈ad⌉-lu-uḫ māmī RB 59 = Fs. Reiner 190: 30 “you stirred up water”.

2. OB DN aššum enētišuma [da]liḫtam annītam id-lu-uḫ ARM 10, 123: 12 “DN stirred up this trouble because of his priestesses”.

3. OB PN ša ana da-la-aḫ māt bēliya izzīzu ARM 13, 146: 5 “PN, who was ready to disturb my lord’s land”.

4. SB Ugar. dal-ḫat-e-re-tum (sandhi) ORA 7, 208: 5 “the omens are con­fused”.

5. SB qerbīya id-lu-ḫu ORA 14, 88: 65 “they stirred up my belly”.

6. SB in med. texts (said of eyes) s. Scurlock/Andersen 2005, 186, 712 n. 7.

7. NB mannu ina libbišunu ša lumnu ana PNf ippušma i-dal-lŕḫ-šú dubsar 7, 2: 17 “anyone among them who does evil against PNf and troubles her”, cf. ib. p. 117.

8. NA in koppelung “to hurry”: ad-da-lŕḫ addiris SAA 10, 235 r. 14 “I quickly erased(?)” (s. darāsu). This mng. is otherwise attested for dalāḫu D (s. CAD D 45 d. 3b).

9. NA PNf mītat u aḫū-ku da-li-iḫ SAA 19, 144: 15 “PNf is dead and your brother is troubled”.

D 1. OA PN bētī ú-da-lu-ḫu AKT 5, 31: 4 “(I hear that) PN is troubling my household”, cf. CCT 2, 33: 10.

2. OB appiš māt GN da-al-ḫu lu-da-[a]l-li-iḫ-šu-nu-ti-ma ARM 13, 146: 22 “since the country of GN is in con­fusion, I want to (further) confuse them (and return them to my lord)”.

3. SB ú-dal!-liḫ-ši-na-ti KAL 1, 11: 33 “([if a snake] falls on top of [weavers]) and disturbs them”, cf. ú-dal-li-iḫ-ši-na-tě KAL 1, 14 ii 15.

N 1. OB inanna mātum it-ta-ad-la-aḫ ARM 28, 61: 6 “now the country has been thrown into confusion”.

2. OB lit. it-ta-ad-la-aḫ ṭēmī PBS 1/1, 2 iii 117 “my reason has been disturbed”.

Ntn 1. OB GN u GN2ina bīrišunu it-ta-ad-la-ḫu-ú-ma ARM 26/2, 79 no. 315: 81 “GN and GN2 were in con­stant con­fusion amongst them­selves”.

2. OB lit. šumma it-ta-na-ad-la-aḫ YOS 11, 15: 21 “if he is constantly trou­bled”.

JW (G, D, N, Ntn), MPS (G, N, Ntn), NJCK (D)

dalālu I “to be small”

D “to oppress”: Lex. dul-lu-lu = ḫabālu AOAT 50, 387: 134 (malku) “to oppress = to do wrong”.

dalālu II “to praise, proclaim”

G 1. OB šarram ayyęm id-lu-lu u suqat mātim ayyītim ilputū ARM 26/2, 317 no. 423: 46 “which king have they prai­sed, which countries’ chin have they touched (i.e. to whom have they shown solidarity)?” For further Mari ref. s. Joannčs ib. p. 318 n. h.

2. SB Ugar. ša da-la-li Marduk ORA 7, 208: 25’ “Marduk is to be praised”.

+ D Mayer 2016, 199: SB dannūtki lu-da-lil LKA 18: 7 “I shall praise your strength”; cf. [ú?]-da-lil K.2025+: 18.

                                          JW (G, D), MPS (G)

dalāpu I “to stir up, keep sleepless, be restless”

G 1. OB aššum ina šūlîm lā i-da-al-li-pu ARM 14, 28: 15 “so that they will not get tired while lifting”, s. Durand 2000, 147 and FM 8, 76 no. 20.

2. OB ina šitappur[-im/-ša] i-da-al-pa-an-n[i…] AbB 5, 195: 14 “[she?] kept me sleepless through [her] persistent writing”.

3. OB ummānum lā da-al⌉-pa-at CUSAS 36, 64: 29 “the work force shall not be harassed”.

4. OB lit. ta-ad-da-li-ip mušēniqtam OECT 11, 2: 10 “you have kept the wet-nurse awake”.

5. OB lit. adī birkāšuma zībiš i-da-li-p[a] Iraq 78, 243: 5 “until his knees become restless like a vulture/jackal”.

6. NA bēt mardīʾāti ša sisęka di-lip alka SAA 19, 194: 8 “travel ceaselessly along the road stations with your horses!”

7. LB lū mādu ana muḫḫi di-⌈il⌉-pu AOAT 414/1, 221: 19 “take care of the matter without rest!”, cf. di-lip-ma ib. 201: 14.

8. On the mng. “to keep sleepless, ex­hausted” s. MSL 9 p. 85f. In the con­text of watching over the sick, s. Villard 2006, 147 with ref.

Š 1. SB Ugar. šu-ud-lu-pa-k[u] ORA 7, 208: 23 “I was made worried”.

2. NA anḫākuma šá-ad-da-lu-pu-ka lāniya SAA 9, 9: 15 “I am worn out and my body is exhausted for your sake”.              JW (G), MPS (G, Š)

**dalāpu II

Von Soden 1960, 489: del. dalāpu B (CAD D 49), ta-da-lip AMT 18, 9: 4 is to be emended to ta-ša!-paḫ.            NR

dalbānu, dulbānu “intervening space, corridor”

1. Weidner 1959–1960, 155: SB ana dul-ba-an-ni kī ērubu JCS 42, 95 no. 9: 7 “when I entered the corridor”.

2. NA du-lu-ba-ni SAA 15, 283: 7.

                                                 MPS (2), EZ (1)

dalḫu “troubled, disturbed”; + OB

1. OB [da]-li-iḫ-tam ARM 10, 123: 12, cf. dalāḫu G 2, above.

2. OB awâtim da-al-ḫa-tim lā immarū ARM 14, 103 r. 16 “they shall not see confused things”.

3. OB ur lů-lů (var. lu-lu, ě/al-lu-lu) = kalbum da-al-ḫu-um Fs. Wilcke p. 142 (BT 9) 11 “disturbed dog” (list of in­sults), s. Klein ib. p. 146.                                                                  JW

dalīlu, dilīlu “praise; propaganda”

1. OB di-li-li-ki ludlul AbB 13, 164: 18 “I will sing your praises”. This var. is otherwise only attested in M/NA; but cf. da-li-li ib. 15.

2. NA ša 80 ṣābi ina libbišunu kappīšunu sapsapīšunu aššīma ana da-li-li undešširšunūti BagM 21 p. 344 no. 2 ii 9 “I took the hands and lips from 80 of their men and then released them to (spread our) reputation.” S. disc. Cavigneaux/Ismail ib. p. 353f. with further ref.; s. also Mayer 2016, 199f.

                                                                     JW

dallālu “frog(?)”

On dal-la-li in Gilg. VI 76 s. disc. George 2003, 838: “dwarf(?)”.        JW

+ dallāwu “water drawer”; OB

400 ṣābum [d]a-al-la-wu ša ālānī MARI 6, 288 A.2796: 13 “400 men, wa­ter drawers from the towns”; cf. dālű.  JW

dallu “small, stunted”

OB ṣābašu damqam iklāma ṣābam da-al-la-am!(text: i) ana ṣērini iṭrudamma MARI 6, 338: 70 “he has held back his good troops and sent the mediocre troops towards us” (coll. Durand 1998, 149 n. 340). For the opposition dallu : damqu cf. Durand ib. p. 153 ad AbB 14, 21: 9–11.                                        JW/MPS

daltu “door”

1. Lex. MIN (= gi)-ig-izi-lá = da-la-at gizillę Emar 6/4, 546: 11 (Ḫḫ) “door with(?) torch”.

2. OB lit. siparra retītān da-al-ta-an MesCiv. 7, 198: 49 “the fixed double doors were made of bronze”.

3. OB lit. da-la-at šīrim CUSAS 18, 12: 27; da-al-tum ša šīrim ib. 82 “door of flesh”.

4. SB epušma gišIG ša 6 NINDAN mēlűša 2 NINDAN rupussa 1 KŮŠ upűša šukűša sāḫirša u šagammaša ša ištēnma Gilg. SB V 295 “make a door the height of which is 6 rods (30m), the breadth of which is 2 rods (12m), the thickness of which is 1 cubit (50cm), the pole, lower pivot and upper pivot of which are of a single (piece)!”

5. Borger 1970, 11: in MDP 10, 91 iv 2 (AHw 154 d. 4, CAD D 55 d. 2) read ri-ta; del. the mng. sluice gate”.

6. NA “single ‘leaf’ of hinged writing-board”, cf. SAA 7, 49–50, s. Stol 1998, 343f.

7. LB gišIG šamę Nbn. 1121: 12 (cf. Cam. 415: 9) “(curtain for) the ‘door of heaven’”, i.e. a special chapel or cham­ber in Babylonian temples (Zawadzki 2006, 135f.). JW (5–7), MPS (1–5)

dâlu I “to move, roam around, circle”; + EA, + MA

G 1. OB panīšu āmurma kīma da-lu-um-ma i-da-al awātam kīʾam aqbī­šum­ma anākuma mīnam ta-da-al ARM 26/2, 221 no. 391: 50–52 “I saw his face, and when he was indeed changing (his mind), I spoke to him as follows: ‘Why do you change (your mind)?’”. Cf. da-lu-um-ma a-da-al MARI 6, 272 M.6669: 12.

2. MA 2 Sūtī[ʾū] … ina ḫuribte ina libēte GN i-du-⌈lu⌉ BATSH 4, 13: 22 “2 Suteans … were roaming the desert in the vicinity of GN”.

3. NA kī libbika du-ú-lu SAA 1, 1: 53 “move around as you please!”

4. NA issīya i-du-la SAA 1, 171: 26 “he moves around with me”.

5. NA ina qabsi GN i-du-u-lu SAA 1, 154 r. 4 “they roamed about in GN”.

6. In transferred mng. “to walk around s.o.” = “to beg for s.th.”: NA mušarki­sānī idātūʾa i-du-lu tibnu ana aṣappī laššu SAA 5, 119: 7 “the recruitment officers are now ‘running around me’ (because) there is no straw for the pack animals.”

D 1. OB ištū kaspam ilqīʾam du-ul-ma adī inanna ṣibűssu ul īpuš AbB 8, 102: 12 “since he received the silver, he has been restless and he has not executed his plan until now”; du-ul-la-a-ku ib. 37 “(the palace has moved my home and) I am unsettled”.

2. EA ti-da-lu-na, s. Moran 1992, 184 n. 11:

a) [u] annű mārū PN [ti]-da!-lu-na amīlī GN [kīma kal]bī EA 109: 48 “[but] now the sons of PN make men from GN prowl about [like do]gs”.

b) u ti-da-lu-na ḫazanna ša yurraduka ina kītti EA 114: 65 “they make a mayor who serves you with loyalty prowl about”; pace CAD D 59b an emendation to ti-da-<ga>-lu-na is not ne­ces­sary.

Š 1. NA/SB narkabātīkunu ana qinniš lu-šá-di-(il-)lu SAA 2, 6: 575 “may they make your chariots run back­wards”.

2. NA/SB kī allutti ana qinniš lu-šá-di-lu-ku-nu SAA 2, 6: 620 “may they make you run backwards like a crab”.

             NR (G, D), MPS (G, D, š), JW (G, D)

**dâlu II “to watch carefully”

Von Soden 1960, 489: del. dâlu B (CAD B 59b). ABL 248: 14 read with SAA 10, 329 [ma!]-a di-il-pa⌉! is-si-šú. ABL 724 r. 8 read with SAA 13, 18 me-di-li “pickled meat”. EZ/MPS

dalű I, dālu “bucket”

1. NA [bīt] da-la-a-ni CTN 2, 64: 9 “field irrigated (by drawing water) with buckets”, s. disc. Bagg 2000, 107ff. Cf. bīt dālu in LB (CAD D 57).

2. LB ina da-a-lu idall[u] CunMon. 20B, 23: 4 “he will water (the field) with a bucket”.

3. LB pl. dugda-la-né-e dubsar 7, 40: 9.

4. S. Gaspa 2007, 163 for general disc.

                                                                     JW

dalű II “to draw water, hoist”; + MA

G LB i-da-l[u] CunMon. 20B, 23: 4, s. dalű I.

+ N MA said of barley: ana elîš id-da-al-lu BATSH 9, 87: 14 “will be hoisted up”, s. Freydank 2010, 99.              JW

+ dalű III (mng. unkn.)

SB lā id-li-ʾ (var.: id-lu-ʾ, id-li-ʾ-ú) kalbu ṣalmu Farber 1990, 315: 10 “(may they draw water where no un­clean woman has washed her hands, no tabooed woman has washed her clothes, no cave bird has flapped its wings,) no black dog has …-ed”, s. Farber ib. p. 316 n. 60. S. Arab. ṭalaʿa “aufsteigen, hinaufklettern” Wehr 1985, 780?             JW/MPS

dālű “water drawer”

In MB ration lists s. Sassmannshausen 2001, 107f. JW

dalūtu s. daluwātu

dalūwātu, + dalīwātu, pl. tant. “field irrigated by means of drawing water”; OB

1. Early OB (sesame) šu da-li-wa-těm ARM 19, 393: 3 “from a field irrigated by drawing water”.

2. OB ugār mēreštim u da-lu-wa-tum ša GN rapšā ARM 26/1, 349 no. 171: 16 “the planted field and the field watered by drawing water of GN are wide”.                JW (1), MPS (2)

damāmu “to wail, to moan, to sob”

G 1. OA ašša kaspum lā imḫurinnima ana ālem lā attalku iṣṣēr luqūtiya a-dá-mu-um CCT 6, 14: 47 “shall I moan over my goods, because no silver has reached me and I have (therefore) not (yet) left for the City?”.

2. OB lit. [d]u-um-ma-šu-mabitkī⌉ UET 6/2, 395: 2 “lament for him, sob”, cf. du-ma-šu-um-ma ib. 4 (Lambert 1990). Further ref. s. PBS 1/1, 2 iii 99f. (Lambert 1989).

3. SB anenna summātu da-me-me-tum Šūpę-amēli 122 “where are the wailing doves?”

4. SB [nīšī āšibūt? B]⌈abilii-⌈da⌉-mu-mu summiš KAL 3, 74 b 8 “[the in­hab­i­tants(?) of] Babylon were wai­ling like doves”.

5. SB ana amēlūti da-ma-ma īzib Lamaštu I 169 (Farber 2014, 88) “for man­kind she has left behind mourn­ing”.

6. Said of a pig: SB šumma šaḫű ina tarbaṣišu i-dam-mu-um SpTU 3, 94: 109 “if a pig moans in its pen”.

+ D SB kīma summ(at)iú⌉--am-m[i-im] Gilg. Megiddo r. 14 “he sobbed like a dove”; cf. George 2003, 347.

Š OB lit. iṣarraḫ ⌈la-al⌉-la-ra-ma ú-ša-[a]d-ma-am rēma PBS 1/1, 2 ii 91 “he la­ments as a mourner, he institutes mourn­ing for mercy”, s. Lambert 1989, 326, 335.

+ R OB lit. tarṣā kappāya da-ma-am-ma-a-ma CunMon. 8, 112: 79 “my two palms are stretched out, wailing”.

                 JW (G, Š, R), NJCK (G), MPS (G, D)

damāqu “to be(come) good”

G OA stat. also “to be financially sound”: šumma tadaggalāma PN da-mě-iq … ṣabtāšuma kaspam šašqilā­šu­(ma) TPAK 1, 29: 10 “if you see that PN is financially sound, seize him … and make him pay the silver!”

D 1. OAkk. immeram liṭbuḫma paššūram li-da-mě-iq-ma CUSAS 27, 63: 7 “he shall slaughter a sheep and pre­pare a joyful meal”.

2. Matouš 1964, 132 (with disc. and further ref.): OA dammuqu “to refine silver”.

3. OB kaspam ana immerim nu-da-ma-qá-am ana kâšim u PN addinma CT 6, 34b: 8 “I have given you and PN silver for one ram – (with the remark) ‘we will make good’(?)”, s. Kraus 1987, 35; Dombradi 2000, 43–45, 47; Westbrook 2003a, 200f.

4. S. further Dalley/Walker/Hawkins 1976, 50 (mng. “to repair”); Kraus 1987, 34f. (for use in Koppelung).

                                             JW (D), NJCK (G)

damāṣu “to humble o.s.”

Gt ad-da-mu-ṣu in ZA 43, 66 = BWL 86 = SAACT 9: 251 is Gt rather than Gtn (AHw 156b, pace CAD D 64, s. Streck 2003a, 58).  JW

+ damdammatu? “molly”; SB

[ša A]NŠE.NUN.NA-tum anenna mārūšu (sic) Šūpę-amēli 124 “[of the m]olly – where are its sons?” The spel­ling may also stand for a fem. of parű (s. SAD B/P, 72 parūtu IV) or of kūdanu.

damdammu “mule”

Lex. [MIN (= anše)-nun-]na = dá-am-dá-mi Emar 6/4, 550: 224 (Ḫḫ).

damiqtu “favor”

OB Susa PN Sîn-da-mi-iq-tum MDP 24, 380: 18 “Sîn is favor”.

+ dammāmu “mourner”; OB

Lit. akalšu ittī da-ma-mi ikkal CUSAS 18 p. 296: 5 “he will eat his bread with mourners”.

damqiš “well, benevolently”

OB mamman ša šumī lā damqiš iqabbű lā tešemmē ARM 10, 49 r. 6 “you shall listen to no-one who says my name without kindness”.                                                                  JW

damqu “good”

1. OA for damqu watru “very fine quality” as a qualification of textiles, s. Michel/Veenhof 2010, 246.

2. OB in opposition to masku: dam-qá u maska malā imhurakka ṭēmka ul tašpur AbB 9, 154: 9 “you did not write your report about anything that happened to you, good or bad”.

3. OB kutalli PN kīl aššum lemnim ū lā dam-qí FM 7, 38 no. 13: 21 “have the reserve of PN ready, for bad or un­favorable (conditions)”.

4. SB amīlu dam-qá īni ša īnāšu … SpTU 4, 144: 16 (comm.) “man ‘good of eye’: whose eyes are …”. On damqa īni as euphemism for “blind”, s. Mar­cus 1980; Fincke 2000, 194. Cf. dam­qam(-)īnam (AHw 157a s.v. da[m]­ga­minam) “an eye disease, hy­d­ro­ph­thalmus”, s. Fincke 2000, 193–195.

5. On the mng. “of good family, well to do” (cf. CAD D 70f.) s. Frankena 1978 with further ref.

6. On damqūtu māt GN “elders; fore­most of the land” in the MB treaty AlT 3 s. Márquez Rowe 2001.

                                         JW (1–6), MPS (4)

damtu “destruction(?), burial mound(?)”

On a possible mng. “burial mound(?)” s. A. Westenholz 1970, 28.     JW

dāmu “blood”

1. Lex. da-mu = māru AOAT 50, 437: 179B (exp. malku) “blood = son”. Cf. Hrůša ib. p. 285.

2. OAkk. lū agammalušu kakki da-me alšu lā ašakkanu FAOS 19 Gir 37 r. 7 “(I swear) I will spare him, I will not raise ‘the weapon of blood’ against him”; cf. Kraus 2018, 3: 12.

3. OAkk. lit. [in] da-me-em tanīʾal BiMes 1, 7 i 2 “you will lie in blood”.

4. Ur III esēp da-ma nakirī PN zikrūʾa šumšu RIME 3/2, 135: 8 “‘gathering the blood of the enemies of PN (in?) my name’ is its name”, cf. Krebernik 1991, 142.

5. Early OB pl. anāku aḫūka šīrka u da-mu-kŕ anāku AS 22, 11: 4 “I am your brother, I am your flesh and your blood”.

6. OA māmītkunu ninaddī da-ma-ni kīma kāsim lū tabik kt n/k 794: 41 (Bilgiç 1992, 65) “if we violate your oath our blood shall pour as from a bowl.”

7. OA ammakam nuwāʾum da-me-a lā išattī AKT 4, 53: 23 “the native shall not drink my blood here!”

8. OA pl. “blood money” (CAD D 79 2b) s. AKT 6C p. 31–47; VS 26, 2: 12; 26: 12.

9. OA da-mu-um da-ma-mu-um kt a/k 611: 1 (Veenhof 1996, 428), magic for­mu­la based on phonetical repetition of a lexeme. Similar phrases are at­test­ed in OB incantations.

10. OB lemut[tam] ana qaqqad PN lušpukma ša da-mi-⌈im⌉ lūpuš RATL 167 no. 94: 12 “I will heap evil on PN’s head and I will shed blood”, s. Eidem ib. p. 168.

11. OB da-ma-am ina pursītim akṣur FM 9, 136 no. 27: 8 “I gathered blood in the offering bowl” (in context of ed­u­cat­ing an apprentice), cf. Ziegler 2005.

12. OB 2/3 da-mi erēni ana piššat dalāti CUSAS 9, 143: 2–4. “2/3 (liter) of cedar blood as lubricant for doors”.

13. OB in context of oath-taking and treaties (Mari, Tell Leilan) s. Eidem 2011, 315f.; s. also dāmuttu, below.

14. On the element dāmu (damű?) in OB Mari PNN (“kin by marriage(?)”) s. Durand 1992; cf. Bonechi 1997, 477ff.

15. OB lit. nuʾű ulāp da-me labiš BWL 228 iii 14 “(the wise man wears a loin­cloth,) the fool is clad in a ‘blood’ cloak” (perhaps “scarlet cloak”?).

16. OB lit. ištī erṣetum da-mi qarrādī FM 14 i 25 “the ground has drunk the blood of the warriors”.

17. SB Ugar. [d]a-mi-šu-nu ramkū ORA 7, 208: 11 “they bath in their blood”; da-ma-am (as a drink) ib. 18.

18. SB nēšu ākilu da-mitābik da-mi lāpit da-mi MesCiv. 7, 46: 62–64 (“the lion, devourer of blood … (the …), spiller of blood, … (the …), smearer of blood”.

19. SB iš/ltanatti da-mi našpūti ša amēlūti Lamaštu I 187, 190 (Farber 2014, 90) “she keeps drinking the spilt(?) blood of mankind”, s. Farber ib. 219f. (transl. “blown(?) blood”).

20. MB da-am mārī GN kīma mę itbuk CUSAS 17, 61: 15 “he spilt the blood of the sons of GN like water”.

21. NA da-a-mu ulabbušū SAA 10, 354: 17 “they will be clothed with blood”. Further NA/SB plene spellings: da-a-mu/e SAA 2, 5 iv 4; 6: 256 var.

22. For the relation between dāma epēšu and Heth. esḫar iya-, s. Kro­nas­ser 1959.         JW (2–12, 14–16, 19–20),
                            MPS (1, 13, 17–18, 21–22)

+ dāmuttu “blood bonds”; OB

da-mu-ut-tum ina [b]īrini iššakkana RATL 160 no. 89: 34 “(until you and I meet and swear an oath to each other) and blood bonds are established be­tween us”, s. Eidem ib. p. 315. Refers to slaugh­tering a donkey as a symbolic act accompaying the making of a treaty.                                                          JW/MPS

+ dānakku “1/8 shekel”; LB, Old Pers. lw.

3 da-nak-ku KŮ.BABBAR Or. 86, 60 no. 5 (BM 109972): 14f., cf. 16 “3 d. silver”; cf. Hackl, ib. p. 58 and Hackl 2016 (etym.: *Old Pers. dānaka-, cf. Old Pers. *dānā “grain”).

danānu I “power, strength, force”

ana (instead of ina) danāni:

1. NB kasapšu a-na da-na-ni iššű OIP 114, 80: 24 “his silver which they took by force”.

2. LB suluppī … a-na da-na-nu in qātī⌈ya⌉ ittašű AUWE 5, 136 r. 7 “they forcefully took the dates from me”, s. Gehlken ib. p. 114; cf. LKA 64: 11.

                                                JW (2), MPS (1)

danānu II, NA daʾānu “to be(come) strong”

G 1. OA ref., s. Veenhof 2015a, 246f.

2. OB midde wardūšu [i]-da-an-ni-nu-šum-ma ARM 26/2, 220 no. 391: 16 “I fear that his servants put pressure on him” s. Charpin, ib. 222 n. f.

3. NA perf. i-da-nu SAA 16, 40 r. 9 (iddaʾnū or iddānū). Not mentioned in Hämeen-Anttila 2000, 100.

+ Gtn With ittī: OB lit. ḫupšum ša ittī bēlišu i-id-da-na-an-ni-nu CUSAS 18 p. 304 obv. 4 “. who will repeatedly become stronger than their lord”.

D 1. OB alpī du-un-ni-in-ma AbB 3, 94: 3 “strengthen the oxen”; cf. 1 alpam li-da-an-ni-nu-ma ib. 6’ “they shall strengthen one ox”.

2. panī d. “to be relentless, strict, determined” (s. also dannu and dunnu):

a) OB panīka mādiš du-ni-in-šu AbB 7, 66: 15 “be relentless towards him!”

b) OB panīya ú-da-an-ni-in-ma panīša ul ubil AbB 3, 2: 8 “I was stern and showed her no leniency.”

c) ana PNN panīya ú-da-an-ni-in-ma ARM 14, 64: 7 “I was stern towards PNN (and had them swear a strong oath)”.

3. “to speak severely” (CAD D 86 e):

a) OB (tuppī) ú-da-an-ni-na-am-ma uštābilam AbB 12, 2: 14 “I have sent strong­ly worded letters”; cf. FM 7, 153 no. 45: 59.

b) OB kunuk PN…lūmu[r šu]mma lā tu-da-ni-na-am meḫrīka utarrakkumma AbB 9, 218: 24 “I want to see the sealed document of PN. If you are not in­sis­tent on my behalf, I will return your copies to you (and break the sealed documents).”

4. Without obj.: OB ana maṣṣarti ālim u nepārātim nu-da-ni-in ARM 26/1, 319 no. 154: 19 “we provided re­in­forcements for the guard of the city and the prisons”.

5. NA/SB duʾʾunu: masṣartušu tu-da-a-na SAA 2, 6: 206 “you (should) strengthen his guard.”

6. For use in koppelung s. Kraus 1987, 20ff.

Dt 1. EA [u] yi-⌈da⌉-ni-en libbušu EA 91: 12 (Moran 1992, 165) “his in­ten­tions were reinforced”.

2. “to strengthen one another”: NA aḫēyiši nu-ti-in SAA 5, 227 r. 15 “we want to strengthen one another” (nuttîn < nudtîn from the NA var. daʾānu).

          JW (G, D), MPS (G, D, Dt, Gtn), NR (Dt)

dandannu, + dandanű “all-powerful”; + OB

Var. dandanű in OB lex. dděm-tur-tur?⌉ = dan-da-nu-ú-um UET 7, 93 r. 19, name or epitheton of a demon, s. Sjöberg 1996, 232.

danna “hardly, with difficulty”

1. OB ina da-an-na 15 awīlū ana 1 epinnim kašdū ARM 27, 1: 9 “15 men are hardly enough for 1 plow”.

2. OB ina da-an-na n eqlam iṣṣidū ARM 27, 102: 16 “they hardly harvest n field”.

3. OB šę awīlī ṣippatum īkul awīlū udappir u da-an-na šunu wašib! ARM 28, 141: 37 “salt has eaten the grain of the people. The people have moved away as they could only stay with diffi­culty”.

dannatu “strength; fortress; binding (agreement); distress”; pl. dannātu “strict (command), firm (order)”

1. For OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015a, 237–242; for the pl. dannātu s. ib. 240 and 242.

2. OB “fortress”:

a) anāku ina da-na-ti-im ša bēliya kalīʾāku AbB 8, 18: 5 “I am detained in my lord’s fortress”.

b) OB āl dan-na-ti-ia u bītātīya atammarānim ARM 26/1, 106 no. 10: 30 (cf. 23) “view, one by one, (all) my fortified cities and houses!”

3. OB ina da-an-na-at kuṣṣi tuštamīs­sunūti AbB 10, 96: 3 “you let (the cattle) die in the harshness of winter”.

4. OB dan-na-tim aškunšunūšim ARM 14, 67 r. 3 “I put pressure on them”; cf. dan-na-t[i]m ašakkan ARM 14, 69: 17.

5. SB also logogr. KALAG MDP 14 p. 50 i 7.

6. On sale contracts ana/ina dan-na-ti “in times of distress” in Emar s. Adam­thwaite 2001, 155ff.

7. Borger 1961, 154: NA ša ina pušqi KI.KAL ušēzibu AAA 20, 81: 12 “who saves from distress (and) hardship”.

8. NA dannutu documents:

a) ana PN1 adi da-na-a-su (var.: da-na-su) PN2 ú-⌈bal⌉-a-ni peti da-ni-[t]e-šú BATSH 6, 109: 4–5 “against PN1, PN2 brought (his claim) with his document; his document is opened”.

b) Radner 1997, 56–60 with further ref. and disc.; Zaccagnini 1997; Fales 2005, 612f.

9. In building inscriptions “solid mud­brick of a decayed building” (cf. CAD D 90 mng. 3b “bottom of the founda­tion pit”), s. Turner 1970, 71 n. 24b.

10. For KBo 1, 3: 9 (CAD D 89 2 a) s. tanattu.

                  JW (2, 3–6, 8–10), MPS (1, 2, 5, 7)

danniš “strongly; very”

1. OAkk. add. ref. for aṣeḫḫamme danniš danniš(me) s. FAOS 19 Di 5: 5f.; Di 11: 4f.

2. Early OB ⌈dan⌉-ni-iš-ma lemun AS 22, 48: 20 “it is very wicked” (broken context).  JW

dannišamma “very much”; OA

OA da-ni-ša-ma lamnūšu nīnu ulam­mun AKT 9A, 55: 6 “his wicked­ness has harmed us terribly”.            JW

dannu I, fem. dannatu, +daʾattu (dâttu?) “strong, powerful, mighty, great”

1. OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015a, 235–237.

2. Early OB tęrti bēliya dan-na-at AS 22, 8: 5 “the omen report concerning my lord is strong”.

3. Early OB ina āliya da-na-ku AS 22, 9: 16 “(even in wartime) I remain se­cure in my city”; cf. maṣṣarti bēliya da-na-at ib.: 7 “the garrison of my lord is ‘strong’”.

4. OB gamartum da-na-tum šaknat AbB 8, 35: 9 “strict completion is in place” (concerning livestock, s. Kraus 1976, 174f.).

5. OB šattum dan-na-at-ma ḫurnű ul ibaššű ARM 14, 34: 15 “the year is tough, there is no mint”; cf. šattum da-an-na-at AbB 8, 94: 11.

6. OB īnāšu elī bāšītim da-an-na-ma MARI 8, 355 no. 5: 12 “(PN is not re­leasing our goods.) His eyes are strong on the goods”.

7. OB 10 enzētum dan-na-tum ARM 26/1, 132 no. 20: 9 “10 strong goats”. Cf. 10 enzētum enšētum ib. r. 6 “10 weak goats”.

8. Of a weapon: OB šukurri siparrim dan-na-am ARM 27, 107 r. 16 (cf. ib. r. 24) “the strong bronze lance”.

9. Of time: MB Emar mārī ṣeḫrūti ina šanāti dan-na-ti uballiṭ Emar 6/3, 216: 7 “she has kept the small children alive during difficult years”.

10. With panu (s. Kraus 1970, 58f.; cf. dunnu and danānu):

a) OB ana šę panū mādiš da-an-nu AbB 14, 87: 12 “they are strongly in­ter­ested in barley (lit. ‘the face is very strong’)”, s. Mayer 2010, 309, cf. ib. 311.

b) EA KALAG.GA ina panīšunu EA 108: 42 (Moran 1992, 182 n. 7) “they are strong in their faces”.

c) SB da-an panī SpTU 5, 247 v 7 “strong of face”.

11. SB dan-na-ta kappī summata umaššir AuOr. Suppl. 23, 65: 11 “strong of wings, I released a dove”; s. Cavigneaux 2007, 319.

12. NA 1 SĚLA NINDA dan-ni SAA 9, 11: 8 “1 liter of strong(?) bread”.

13. NA fem. daʾattu < daʾantu, cf. Hämeen-Anttila 2000, 100, wr. da-ʾ-tú SAA 1, 119: 11 or da-at-ti (= daʾattu or dâttu) ib. 150: 8.

            JW (2–6, 10), MPS (1, 7–9, 10, 11–13)

dannu II “a storage container, pithos”

1. Replaces našpaku as standard word for “storage vessel” from OB on (Salla­berger 1996, 111); s. ib. for further lit.

2. LB as dowry, s. Roth 1989/90, 24; add. LB ref.: CT 55, 60: 1f.; 125: 4; 137: 1; 142: 7; 433: 4f.; 439: 6; CT 56, 281: 6; 294: 8.  JW

dannūtu “strength”

1. OA ref. s. Veenhof 2015a, 242–245.

2. OB awīlū dan-nu-ti šunu ARM 26/1, 129 no. 18: 20 “they are men of strength”.

**dapāru “to be sated” (CAD D 104)

For G s. epēru III Gt; for D s. dapāru.

dapāru “to go away, leave”

+ G OB lit. akkuš di-pi-ir lā teseḫḫēma CUSAS 10, 12: 3 “I am going. Move on! Do not make trouble!”

+ Gt Mayer 2016, 202: OB lit. napiḫ­tam di-[i]t-pa-ar tuqumtam Westenholz 1997, 218 vii 7 “drive burning battle far away!”

D 1. After Moran 1981, all ref. cit. AHw 177 s.v. duppuru, AHw 1380 s.v. ṭapāru D, CAD D 104 s.v. dapāru D and CAD D 186–188 s.v. duppuru be­long to a single verb duppuru with both in­trans. and trans. mng. Valid argu­ments for his suggestion are: there is no spel­ling with ḪI = ṭŕ attested so far for the trans. verb in regions where we would expect it, and several spel­lings with DA and DU occur in regions where we do not expect these syl­la­bo­grams for /ṭa/ and /ṭu/. However, at least three OB ref. favor a reading ṭuppuru for the verb with trans. mng.:

a) There is, pace Moran 1981, no rea­son to emend TU-pí-ra-aš-šu-nu-ti ARM 1, 39 r. 6 “expel them!” to tu-<še->-bi-ra-; cf. Durand 1998, 48. Šamšī-Adad elsewhere uses DU for /du/, although TU = is sometimes used in other texts from Upper Meso­po­tamia or the Middle Euphrates area.

b) OB eleppam šâtu li-TA-ap-pí-ru Shem­shara 1, 47: 17 “they shall re­move that ship”. The same text writes DA for /da/ in ú-da-ba-bu ib. 27. DU-pu-ur eleppim šâtu ib. 28 “removing of that ship” is ambigious.

c) OB lit. TU-pu-ru-tum uššabū CUSAS 18, 29: 7 “expelled people will settle”. The same text writes DU for /du/ in a-ša-re-du-ta ib. 20 and re-du-us4-sú ib. 38. Cf. already George ib. p. 206.

There is, at the moment, no way to re­solve this problem.

2. trans.:

a) OB ša kakkam annīʾam ina qāt DN ů-dáp-pa-ru-ma MARI 3, 62 A.4510: 3 “he who removes this weapon from the hand of DN” (curse formula, cf. ref. cit. CAD D 183, 2b).

b) OB šarrum túglullumtam ú!-da-ap-<pa>-ar-ma FM 3, 60 no. 3 iv 17 (ritual) “the king will take off the l.-garment (and perform a libation)”.

c) SB ú-da-[p]a-ra kâša Lamaštu ND 2 (Farber 2014, 266) “I will expel you!”

3. intrans.:

a) OB with ina: u ṣuḫārūka ina panīšu ú-da-pa-ru Shemshara 1, 35: 39 “and your servants stay away from him”; ina zumur bēliya ú-da-ap-pa-ar-ma ARM 26/1, 367 no. 185: 23 “he will depart from the person of my lord”; inanna i-na [t]ęrtim šâti ú-da-ap-pí-ra-am ARM 27, 108: 8 “now I have left that po­si­tion”.

b) OB 1 amtum ša bītini qadūm mārā­tī­ša ú-da-ap-pí-ir-ma AbB 13, 18: 9 “one of the slave-girls of our house­hold has run away with her daugh­ters”; [du-up-p]u-rum ú-da-ap-pí-ir ib. 24 “(if) she has indeed run away”; cf. AbB 7, 128: 7.

c) OB zūzam ṣāb[um in]a karāšišu li-da-ap-pí-ir-ma ARM 14, 104: 13 “the troops shall go half a league from their camp”, cf. ib. 16.

d) OB DIRI.GAmeš we-du-ú-um kalű­šu ša eqlī ašrānum ukallū du-up-pu-ru FM 7, 99 no. 26: 7 “all his high-rank­ing functionaries who possessed fields there have been driven away”, s. Durand ib. p. 76.

e) OB sugāgūt GN ul eppeš du-pu-ra-ku ARM 14, 46: 10 “I will not act as sugāgu-official of GN! I am driven out!”

f) OB du-up-pí-ir lā tazzâz ittīšu FM 9, 270 no. 67: 19 “leave, do not stay with him!”

g) Mayer 2016, 203: OB lit. du-up-pi-ir YOS 11, 16: 3b; 77: 14 “be gone”.

4. The reading of the verb in Gilg. MB Ur 28 is uncertain: George 2003, 298 suggests ⌈li⌉-de-ep-pi!⌉-[ir] “congre­ga­te” (cf. epēru III?). Read perhaps li-de-ip-k[i!?] “(may the […] of the street, your brothel, push [you] away” (daʾāpu D).

Dt SB (diseases) li-id-dap-pí-ru Fs. Lambert, p. 202: 12 “they shall be driven away”, cf. Streck 2003a, 111.

Dtn OB awīlam šâtu ina bītiya li-id-da-ap-pí-ru ARM 10, 154 r. 7 “they shall keep that man out of my house”.

+ ŠD Mayer 2016, 203: SB uš-dap-pa-ru Ludlul I 26 (var. -dab-) “(through Mar­duk’s incantation) they drive out (cold and fever)”, cf. Oshima 2014, 183.

                 MPS (G, Gt, D), JW (D, Dt, Dtn, ŠD)

dāpinu, dapīnu “ferocious, savage”

1. OB lit. Girra da-pí-nu AnSt. 33, 148: 16 “Girra, the savage one”.

2. OB lit. Erra da-pí-nu-um-ma ina imnišu FM 14 iii 38 “Erra, the savage one, (walked) on his right”.

3. OB lit. in independent use: ittī ⌈da!⌉-pi-nim Iraq 78, 243: 3 “with the savage one”    MPS (1), JW (2–3)

dapnu “aggressive”

NA ana tāḫāzi dáp-ni KAL 3, 61 i 13 “towards the raging battle”.      JW

dappānu “warlike”; + OB

1. OB lex. giš-ma-ra-gíd-da “wagon” = da-pa-an UET 7, 93 r. 7, s. Sjöberg 1996, 229.

2. Unclear var. of tāpalu in lex. texts from Emar, s. CAD T 117 tāpalu lex. sect.

dappastu s. tappaštu

dappātu “a garment”; + MA

(CAD tapātu, AHw t/dap/batu)

1. For further OB ref. s. Durand 2009, 32f. (túgda-ba-du, cf. (túg)da-ba-tum in Ur III). It is clear from the Mari texts that the word is not fem. and denotes a type of garment rather than a type of fabric.

2. MA 12 dap-pa-teilaqqiʾū MARV 4, 138: 24, 25 “(the priests) will take 12 d.” (made from tabarru-wool) in rit. context, s. Dercksen 2005b, 123ff.

                                                             JW/MPS

dappurtu (mng. uncert.); OA

1. OA kaspam 10 manā malā awīlūti­kunu lū da-pu-ur-tí bīt abīni u bīt abīni ebbubim epšāma AKT 6A, 236: 23 “make 10 minas of silver as true gen­tle­men (so that it) shall be the d. of our father’s house and (of?) our father’s cleared house”.

2. Etym. and mng. remain unclear. S. CAD Ṭ, 49 s.v. ṭappurtu.            JW

daprānu, + diprānu “juniper”; + MB Ugar.

1. OB gišdáp-ra-nu ana šubšul 3 GAG SAG ARM 23, 439 no. 514: 1 “(6 1/2 minas of) juniper wood for melting down 3 best-quality nails”.

2. MB Ugar. A.ŠŔḫi.a : dě-ip-ra-ni-ma PRU 3, 64 RS 16.190: 4 “juniper fields”, for disc. s. Kühne 1974.

3. LB qaštu ša dap-ra?-ni⌉ AOAT 414/1, 194: 8 “a bow made of juniper”.

4. Cf. Hurr. tabra/i=ne/I, s. Haas/ Wilhelm 1974, 89; Richter 2012, 441; Besnier et. al. 2015.

                                JW (1, 4), MPS (3), NR (2)

daqqu “minute, fine”; + MB Emar

1. OB fem. pl. “small amounts left over”: n šiqil kaspam da-qá-ti … muḫurma AbB 12, 84: 6 “collect the n shekels of silver, the amount left over”.

2. MB Emar ḫi?-šu? GUŠKIN qadu da-qú-ti-šu HANEM 2, 10: 12 “gold neck­lace together with its small pieces”, s. disc. Pentiuc 2001, 44.

                                          JW (1), MPS/NR (2)

dār s. dāru I

daraggu, tarqu “way, track”

1. For lex. tar-qu MSL 5, 71: 281 ( Ugar.) and its possible Ugar. etym. s. Huehnergard 1987, 120; del Olmo Lete/Sanmartin 2004, 860 s.v. tdrq.

2. SB […] ip-ru-su (x) ⌈da-rag(?)-gu(?)⌉ [(…)] Or. 68, 38: 41 “[…] blocked the trails”, s. Frame 1999, 47.

3. SB lex. da-rag-gu = kibsu AOAT 50, 337: 93 (malku) “path = track”.

                                        MPS (1, 3), NR (1–2)

darāku “to pack”; OA

1. Imp. du-ur-ka-ší-ma AKT 4, 52: 16 “pack it (= the wool)!”

2. Pres. a-beʾūlātīšu lā i-da-ra-kam lā taggarāšu AKT 8, 275: 2 “(if) he does not do the packing for his working capital, do not hire him!”                                                                  JW

**darāku III “to thresh”

Both passages cit. s.v. in AHw 1550a can be read differently (lu-du-ri-[su] SAA 19, 53 r. 9; ú-du-⌈bi⌉-ku SAA 19, 109: 7). S. also mudarriktu.                                             JW

darāru I “to move freely”; + MB Ekalte

G NA (in date) EGIR da-ra-ri⌉ SAA 6, 259 s. 1 “after becoming free (of debts)”. Cf. andurāru.

N 1. OB lit. [k]īma būrū id-da⌉-a[r-ru-ú] ana līʾātim id-da-ar-ru-ú lalű ana enzē[tim] namzītum mārat DN li-da-ri-ir ana terḫiša CUSAS 32, 32 r. 2–4 “just as calves ran f[ree] to cows, kids ran free to nanny-goats, let the brewing jar, daughter of DN, run free to her jug”.

2. MB Ekalte (silver) ul uṣṣab ul id-da-ra-a[r] WVDOG 102, 68: 4 “does not yield interest and does not diminish (lit. become free)”.

+ Ntn OB lit. mu-ut-ta-ad-ri-ra-at […] Lamaštu OB3: 2 (Farber 2014, 260) “she who is constantly on the move”.

                                       JW (Ntn), MPS (G, N)

darāru II “to intercalate (a month)”

NA urḫu annīʾu da-ri-ir SAA 10, 44 r. 3 “this month is intercalary”.

darāsu “to trample, push back, thresh”; + OB

G 1. OB lit. ina emūqim da-ar-sa-an-ni-ma CUSAS 10, 17: 52 “he had driven me out by force”.

2. OB lit. ina eqli dar6(TAR)-sa-nu ina dīni lēʾęnu CUSAS 18, 20: 13 “in the field, we are thrown back, in court, we are overcome”. Cf. George ib. p. 125 for parallels in other OB Tigunānu tab­lets (dar-sa-nu, da!-ar-sŕ-nu): nakram ina eqlim ummānšu a-dar6-ri-ěs ina dīnim ni-le-i!-šu Tsukimoto forthc. no. 1: 11–22 “I shall force back the enemy in the field (and) his army, we shall over­come him in court”; i-dar-ri-ěs CUSAS 18 p. 302: 14; i-dar-ri-sa-an?-ni ib. p. 303: 20; ni-da-ri-ěs ib. p. 311 iv 2; i-da-ar-ri-sú-né-ti-⌈im⌉ ib. p. 312: 6.

3. NA ina timāli tēgirtu ina muḫḫi lā dagāli assakan ūma addalaḫ ad-di-ris SAA 10, 235 r. 15 (cit. CAD D 110, 1c as ABL 379) “yesterday I made an ex­cuse for not having looked (at the writ­ing), today I hurried to erase(?) (it)” (CAD T 324 s.v. tēgirtu, pace Parpola 1993, 188 and SAA 10; s. also Cherry 2017, 98f., who argues for an Aram. origin of the word in NA).

**Gt s. Streck 2003a, 81.

D 1. OB PN ina eqlim? u mę ⌈x⌉ ú-⌈da⌉-a[r]-r[i]-s[a]-an-ni-ma AbB 13, 119: 9 “PN has taken the field and the water from me by intimidation.”

2. OB ṣeḫrī ana mę ṣapęšu aṭrudma ud-da-ar-ri-su-šu AbB 13, 149: 11, 12 “I sent my servant to soak it (the field) in water, but they drove him away”.

3. OB aššat PN ša PN qadūm wildīša ú-da-ra-sú-ši AbB 5, 249: 6 “the wife of PN, whom PN wants to drive away with her children”.

4. NA “to thresh”: alpūšunu lillikūni ebūršunu lu-du-ri-[su] SAA 19, 53 r. 9 “let their oxen come (and) thresh their harvest” (cf. Cherry 2017, 99f.).

N SB Ea ša ina tulîšu Bēl i-dar-su-ma SAA 3, 38: 9 “Ea, from whose breast Bēl was pushed back”.

                                JW (G, D), MPS (G, D, N),

dārâtu s. dārītu

dargiš “couch”; Iran. lw.

1. LB 2 gišda-ar-gi-iš TBER 93f.: 18.

2. On etym. s. Zadok 1984; also as lw. in Aram., s. Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 29 with further lit. JW

dārīʾātu s. dārītu

dārītu, pl. dārīʾātu, dārâtu “continuity, eternity”; + Ur III

1. Ur III simat da-ri-a-tim RIME 3/2, 145: 1 “befitting eternity”.

2. The sg. only occurs in peripheral OB and MB (cf. CAD D 114, where it is separated from dārâtu).        JW

darīku “(container for) pressed dates”; + NA

1. NA “basin(?)”: bibbī ša [kis]allu kupru kaprū […] ša da-ri-ki šaknat rēḫtuša bēt napṭarte raṣip SAA 19, 60: 12 “the drainage pipes of the court­yard are covered with bitumen. The … for the d. container is installed. The rest of the quarter is built”. M. Luukko in SAA 19 translates “basin”.

2. LB da-ri-ku CT 56, 235: 8; cf. CT 55, 103.

3. The doubts of Abraham/Sokoloff 2011, 29 about the Aram. etym. are un­jus­ti­fied, s. Streck 2011a, 419: the mng. “to press” is attested in Mandaic as well as in Bibl. and Middle Hebr., the word has no Akkad. etym. and is at­tes­ted only in late Akk. texts. All this favors an Aram. etym.

                                         JW (2), MPS (1, 3)

dariʾu, darrű “sacrificial sheep”

1. The Susa ref. UDU dar-ru-um MDP 10, 68: 3, cit. CAD D 115 s.v. darru might belong here.

2. MA KUŠ … ša UDUmeš da-ri-ú-tu? StAT 5, 26: 5 “skins of sacrificial sheep”.

3. NA d. nasāḫu “to perform a d.-sacri­fice”: dŕ-ri-u ina pan DN1 u DN2 ittasaḫ A.499+500: 15 (StPohl SM 10, T41) “he sacrificed a d. in front of DN1 and DN2”, cf. Deller/Mayer/Sommer­feld 1987, 184 (with further ref.) and 188 (logogr. UDU.SISKUR in NA?).              

                                                                  JW

darku “following”

1. SB lex. dar-ka-a-tum = aḫrâ[t ūmī?] AOAT 50, 365: 84 (malku) “following = fut[ure]”. Cf. Hrůša ib. p. 233.

2. SB lex. de-er-ku = ṣeḫru AOAT 50, 439: 237 (exp. malku) “following = child”.

darru s. dariʾu

dāru II “lifetime, generation”; + SB

SB PN da-a-ri (var.: a-da-ri) PN2 mārūšu kussâ iṣbat RlA 6, 110 § 47 “during the lifetime of PN, PN2, his son, seized the throne”; cf. Mayer W. 1998, 539f. (“60-year period”). S. also Streck 2000a, 88 (Amor. lw.).

                                                             JW/MPS

darű “to last forever”

G OB šulum balāṭi u da-ri-i lušmē CUSAS 9, 6: 22–24 “may I hear greet­ings of long life and of lasting forever”, s. Dalley 2009, 24.

dārű “everlasting”

Said of goddess: SB dLAMA GN da-ri-ti/tu4 SpTU 1, 3 r. 4, 13 “the ever­lasting tutelary goddess of GN”.

dâru s. dūʾāru

**dasű s. takšiʾu

dāṣtu, + dīṣtu “lie, deception”; + OB

1. OB tillat PN asīrū ina sarrātim[ma u] di-ṣa-ti[m] ittīšu it-ta-na-šu [awā]s­su ul ileqqű ARM 26/1, 435 no. 207: 42 “the reinforcements of PN are cap­tives. They keep … with him through lies and deception. They do not follow his order” (after Heimpel 2003, 257; CAD S s.v. sarrātu emends it-ta-na-<la->ku).

2. Mayer 2016, 201: OB salīmātum ša awīl GN da-aṣ-tum-ma ARM 10, 80: 12 “the peaceful overtures of the man of GN are lies”.

3. Mayer 2016, 201: a) OB da-ṣa-tim-ma-mi kīma šabšūtimma ītanappalāni AbB 10, 57: 10 “they keep replying to me with lies like midwives”.

b) šunu da-ṣ[a]-tim-ma ītanappalū ib. 15 “they (too) keep replying to me with lies”.    JW

dâṣu “to treat unjustly, with disrespect; to cheat”

G 1. OB šanîš ina awâtim i-da-aṣ-ka-ma ARM 26/1, 82 no. 5: 15 “he de­ceived you with words a second time”.

2. OB [i]špatma nāgiram i-du-uṣ4 ARM 26/2, 90 no. 323: 12 “he acted ma­li­ciously(?) and treated the herald with disrespect”, cf. Heimpel 2003, 302.

3. OB ina awâtim i ni-da-as-sú-ma ARM 14, 104: 16 “we shall deceive him with words”.

+ D 1. OB tubqam lā tu-d[a]-sí-ma A.4471 (Durand 1990a, 291): 7 “you shall not let her be mistreated in the harem”.

2. OB awīlam tu-da-aṣ-ma iḫalliq AbB 5, 41: 16 “(if) you treat the gentleman unjustly, he will perish”.

3. OB š[umm]an lā ú-da-aḫ-ěs-su (udaʾʾissu) ullāman ībirakkim AbB 6, 188: 39 “if I had not mistreated him, he would not have come to you”.

                                          MPS (G), JW (G, D)

dašannu? “a piece of jewellery”; + NB

NB da-šá-an-ni šup-ru OIP 114, 2: 36 “send d.s!” Cf. CAD D 119 and Cole, OIP 114 p. 42. However, the NA ref. is analyzed as pl. of daššu “buck, ram” in AHw 165b daššu 2.

dašnu “mighty”

SB daš-ni KAL 9, 1 r. 2.

da(š)šiya “a functionary”; LB, Iran. lw.?

S. Zadok 1976, 5 on etym.                   JW

daššu “buck, ram; a metal implement”; + OB

1. Early OB ⌈da-šu-um bīt DN KTT 46: 3f. “buck for the temple of DN”.

2. Early OB 1 da-šum ARM 19, 166, 167, 168; 2 da-śá-an ib. 184; s. ib. p. 164 for add. ref.

3. NA 1-te da-áš-⌈šú⌉ KŮ.BABBAR SAA 16, 53 r. 3 “1 ‘buck’ made of silver”. Cf. dašannu.

4. A weapon:

a) Lex. nam-gaz = -aš-šu = itānu ša giš!PAN Emar 6/4, 545: 518 (Ḫḫ) “slaughter-bench(?) = buck = horn(?) of the bow”. For si = itānu s. CAD I 293f., in AHw s.v. itannu “mesh”.

b) Lex. nam-gaz-níg-bů-bů-re = dá-aš-šu pallušu Emar 6/4, 545: 519 (Ḫḫ) “per­forated slaughter-bench(?) = per­fo­ra­ted ‘buck’”.

c) Cf. Cohen 2010, 819, who reads taššu of unknown mng. and etym.

                                        JW (2), MPS (1, 3–4)

daššuptu s. duššuptu

dâšu s. dīʾāšu

dāta s. dātu

dātabar(r)u “a law officer, judge”; LB, Old Pers. lw.

1. ana šarri da-a-tu4-bar-ra dayyāni u mamma pitnu WZKM 97, 257 (BM 120024): 8 “(he shall not bring char­ges) before king, d., judge, or anyone powerful”, s. Jursa/Stolper ib. p. 263.

2. S. Stolper 2006, 230, 243 for disc. and add. ref.   JW

+ datteru “a fish”; SB

Lex. suḫur-dŕraku6 = [d]a-at-te-ru Emar 6/4, 555: 8 (Ḫḫ). Cf. DCCLT MB Ura 11.

dātu “law, decree”; LB, Old Pers. lw.

1. da-a-ti ip-tu-ú-ʾ-i [u]ltu da-a-ti n amēluttu ina muḫḫi PN ⌈…⌉ AfO 50, 255f. BM 25098: 15, 16 “(the judges) con­sulted (lit. opened) the (royal) regu­la­tion. On the basis of the (royal) re­gu­la­tion (the payment of) n slaves ⌈was imposed(?)upon PN”, s. Jursa ib. p. 257, 259.

2. kī ana šanű lā ittannu libbū da-[a]- [in]andin CT 49, 102: 7 “if he does not re­pay double the amount, he shall re­pay according to the edict”, s. Stolper 2006, 243f. with further ref. and ib., 230f. for disc.

3. akī [d]a-at-ta AOAT 414/1, 49 r. 8 “according to the decree”.

4. libbū da-a-ta šarri AOAT 414/1, 63: 21 “according to the royal command”.

                                        JW (1–2), MPS (3–4)

dātu s. ṭātu and diʾ(a)tu

**datű “family member”

The only ref. cit. AHw 166a is to be read it-tu-ú-a-a YOS 10, 46 v 11 “my neigh­bors” (s. AHw 407 itű B 1). Like­wise, read it-te-e ša bīt abīni AbB 3, 52: 22 “the neighbors of our father’s house” (pace Frankena, ib. and 1978, 170: da-te-e “Angehörige”), as already suggested by Wilcke 1971, 555.                           JW

daʾummatu, + duʾummatu, + daʾum­mu(?) “gloom, darkness”

1. OB ana mātim šapil[tim] du-ḫu-um-ma-tum iš[šakkan] ARM 26/1, 433 no. 205: 5 “darkness is pl[aced] over the low­land”.

2. OB [da?-u]m-mu-um ina [libbi]ya iššakinma ARM 26/2, 104 no. 333: 6 “dark­ness(?) has been placed in my heart”, s. Charpin ib. p. 106 n. b.                                                  JW

+ da-wa-da-ar-ša “a designation of per­sons”; foreign word(?)

OB Chogha Gavaneh 4 ⌈lú⌉.m[eš]da-wa⌉-da-ar-ša JCS 59 p. 57 ChG 23: 16 (in list of persons).     JW

dawű, damű “to jerk”

D OB lit. aklāk du-wa-ku CUSAS 10, 9: 15 “I am consumed, convulsed”.

dāwű s. dāʾiṣu

dayyāltu “(hunting) foray, excursion”

1. NA midbar … ana da-a-la-t[ú adan­niš] ṭābma SAA 1, 13: 17 “the steppe is [very] good for hunting ex­pe­di­tions”.

2. NA da-a-la-[te] SAA 10, 51: 15 (said of Venus, in broken context).

dayyālu “scout, inspector”

Also as lw. in Aram. (Abraham/Soko­loff 2011, 29.  JW

dayyāntu, MB also diyyāntu “female judge”

1. MB PNf: fDa-a-a-an-du CUSAS 30, 372: 17; s. also Hölscher 1996, 58f.

2. MB PNf: fDi-ia-an-d/tum BE 15, 190 iii 18; PN fDi-ia-an-di-i-na-UNUGki BE 15, 188 ‘iv’ 8 (Sommer­feld 1985, 9; s. Hölscher 1996, 58f. for further ref.).

3. SB [d]i-ia-na-tu4 lišmű amātūya Stadhouders/Panayotov 2018, 630: 17, s. their comm. ib. 650ff. Note that the transl. proposed there (“may my argu­ments be heard as judges”) is not re­con­cilable with the verbal form.

                                            JW (2–3), MPS (1)

dayyānu, MB also diyyānu “judge”

1. OA (this memorandum is a copy) tuppem ḫarmem ša kunuk da-a-né AKT 7A, 21: 28 “of the enclosed tablet with the judges’ seal”.

2. OB ⌈⌉DI.KU5 šarrim Haradum 2, 23: 4 “the royal judge (and the city elders)” (s. CAD D 29 d2’b’); s. also AbB 5, 250 r. 4. For further OB ref. s. Dombradi 1996, vol. 2, 5–17.

3. MB di-ia-a-nu ša kīma DN iberru kīnam AfO 32 p. 2: 12 “the judge who, like DN, chooses the righteous”.       JW

dekű “to raise, shift”

G 1. OAkk. id-ké-aś-śu-nu-ma RIME 2, 108 iii 21 “(PN) rallied them”.

2. OB iniʾātim lā te-de-ki AbB 3, 31: 10 “don’t bring out the plough-oxen (before I arrive)”.

3. OB eqlam l[i]-i[d]-ke-e AbB 9, 251: 7 “he shall ‘raise’ the field” (Stol ib. trans­lates “weed the field”).

4. OB ana napišti de-ka-ku AbB 8, 82: 21 “I am brought to life” (uncert. con­text).

5. OB ibaššī mummum ša de-ke-e-em lā īšű FM 9, 114 no. 18 r. 6 “is there (such a thing as) a (performer of the) con­servatory who has no com­mis­sions?”

6. OB lit. “to wake (s.o.) up”:

a) šumma aṣṣalal di⌉-ke-en-ni att[i] CUSAS 10, 12: 2 “if I fall asleep, wake me up!”

b) ina ereš nadâku di-ke-an-ni AbB 12, 99: 14 “raise me up from the bed on which I am lying!”

c) adī ummašu i-de-ku-ú-šu ay iggeltī OECT 11, 2: 27 “until his mother rou­ses him, may he not awaken!”; cf. ZA 71, 62: 5, 6, 8.

7. Said of winds: SB DN ana Ḫumbaba id-kaš-šum-ma meḫę rabűtu Gilg. SB V 137 “DN roused against Ḫumbaba the great storms”.

8. SB ummānāt DN id-de-ki ana kullat dadmē malkī id-de-ki ša kal kibrāte RINAP 4, 76: 10–11 “he mus­ter­ed the workmen of DN for all of the settle­ments (and) mustered the rulers of all (four) quarters”.

9. SB gišMA.NU ta-da-ke-šú-nu-ti KAL 2, 13 iv 9 “you move them (= figu­ri­nes) around (in a pot) with an ēru-stick”, s. Heeßel ib. p. 46; nakra ⌈a-da⌉-[ki/u] ib. 15 “I lift up the enemy”, cf. a-da-ku KAL 2, 14 r. 10.

10. LB majjāri i-de-ek-ke u izaqqap BM 59590: 5 (Jursa 1995, 141) “he will plough the field and sow it”, s. ib. 140f.; van Driel 1990, 238f. For further N/LB ref. s. also Tarasewicz 2018, 123f.

D 1. OB PN du-uk-ki-i-šu-ma eqlam mę liraṭṭibū AbB 10, 170: 14 “mobilize (fem.) PN so that they may moisten the field (in preparation for ploughing)”.

2. OB awīlam ú-de-ek-ki-ma tuppi … ittal­kam AbB 12, 3: 5 “I notified the gentle­man and (consequently) the do­cu­ment arrived”.

Š OB ina ṭūbātimma eqlam šuʾāti lā epēšam PN šu-ud-ki AbB 3, 2: 42 “kindly keep PN from working this field” (pace AHw 708: šu-ud-di, s. Frankena 1978, 11f.); cf. šu-ud-ki-[i] AbB 2, 157: 10.

+ Štn OB lit. mu-uš-te-ed-gi apluḫtim JRAS Cent. Suppl. pl. 6 i 11 “he who constantly foments armor-bearing” (Pap­ul­egara), s. Streck/Wasserman 2008, 346f. (/dk/ > /dg/).

N 1. OB taḫḫī ummātim id-de-ku-ú AbB 3, 51: 18 “the replacements for the troops were summoned up”.

2. LB ša PN ultu GN id-da-ak-ka-am-ma kinaltu ša Esagila ina libbi itti DN u DN2 ana GN2 ūridū YOS 3, 86: 7 “the ship of PN will be chartered from GN, and the staff of Esagila, together with DN and DN2, may travel in it to GN2”; pace CAD D 124b, not dekű G.

      EZ (G), JW (G, D, Š, Štn, N), MPS (G, N)

dēkű “summoner (for taxes and corvée work); night-watchman”

1. MB bēlī de-ka-a lišpuramma lidkēšunūtima lirdűma JCS 19, p. 97ff.: 19 “my lord shall send the summoner and he shall raise them and they shall follow”, s. Sassmannshausen 2001, 39.

2. MB ana de-ki-i gugalli u šākin ṭēmi PBS I/2, 20: 40 “for the summoner, the irrigation controller, and the com­man­der”, s. Sassmannshausen 2001, 38f.

3. “night-watchman” (hith. only lex., s. AHw 167): SB de-ki-i ḫāʾiṭī šuknā UAVA 12/2, 341 (Bab 36605): 4 “post night-watchmen (and) watch­men”.

4. For d.s in the N/LB period, s. Stolper 1988, 135; Beaulieu 2005, 57f.           JW

dēpu II “a thrusting weapon?”

1. For further LB ref. and disc., s. Beaulieu 2003, 380f.

2. CAD Ṭ ṭēpu “(a weapon)” and ṭīpu “attachment; addition” mng. 2 (a fea­ture of the exta) belong to dēpu II.

derű, darű “to intercalate (a month or year)”

G NA [ina muḫḫe] da-re-e [ša] šatte [ša šar]ru iqbűni [m]ā Elūl nid-ri SAA 10, 253: 15–18 “[concerning] the inter­ca­lation [of] the year [about which the] king said: ‘Let us add an intercalary Elūl’”.

dešű “to be abundant”

D 1. OB lit. attama mu-de-ši!(text: ti)-i-ma CUSAS 10, 9: 19 “you are the one makes me flourish”; mu-de-{UD}-ši! eqlim ib. 13: 8 “who makes the field flourish”.

2. SB šeʾam lu-du-uš-šu KAL 9, 7: 12 “may they (the rains) let grain flourish”.

dēšű “abundant, flourishing”

1. OB lit. wāšib ḫuršāni mēteqi de-šu-tim OECT 11, 1: 3 “(Amurru) who dwells in the mountains, the abundant passages”.

2. Borger 1962, 252: OB nišī de-ša-[a-ti] MDP 28, 12: 6 “the abundant people”.           EZ (2), JW (1)

diʾadānu s. dadānu

+ diʾagiram “royal regulation”; LB, Gk. lw.

LB libbū ša šaṭṭār ina di-ʾ-gi-ra-am van der Spek 1995, 229: 34, 38 “ac­cord­ing to the writing in the d.” From Gk. < διάγραμμα, s. ib. 234.

                                                       NR/JW/MPS

dīʾānu “to judge”

G 1. OAkk. PN u PN2 i-dč-na-ma BIN 8, 121: 3 “PN and PN2 went to court”, s. Edzard 1982, 29.

2. OB aššum pūḫat bītim … ša i-di-nu-ni-a-ši-im-ma kanīk šarrim lā innadnu AbB 11, 62: 14 “concerning the sub­sti­tute for the house … which they have ad­judicated for us, but (for which) the tablet of the king has not been given”, s. Stol ib. p. 37 n. a.

3. SB (you lift a vessel with clay figurines) maḫar DN ta-danan-šú-nu-te KAL 2, 44 i' 10' “you convict them before DN” (Mayer 2016, 201).

4. NA 2 summāti zikar u sinniš ina maḫar DN t[a]-da-an-ši-na-tú SAA 8, 231: 4 “you convict two doves, male and female, before DN”, cf. Livingstone 2000, 382f.

D 1. OB ūmišam dīnātim ittīya tu-da-a-[an-ma] AbB 11, 69 r. 3 “you have law­suits with me every day”.

2. OB PN Ú-da-an-8-tár VS 18, 73: 1 (cit. AbB 11 p. 41 n. a); for DN-mu-di-na-at TIM 7, 92: 2 (cit. AbB 11 ib.), a reading mu-ki-na-at may be preferable (Durand 2005b).

3. OB mu-di-in-šu-nu ul ibbašī FM 6, 89 no. 4: 27 “no judge(?) of theirs has occurred”, s. Lafont ib. p. 97; Durand 2005b.

4. Del ref. RÉS 1937 106 cit. CAD D 103 (now ARM 26/2, 161 no. 361: 20), read ú-ki-in (Durand 2005b).

N OB dīnam kīma dīnim ša inanna ina GN id-di-in-nu šūḫissunūti AbB 13, 10: 10 “deliver a verdict in accordance with the legal practice that is currently applied in GN”. JW (G, D), MPS (D)

dīʾāšu “to thresh”

G 1. OB šeʾam šuʾāti di-i-iš zurūma AbB 7, 170: 12 “thresh and winnow this barley!”; cf. di-iš AbB 3, 79: 35.

2. OB aššum … arḫiš di-a-ši-im AbB 7, 171: 8 “concerning the quick thre­shing”.

3. OB ina di-a-ši-im qātam ninassaḫ AbB 3, 54: 12 “we will be done with the threshing (by the 7th of Simānu)”; ni-di-is-sú ib. 15.

4. OB ana de-ši-im FM 2, 35 M.11030: 34 “for threshing”, cf. i-de-eš-šu ib. 39; cf. ARM 14, 48 pass.

5. OB ša kimissu ina maškanim da-ši-im alpum imḫaṣu CUSAS 29, 23: 9 “(PN), whose lower leg an ox has hurt while (he was) threshing on the thre­shing floor”.

D 1. OB nu-da-aš ARM 27, 37: 45 “we will thresh”.

2. OB aššum … šę ēkallim du-úš-ši-im ARM 27, 39: 15 “as to the threshing of the grain of the palace”.

3. OB ana maškanī ēkallim du-úš-ši-im ARM 27, 94: 16; cf. 92 r. 2 “in order to thresh the (grain of) the threshing floors of the palace”.

                                       JW (G), MPS (G, D)

diʾ(a)tu, daʾ(a)tu “knowledge, infor­ma­tion”; + SB

1. OB only in d. šâlu “to enquire after”:

a) diʾatu: di-a-ti-m[a?] ul išallū AbB 10, 55: 19 “they never enquire after (me)”. di-a-at AbB 5, 10: 7.

b) diʾtu: di-iḫ-tam AbB 5, 34: 3. di-iḫ-ti AbB 3, 88: 22

c) daʾatu: da-a-ta-ma AbB 12, 150: 6. da-ḫa-at-ki ARM 10, 46 r. 9; da-ḫa-as-sú ARM 10, 156: 18. da-ḫa-ti FM 2, 101 no. 60: 11', FM 7, 10 no. 2: 18 and pass.

d) daʾtu: da-aḫ-ti-ma AbB 7, 151: 8. da-aḫ-ti AbB 5, 160 r. 6. dá-aḫ-ti ARM 26/2, 59 no. 304: 43.

2. SB šarru ana šarri da-ʾ-te-šú lā ipaššarū KAL 5, 19 r. 43 “a king will not release information to a(nother) king”.           JW (1, 2), MPS (1)

dibbatu “gossip, complaint”

1. OB aššum amtim PNf di-ib-ba-tum māttum īlīʾamma AbB 3, 2: 6 “there have been many complaints on account of the slave-girl PNf”, s. Frankena 1978, 7.

2. In AbB 14, 158: 6 (cit. CAD D 131 as TCL 18, 80) d. is used syno­ny­mous­ly with dababābu (ll. 12, 17, s. Veen­hof 2005, 206). S. also dibbu 1.                                                   JW

dibbu “words, utterance”

1. OB fem. pl. dibbātu (CAD D 131 s.v. dibbātu “agreement”, AHw 168b s.v. dibbu):

a) aššum di-ib-ba-tum lā šaknā AbB 10, 148: 27 “because there has been no discussion”.

b) OB aššum di-ib-ba-at pa5namkarim AbB 13, 64: 20 “concerning the dis­cus­sion about the irrigation canal”; s. also AbB 13, 89: 45.

c) Some or all ref. might belong to the lemma dibbatu (Frankena 1978, 7).

2. OB masc. pl.:

a) [kī]ʾam di-bu-šu-nu [umma]mi FM 7, 20 no. 6: 14 “their words were as follows”.

b) OB ina di-bi-šu-nu ARM 26/2, 259 no. 404: 13 “in their discussion”, s. ib. p. 262 n. d.

3. NA kīma ištēn ina libbišunu akī dib-bi lammadūti ina libbi GN ētarbu SAA 15, 199 r. 3 “as soon as one of them has entered GN by studied words (i.e. password?)”, s. Fuchs ib.

4. Wr. NA di-i-bi StAT 1, 51: 25.

                                            JW (1–3), MPS (4)

dibdibbu, + diddibbu? “water clock, clepsydra”; + NA

1. NA gišdi-di-ib?-bu?⌉ StAT 2, 315: 9 in uncl. context. Note perhaps bēt ša manę “abacus” ib. r.1. If the reading is correct, lex. gišdib.dib is prob. dibdibbu/ diddibbu and not ṣiṣṣippu (AHw 1106).

2. Gen. disc. s. Brown/Fermor/Walker 1999/2000, 132ff.      JW (2), MPS (1)

dibiru “calamity”; + Emar

SB (if the sun stands in the afternoon) di!-bi-ri immar Emar 6/4, 611: 134 “it will experience calamity”; cf. mātu di-bi-r[a…] Emar 610: 61; sim. 72, 193, 645: 3. Pace Pentiuc 2001, 44f., the ref. from Babylonia (AHw 168, CAD D 134f.) argue against a loan from NWSem., and the consistent spellings with a single b do not favor a form /dibbīr/.          JW/MPS/NR

dibšu s. dišpu

didabű “scribal apprentice, pupil”

NA ⌈di-da-b[i] (broken context) SAA 13, 54: 2.

**diddigu “chaff(?)”

Von Soden 1960, 489 ad CAD D 135: read mḪa-<aš>-mar-gal-di id-di-in! BE 14, 114a: 7.       EZ/MPS

dīdu, dādu “female (under)garment”; + Emar

1. OB lit. di-id kabatti Ištar Louvre i 51 “undergarment of the mid-body”.

2. MB Emar mārat PNf ša lā išâmu di-i-di-i talaqqī Emar 6/3, 33: 27 “the daugh­ter of PNf will take the d.-gar­ments without buying them”, s. Durand 2009, 33.

3. SB [ina naḫlapti na]kāsi du[dittu šeb]ēru u da-di batāqu MIN [MIN] A 185: 50 (Frankena 1960, 174, nambur­bi) [for? ri]pping [a cloak, brea]king a p[in] or cutting off d.-gar­ments ditto, [ditto] s. Simons 2017, 104.

4. For d. in CUSAS 10, 7: 6 s. Wasserman 2011 (s. quddu).

                           JW (1, 4), NR (2), FJMS (3)

diglu “vision, view; wish”

1. OB šumma di-gi-il-ki Iraq 38 p. 57: 12 “if it is your wish”; cf. AbB 6, 194: 13; AbB 13, 120: 14.

2. SB [di]-ig-lu-ki littaṭṭalū kalu kibr[āti] Lamaštu FsB 22 (Farber 2014, 267) “may your [gl]ances view the whole unive[rse]!”      JW

diḫḫu s. ziḫḫu

diḫmennu s. diqmēnu

+ diʾiqetēsu “controller, financial offi­cer”; LB, Gk. lw.

LB šipištu ša mdi-ʾi-qé-te-e-su BRM 2, 31: 8 “the legal document of the d.”; <διοικητής, s. McEwan 1988, 416.

                                                                     NR

**dikkuldű (CAD D 137a)

Borger 2008, 442: read DI NUMUN DI-šu-ma BBSt. 8 iv 11 and di-in NUMUN DI-šu-ma I R 70 iii 16.  

                                                             MPS/NR

dikme/innu s. diqmēnu

dikmu s. ṭikmēnu

dikšu “bulge, swelling, wound ”

1. OB biltum ana gušūrīšu ikbitmagušūrūšu ittešberū u di-ik-ši aškunšum ARM 27, 10: 18 “the load was too heavy for its (= the roof’s) beams and its beams broke. Therefore, I installed ‘bulges’ (i.e. braces to stabilize the beam)”.

2. SB ana šarri di-ik-šu MDP 57, 86 no. 4: 14 “the king will (suffer from) a wound”, cf. CAD D 138 d. 3’.

3. SB di-ik-šú : di-ik-ši : mur-ṣi CT 41, 42: 37 (comm.) “wound = sickness”.

4. On d. in math. texts mng. “outward/ inward extension (by a given fraction)” s. Friberg 1987–90, 564; Friberg/Hun­ger/al-Rawi 1990, 488ff.                                                       JW

diktu, tiktu “a type of flour”

1. Pace CAD D s.v. diktu (“a dairy product”), d. denotes a type of flour (s. AHw s.v. t/diktu(m); CAD T 404 disc. s.v. tīktu).

2. OB n SĚLA di-ik-ta PN ublam AbB 9, 165 “PN brought me n liters of d.”

3. OB ti-ik-tum FM 12, p. 216 M.9994: 2, 192 M.10106: 2, 158 M.10579: 2, 203 M.11134: 2, 144 S.79a, 120: 2; ARM 12, 350: 4, 385: 4, 393: 6; ARM 11, 2: 2, 290: 12; ARM 9, 98 v 28.

4. OB aššum qēm dumqim u ti-ik-tim ARM 10, 20: 5, 9 “concerning the high quality flour and the t.”      JW

dīktu “fighting, slaughter”

1. OB di-ik-ta-ni ša di-ka-nu linūḫma FM 1, 83 A.3935+M.7557: 69 “the at­tack we are suffering shall calm down”.

2. SB di-ik-ta rabâ lū addūk RA 76, 145 r. 37 “I truly inflicted a great mas­sacre!”         JW (1), NR (2)

dīku I “killed; crushed”; + OB, + MA

1. OB Said of sheep and cows: di-ik-ti barbari/nēši CUSAS 9, 316: 2; 317: 3; 321: 4; 326: 2; 328: 2; 337: 8 “killed by a wolf/lion”.

2. OB lit. di-ka naṭāl CUSAS 32, 48: 1 “dead of watching” (said of a snake).

3. MA mārē damqūte di-ku-ú-te BATSH 4/1, 8: 42, 43 “killed elite (soldiers)”.

4. OB said of sesame: šamaššammū di-ku-tum ARM 22, 276 ii 6, 14; iv 22. “crushed sesame”, among gurnu “me­di­um quality” and sīkūtu “pounded” se­sa­me.

5. SB [g]i gaz-za = [q]a-nu-ú de-e-ku LKA 65: 10 // [qanű di-]i-ku AuOr. Suppl. 24, 54f.: 8 “cut off reed”.

6. SB “crushed (?)” (in a stool diag­no­sis concerning con­stipa­tion): di-i-ki ša ultu durrišu lā uṣṣâ SpTU 1, 36: 18 “d. (that is) what does not flow out of his rectum”, s. Wee 2012, 646.

                            EZ (3), JW (4–6), MPS (1–3)

dīku II “lifting, raising”

1. On the dīk bīti ceremony s. Pon­gratz-Leisten 1994, 65 n. 139 and Maul 2000, 394 n. 58, 402ff. with further ref.

2. In VS 4, 96 (CAD D 140 mng. 1) read ṭi-pi, s. ṭipu.             JW

dikuggallu s. diqu(n)gallu

dikűtu “corvée work”

OB ḫadâšu ⌈u⌉ di-ku-sú illak CT 45, 16 r. 4 “(the adoptive son) will carry out his (adoptive father’s) workload (adű) and corvée”, s. Goddeeris 2002, 342 and Stol 2004b, 752ff. with further ref.              

                                                                     JW

+ dilāru “a chair”; OB

gišmarḫuše [ana] … 1 gišGU.ZA di-la-ri-im FM 1, 53 A.55: 17 “m.-wood [for] … 1 d.-chair”, cf. Durand 1997, 79.  JW

dilḫu “trouble”

OB lit. [kīm]a ⌈girīti⌉ ina de-el-ḫi-ia (// Sum.: a lů-lů-a-ĝu10) tabār[anni] CT 44, 24 iii 4 “like a moray eel(?) you caught me in my troubled state (Sum.: troubled water)”. JW

+ diliḫtu “trouble”; + MB

MB Susa išītu u di-li-iḫ-tu20(DŮ) ina māti iššakkan MDP 57, 197 no. 9: 17 “there will be chaos and disturbance in the land”.         JW

**dilpu “night attendance (on a sick per­son)” (CAD D 142b)

Von Soden 1960, 489: corr. to dīl pę s. AHw 170b.                EZ

+ dilű, dēlu “the sign AŠ/DILI”; OB, SB

1. OB lex. (proto-Aa) de-e-lu-um Gong 2000, 84.

2. SB lex. di-lu-u/ú Gong 2000, 103.

3. SB DILI CUSAS 18, 33: 34f., cf. SAD B/P 22 s. v. baṭṭu.

dilűtu, dulűtu “bucket irrigation, a kind of canal, a water-drawing device”

1. OB du-lu-ut-ka lū epšet AbB 3, 65: 3 “(your field shall be in order and) your irrigation shall be carried out”.

2. SB GN ašar nāru lā īšű ina eb[li] ḫarḫarri kalkaltu mę būrti ina di-lu-ú-ti ṣābēya ušašqī RINAP 4, 34: 18’ “in GN, where there is no river, by means of ropes, chains, (and) sweeps(?) I provided well-water for (my) troops by drawing”, s. Bagg 2000, 203f.

3. SB mannu ikrikka kī pī di-⌈lu-ti⌉ TCS 2, 2: 8 “who has dammed you up like an opening in a d.-canal?” (cit. CAD K 199).             JW

**dimgallu (CAD D 143a) s. šitimgallu

dimmatu “moaning, wailing”

1. OB lit. ⌈bītī ana⌉ bīt ⌈di⌉-ma-tim uttēr anāku i-libbišu i-di-ma-tim wašbāku OBO 278, 357: 10, 11 “he has turned my house into a house of wailing. I dwell in it while wailing”, cf. di-im-ma-tim ib. 9 and dim-ma-tim K.4617: 15 // l. 10 (Guichard ib. p. 364). Cf. dīmtum.

2. SB akal dím-ma-te (var.: -ti) u bikīti Lamaštu I 189 (Farber 2014, 90) “food of wailing and weeping”; de4-ma-a-ti Lamaštu Emar 32 (ib. 292).                                                         JW

dimtu “tower, fortified wall; district”

1. OAkk. “district”: in dě-⌈im-ti⌉ [GN] CUSAS 27, 152: 5 “in the district of [GN]” cf. MAD 5, 87: 2.

2. “(movable) siege tower”:

a) Early OB 10 gišdě-ma-ti-[im]liblam AS 22, 9: 12 “(even if the Amo­r­ites) bring 10 siege towers”.

b) OB aššum eblī ebīḫī ša di-ma-tim u yāšibim ARM 14, 45: 5 “concerning the rope for the girdles, for the siege tow­ers, and for the battering ram”.

c) OB ana gišdi-im-tim ana mīnim ītenellē ARM 26/1, 479 no. 238 = ARM 10, 51: 14 “why does he keep going up the tower? (He must guard himself!)”

d) OB gišdi-ma-a-ti ana GN lū šūrudū Shemshara 1, 7: 15 “let the siege tow­ers be brought downstream to GN”.

e) OB yāšibum u giš[d]i-im-tum nadnū­nikkum ARM 26/1, 426 no. 199: 13 “the battering ram and the tower are given to you”.

f) OB gišdi-im-ta-am uš-zi-iz ARM 26/2, 298 no. 416: 5; cf. ib. 273 no. 407: 7 (cf. 6) “he had set up the tower”.

g) gišdi-ma-at nakr[im] ARM 27, 141: 9 “tower of the enemy”, cf. gišdi-im-tim/tam ib. 141: 5, 7.

h) OB ana pan nakrim ina pan gišdi-ma-tim u eperī wašbū ARM 27, 142: 8 “they sit opposite the enemy in front of the towers and the earthwork”. Cf. ib. 22, 23, 27.

i) OB mušītamma di-im-ta-šu ipṭurma ARM 27, 170: 27 “he withdrew his tower at night”.

j) OB gišdi-im-tum šīša ištū GN nilqűšu šaknat ARM 28, 18: 6 “the tower that we took from GN is set up”.

k) OB [gišdi-im-t]am šâti PN … u akkâšum ina[ddi]nakkunūši ana GN []erressim ištū ašrānum akkâšum inaddinakkunūši ARM 28, 18: 22 “that tower PN will … and he will give it to you (pl.) for your (sg. masc.) benefit. He will let it descend to GN and from there he will give it to you (pl.) for your (sg. masc.) benefit”. For add. Mari ref. s. Kupper 1997, 127ff.

3. Residential tower: OB di-im-tam ša PN … ana wašāb PN2 uštassiqū ARM 27, 164: 6 “they put in order the tower of PN as residence for PN2”.

4. OB PNf utūtu ša di-im-tim ARM 9, 27 iv 26 “PNf, female gatekeeper of the tower” (in personnel list).

5. On the various mngs. of d. in Nuzi s. Koliński 2001 with prev. lit.

6. Cf. Soqotri díme “sheep pen”, Mehri dēmēt “warehouse”, Arab. (Yemen) daymah “cottage, small house” and sim. (Naumkin et al. 2016, 65). If these words are indeed cognates they suggest long ī: dīmtu.      JW (1, 2, 4–6), MPS (2, 3)

dīmtu, + OA dimʾu, + OB lit. dīmatu “tear”; + OA

1. OA [in]a dí-im-a-té-š[a] tasarraq bētam CCT 5, 50e: 3 “with her tears she sprinkles the house” (Kouwenberg/ Fincke 2012/13).

2. OA dí-im-ú-tum u bikītum kt 97/k 183: 6 “tears and mourning” quoted in Çayır 2015, 97 n. 4.

3. OA dí-im-a-am Prag 735: 22 s. dummű D.

4. Early OB dě-ma-ti-a šuqqil AS 22, 21: 45 “stop my tears”.

5. OB di-im-ti u di-ma-ti elīki AbB 5, 160 r. 7 “my tears and wailing are on your account”.

6. OB lit. kīma ṣirpim iṣarrip di-ma-ti-[iš/ša] UET 6/2, 395 r. 23 “she became red like dyed wool [through (her)] tears” (SEAL), diff. Lambert 1990, 293: “(he went…,) shedding tears like red dyed wool”.

7. OB lit. di-ma-tu-ša i-la-ka ṣa-ar-p[i-iš] UET 6/2, 396: 13 “her tears were flowing bitterly”; di-ma-tu-uš! ḫuṭṭupat ib. 23 “her tear was shed”.

8. Sg. dīmatu: OB lit. <ina> bu-ur-mi-⌈ni⌉-ia di-ma-tum izannun CunMon. 8, 110: 18 “a tear rains out of the iris of my eye”.

9. SB di-in-di indalâ īnāšu SAA 3, 50: 28 “his eyes filled with tears”.

10. NA 3 ūmē pan DN di-at pani bikīʾā Dornauer 2014, 5: 5 “cry tears of the face in front of DN for three days!”

11. LB mūši u kal ūmu ina di-in-du u upāṭu ašbāku AOAT 414/1 198: 15 “day and night I sit in tears and snot”.

JW (1–5, 10–11), MPS (9), NJCK (1–3)

dinānu, + NB diʾānu, + NA duʾānu? “substitution, substitute”

1. For OA, s. andu/inānu.

2. OB a-di-na-an mātišu u aḫḫīšu ittalak ARM 28, 14: 26 “he will have gone as a substitute for his land and his brothers”.

3. OB ana di-na-ni-ka lū nadnū AbB 3, 18: 19 “they shall be given as your sub­stitute”.

4. MA in letter opening formulas: ultakaʾʾin ana di-na-an bēliya attalak BATSH 4/1, 2: 3 and ib. pass. “I (here­by) prostrate myself, I dedicate myself to my lord (lit. ‘act as my lord’s sub­sti­tu­te’)”, s. ib. p. 56 and Streck 1997a, 271f.

5. NA ša n šiqil du-a-ni i-ta-ni ša n kaspam du-a-ni ittannū TCL 9, 62: 15, 17 “(witnesses) that n shekels were gi­ven (as) substitute(?) (and) that n sil­ver was given (as) substitute(?)”, s. Del­ler apud Fales/Jakob-Rost 1991, 135.

6. ana d. “in so.’s interest”

a) NB ana di-a-nu bēliya lullik OIP 114,44: 2; 60: 2 “let me go in the interest of my lord”.

b) LB ⌈ad⌉-da-ni-ki mamma mimmašu ina panika lā inaššű AOAT 414/1, 56: 6 “in your interest, no-one shall receive any of his property in your presence”. Cf. ib. 212: 3.

                    JW (3–5, 6), MPS (2, 6), NJCK (1)

+ dīniš “justly, lawfully”; NA

SB dummuqiš di-niš ša ina nikilti lēʾűtišu […] SAAB 8, 4: 2 “favorably, justly”.           JW

dinnű(tu) “bed”

SB d[i]-in-nu-ut lalęki lū dakkan … Gilg. MB Ur 22 “may the bed of your delight be a bench of …”. Cf. George 2003, 303.

dīnu, + dinnu “legal decision; lawsuit, trial; legal practise”

1. OB lit. pl. di-né-tim CUSAS 18 p. 298: 46.

2. OB s. extensively Dombradi 1996, 2ff., 312ff. with disc. and ref.

3. OB bēl di-ni-ša AbB 8, 140: 19 “her legal adversary”.

4. OB (PNN) ina di-in-ni-i[a] izzizzū­ma u arnam ul īšű MARI 3, 178 A.2518: 6 “PNN stood in my trial and were (declared) free of guilt”.

5. On OB d. šūḫuzu “to deliver the verdict”, i.e. to inform the parties about the judgement, s. Wilcke 1987, 101 n. 100.

6. NB ašar di-nu īdű u lā di-nu idabbubū OIP 114, 23: 9 “where one knows the law and one litigates without due process”, cf. NA ina lā dēnišu dabābu (Cole ib. p. 82, cf. CAD D 155a).

7. NA de-e-nu uzakkī SAAS 5, 25: 6 “he has cleared the dispute”. On the NA dēnu-texts s. Jas 1996.

8. For OA s. also dīttu. S. also dīniš.

                                            MPS (1), JW (2–8)

dipāru “torch; + a disease”

1. OB with našű, refering to military activity:

a) di-pa-ar-šu inaššī AbB 8, 23: 25 “he will raise his torch (and he has ordered provisions for his troops)”.

b) ina qablit mātim di-pa-ra-am našęta MARI 7, 176 A.3206: 8 “you are raising the torch in the middle of the land”, cf. ib. 11, 20.

2. OB lit. šumšu kīma di-pa-ar mušīʾāti im⌈mar⌉ Iraq 78, 243: 2 “he looks at his offspring like a torch in the night”.

3. OB lit. liblī di-pa-ar zibbatišu CUSAS 32, 49: 11 “let the torch of its tail be extinguished”.

4. With determinative GI “cane, reed”: OB gidi-pa-ri-im ARM 26/2, 85 no. 320: 8.

5. SB among diseases: ÉN kirigiš di-pa-ri epqēnu kissatu (var.: [di]-⌈pár⌉) Muššuʾu VIII/k 137; di-pa-ar (var. di-pár) ib. 147, 150.

6. Shortened PN: MB mDi-pa-ru CUSAS 30, 256: 24. For sentence names with d. s. AHw 172 d. 2.

7. Etym.: cf. Hebr. lappîd “torch” (Zimmern 1917, 36; Segert 1962; Salonen 1965, 139)?

                            JW (1–2, 5), MPS (3–4, 6–7)

diprānu s daprānu

dippu, dibbu, pl. dippātu “board; a kind of wooden door”

1. OB aššum paššūrim … di-ip-pa-t[u-šu] lū elammakkum u kablātūšu lū kamiššuru[m] FM 8, 46 no. 6: 9 “about the table … (you wrote:) its top shall be e.-wood, its legs shall be pear wood”, s. Durand ib. p. 48.

2. Mayer 2016, 202: OB 1 KA.GIŠ.KARÁ di-pa-šu […] ARM 22, 223 i pass. “1 k.-table, its top is […]”.

3. OB lit. qę di-ba-a-⌈šu⌉ CUSAS 10, 1: 28 “its twin panels were copper”.      

                                         JW (1–2), MPS (3)

diqāru “large bowl, tureen”

1. Plene ā: Lex. útul = di-qa-a-rum Emar 6/4, 537: 280 (Sa).

2. Early OB dě-qá-ri ša ušēbilam adī matī ibaššī AS 22, 12: 46 “how long will my bowl, that I sent, remain (there)?”

3. OB 1 pīḫum di-qá-ru-ú ana PN ARM 11, 12: 1 “1 beer-jar, a bowl, for PN”

4. MB di-qa-ra-tum ša ana! lâši u maṣḫati CUSAS 30, 342: 12 “bowls for(!) kneading and for m. flour”.

5. On šaman diqārātim (d.-oil) s. Joannčs 1993, 260f. and 266 with Mari ref.; s. also Sallaberger 1996, 111; Gaspa 2007, 150ff.

                                     JW (2–3, 5) MPS (1, 4)

diqdiqqu, duqduqqu “wren”

1. SB diq-diq-qu ina muḫḫi pēri kī uš[ibu] umma talīm idka an-a-a-ma ina šiqi mę erā[qma?] pēru ana diq-diq-qi ip[pal] kī tušibu ul īdēma kalāka mī[nu] kī tatbű ul īdē[ma] BWL 216–218: 50–54 “when a wren sat on an ele­phant, he said: ‘Brother, did I turn back (nęʾu/naʾāʾu) your side? I shall go [off] to the watering place.’ The ele­phant an­swered the wren: ‘I did not notice when you sat down. Wh[at] is all of you? I [also] will not notice when you have risen.’”

2. SB a) [muš]endu-uq-du-uq⌉ // di-iq-di!-qu ina muḫḫi nīnî iltakan! pelâšu Jiménez 2017, 334: 2 “a wren laid its egg on top of a n. plant”.

b) mušendu-uq-du-uqakű lapnu ib. 338: 38 “the forlorn, poor wren”, cf. also ib. 334: 3, 5, 12; 336: 25; 338: 40.

3. OB al-ti-ri-gu // si-bi-di-ga-ar Jiménez 2017, 327 is perhaps corrupt.

4. On d. “wren” s. Veldhuis 2004, 217f.; Jiménez 2017, 357–360. On etym. (either daqqu “minute” or ono­ma­to­poeic) s. Jiménez 2017, 357 n. 822.                     JW (4), MPS (1–4)

diqmēnu, diq/ḫme/innu, + diq(i)mmu “ashes”; + OA, + OB

1. Lex. te-e = NE = di-qí-mu-um CUSAS 12 p. 13 PAS 27 iv 49 (Ea).

2. Lex. de-e = NE = di-qí-mu CUSAS 12 p. 8: 29 (Ea).

3. OA dí-iq-ma-am u nūram umallī AKT 6A, 70: 27 “I have paid in full to the last penny” (lit. “ashes and light”).

4. OB lit. pâša mullīʾā di-iq-ma-a[m] ZA 71, 63: 16 “fill (pl.) her (the evil eye’s) mouth with ashes!”

5. OB lit. di-qě-ma-am BAM 4, 393: 24.

6. SB šumma zība ina muḫ díḫ(= UM)-mi!-in innamerma SpTU 2, 32: 17 “when a vulture is seen on top of ashes(?)”.

7. Logogr. DČ in a Sagig comm.: DČ : di-⌈iq-me-ni AOAT 43, 323: 5.

8. The combined evidence of the ref.s 2 and 4 above favors /q/ as second con­so­nant (s. qí-iš-tum CUSAS 12 p. 12: 221 (no example for GI, however), zu-qě-qě-pu-um BAM 4, 393: 19, but ta-ša-qí-šu-ma ib. 7, 18, ru-qí-im ib. r. 20). This, on the other hand, precludes /ṭ/ as first consonant (CAD Ṭ 110f.) but points to /d/ (AHw 169).

                    EZ (4–7), MPS (1–2, 8), NJCK (3)

diqu(n)gallu “chief justice”

Lex. [di-ku5]-gal = di-qu-gal-lu Emar 6/4, 542: 20 (Ḫḫ).

+ dirku? s. terku 1c.

+ dirištu “downtrodden, pushed over”; SB

Mayer 2016, 202: di-riš-ti uggūkka teleʾʾi kâša AfO 19, 55: 9 “you can help the (one) downtrodden in your an­ger”. Cf. darāsu, dirsu.                                                                  JW

dirratu “lash, halter”

SB nigkalagű qerdu gadadir-rat lūbaru sāmu SpTU 4, 128: 28 “(one) n.-drum, plucked wool, a linen lash, a red gar­ment”, cf. ib. p. 27.                                                                  JW

dirsu “pushing”; + SB

ina sīḫi siḫpi dir-si MesCiv. 13, 1: 49 “by disturbing, overturning, pushing”.

                                                                     JW

dīṣtu s. dāṣtu

+ dīšānu I “spring harvest(?)”; MB

ummat tēlīti ālānī di-ša-an BagF 21, 66: 1 “bulk of the harvest from the towns, d.” (followed by the date), s. Sass­manns­hausen 2001, 253. Cf. dīšu.

                                                                     JW

+ dīšānu II “an official”; NA

nišē ša issīšunu allakanni anāku di-ša-nu ina dūrānī [nuše]rrabšunu SAA 15, 16: 6 “the people with whom I am coming – I and the d. [will brin]g them into the fortresses”.

dīšāʾu s. dīšāyu

dīšāyu “of spring, born in spring”; + OB

1. OB n UDUxMÍ di-še-tu ARM 23, 219: 2 “n ewes born in spring”; n UDU A.LUM di-še-tu ib.: 4.; n UDU.NÍTA di-šu-tum n UDU.U8 di-še-tum ARM 24, 41: 4–5.

2. Del. ref. HSS 15, 331: 4 (cit. AHw 1362a), read 2 ku-du-u[k]-ti šá-ar-tu4 (coll. Wilhelm 1985, 60).       JW

diš/ziptuḫḫu “sweet beer”; + OB

1. OB di!-zi-ip-tu-uḫ-ḫi-im ARM 21, 106: 3, s. ballukku; di-zi-ip-tu-ḫi FM 3, 235 no. 64: 2, ib. 245 no. 95: 5

2. OB šikāram sāmam di!-zi-<ip>-tu-uḫ⌉-ḫa u šikāram CUSAS 36, 95: 13 “brown ale, sweet ale and ale”.

dišpu, + dipšu “honey, (date) syrup”

1. OB LŔL ana inbī ARM 12, 202: 1 “(6 karpatu-pots of) honey for (pre­ser­ving?) fruit”. For d. in OB recipes s. ARM 9–12 pass.

2. MA note the rare syll. spelling di-iš-pum[eš?] MARV 6, 28: 2.

3. LB 1/2 SILŔ di-ip-šú AfO 38/9, 81 (BM 74504): 14, with metathesis (also found in Arab. and Hebr., Macginnis ib. p. 82).

4. LB di-iš-pi u karāni AOAT 414/1, 73: 5 “honey and wine”.

5. On the mng. “syrup”, esp. in South­ern Mesopotamia, s. Volk 1999, 283ff.

                                        JW (1–3, 5), MPS (4)

dīšu, dišʾu, dašʾu “spring”; + fem. pl. dīšātu “grass”

1. OA ana da-áš-e išaqqal AKT 8, 258: 36 “he will pay until spring”; further ref. s. AKT 10 p. 135.

2. OA ina da-áš-e-šu kutānē nišâmma AKT 9A, 3 r. 15 “in spring we will buy k.-textiles”; cf. ana da-áš-i-šu AKT 6A, 157: 31.

3. OB ina d[i-š]i-im ūlū ḫaraptim gerram šâtu illakū ARM 26/1, 113 no. 14: 19 “they go that route in spring or else in (early) summer” (cf. Streck 2009–2011, 597 § 2).

4. OB ana pan di-ši-im ARM 28, 83 r. 4 “(come) before spring!”

5. OB kīma ša ūm di-ši-[im] Adad rigmātīšu [iddī] ARM 23, 99 no. 102: 6 “Adad sounded his voice just like (on) a spring day”.

6. OB (it is cold, therefore the sheep cannot be transported.) ina di-ši-im anad­di­nak­kim ARM 10, 48: 13 “I will give them to you in spring”; cf. inanna anūmma di-šu-um ib. 15 “now it is spring.”

7. Pl. dīšātu “grass”:

a) SB ṣērū di-ša-ta munamī malīʾū SEM 117 iii 18 (Schwemer 2001, 169) “the steppes are full of grass, (full) of abundance”.

b) SB ē tašām alpa [š]a di-ša-ti⌉ // dě-i-ša-a-ti Šūpę-amēli 96 “do not buy an ox (fed) with grass!”

                         JW (1–2, 5–7), MPS (3–4, 7)

ditalliš “into ashes”

SB di!-tal-li-iš! SpTU 4, 141: 11.

ditānu “wisent(?); a fish”

1. Lex. denoting a fish: ku6-saḫ4 = ku-sa-aḫ = … = ⌈di-ta⌉-[nu] MSL 15, fig. 3–4 (IM 124475) 23 (LB Diri).

2. Perhaps var. of tišānu, s. esp. SAD tišānu 1.         JW

dīttu “lawsuit, trial”; OA

1. i-dí-té-em lašʾalka Balkan 1992, 33 (kt c/k 581): 35, 36 “let me interrogate you in court”.

2. PN a-na dí-tem! išeʾʾēšunu Larsen/ Mřller 1991 no. 2: 16 “he will sue them in court”.

3. ina dí-tem lā tušaʾʾalanni AKT 6A, 264: 56 “do not question me in court!”; s. also ib. 268: 11 and pass.           JW/NJCK

diʾu I “a disease affecting the head”

1. NA takpertu Á.SŔG.GIG.GAdi-ʾu marṣūtu.meš KAR 44: 8 (incipit), s. Geller 2000, 235. Cf. di-ḫu : šibṭa (var.: di-iʾ šibṭi) ib. 20.

2. Disc. s. Scurlock/Andersen, 2005, 59ff.; Stol 2007a, 15ff. S. also diʾű.

                                                                     JW

diʾu II “(deity’s) throne-platform”

After Röllig 1996, diʾu “platform” is to be separated from tuʾu “room, cella” (cf. already the disc. in CAD D 167).

                                                                     JW

+ diʾu III, (duʾu) “wattle-and-daub screen(?)”; Ur III

1. Ur III dě-um NATN 620 r. 2; MCS 7, 14: 2; AUCT 2, 343: 6. For further ref., s. Heimpel 2009, 177–179.

2. Ur III Garšana n GÉME du-ú-um AK CUSAS 3, 113: 11, 15 “n work­wo­men having made a d. (in construction of the foundation terrace of the brew­ery-kitchen-mill complex)”, also in CUSAS 3, 115 and 121; “(for) con­struc­tion of the of the brewery-kitchen-mill complex” in CUSAS 3, 128, 129, 131–133, 135, 138 and 141; “for con­struc­tion of the enclosure wall” in CUSAS 3, 102 and 103. For further ref. s. Kleinerman/Owen 2009, 239ff.; Heimpel 2009, 250.

3. After Sallaberger 2011, 357, diʾu and (duʾu) might be var. of the same word.         MPS/NR

+ diʾű? “afflicted by d.-disease”; OB

OB di-i-ḫa-ku-ú-ma am-ši-i-ma AbB 10, 185: 7 “I was sick with d. and for­got”, after von Soden 1986, 736 (nisba?).            JW

s. diʾu III

duʾānu s. dinānu

dūʾāru “to surround, enfold”; OAkk.

G OAkk. du-ri-ni it-taskarinnī kī rēʾīʾu ě-du-ru ṣaʾnam MAD 5, 8: 21, 24 “sur­round me among the boxwood trees, as the shepherd encircles the flock”, s. Westenholz/Westenholz 1977; AHw 1551; Krebernik 1984, 166.

+ dubābu “complaint(?)”; OA

OA amtamana ḫuluq ana du-ba-bé niddinakkum kt 87/k.275: 9 “we gave you the slave-girl … for (nothing but) loss and complaints(?)”, s. Hecker 1997, 165ff.                     JW

dubāqu s. tubāqu

+ duBBu “ a bronze implement”; OB

du-uB-Bu ARM 32 p. 261 M.18115: 6, du-Bi-im ib. p. 181 S.133, 40: 6, s. Arkhipov 2012, 132f.             JW

dubbubtu “(troublesome) negotiation(s), complaint(s); vexation”

1. OB lit. kūṣam u du-bu-ub-tam elīya ittadī ASJ 18, 21: 3 “he has cast chills and vexation upon me”.

2. OB lit. šumma ittanadlaḫ u du!-bu-ub!-tum šaknassu YOS 11, 15: 22 “if he is constantly troubled and worry is set upon him”.    JW

+ duBBuru “a metal implement”; MB Emar

1. 1 pāšu 1 du-uB-Bu-ru ZABAR 1 patru ZABAR Emar 6/3, 33: 9 “1 hatchet, 1 bronze d., 1 bronze dag­ger”.

2. kāsu ZABAR ša [x x d]u-uB-Bu-[ru ZABAR] 15 KI.LÁ.BI 2 pāšta ZABARmeš CunMon. 13, 15: 10 “a bronze cup with, [n(?) bronze] d., its weight: 15, 2 bronze hatchets”.

3. Pentiuc 2001, 186 suggests, on the basis of the first ref., a reading tuppūru “an implement (sewing tool?) of bron­ze” and connects the word etym­o­lo­gi­cal­ly with Hebr./Aram. TPR “to sew together”. The use of tu instead of through­out in Emar 6/3, 33 (ú-nu-tumeš l. 11, at-tu-ka-mi l. 21, tu-ta-ar l. 23) and in CunMon. 13, 15 (ú-nu-tumeš l. 21) does not favor that etym.

dubdubbu “a bird; a drum”; SB

arim dub-dub-bi SAA 3, 8 r. 16 “the d. drum is covered (i.e. tuned)”. JW/MPS

dubgallu s. tupgallu

dubqu s. tubqu

dubsarmaḫḫu s. tupšarmaḫḫu

+ dūdānūtu “work of the kettle smith”; LB

LB kaspu ša ana du-ú-da-nu-tú nadnu CunMon. 3b, 129 no. 156: 7 “silver that has been paid for the work of the kettle smith”, s. Wunsch ib.; cf. Jursa 1995/6, 260.     JW

dudittu s. tudittu

duddű s. dūtu

dūdu I, + tūdu “kettle”

1. MB Qaṭna n du-du (URUDU) QS 3, 12: 3; 17: 2; 18: 3 “n (copper) kettles”.

2. MB Emar 1 tu-ú-du siparri 1000 šuqultašu Emar 6/3, 283: 1 “1 bronze kettle, its weight is 1000 (shekels)”.

3. MB Nuzi kukkubu siparri ša tu-u-ti HSS 14, 247: 72 “bronze kukkubu-vessel of t.; cf. ša du-ú-ti HSS 15, 130: 42; ša du-ú-te ib. 52, s. Schneider-Ludorff 2009, 517f. (a set of two vessels?).           JW (3), MPS (1–2)

dugānu, tugānu “a stomach disease”

For disc. and lit. s. Stol 2006, 111.     JW

duggūru s. tugguru

duglu s. tuklu II

duḫḫu s. batabtuḫḫu

duḫnu, tuḫnu “millet”; + OB

1. OB n du?-uḫ-nu ša MŮNU CUSAS 9, 177: 1 “n millet(?) for(?) malt”. Dalley 2009, 121 suggests emendation to duḫḫu “residue, pulp”.

2. EA ana ŠE.IMmeš <du>-uḫ-ni : mu-ḫu-ṣu EA 224: 9 “concerning the millet: it has been spoiled”. Note that after this interpretation mu-ḫu-ṣu is not a gloss. Cf. CAD M/1, 83 ([u]ḫ-ni (or -ir) : mu-ḫu-ṣu ‘it is … (gloss) spoil­ed’”), s. Na’aman 1975, 78 n. 78.

3. MA tu-uḫ-ni u šamaššammī lēru­šū BATSH 4/1 r. 14 “they shall culti­vate millet and sesame”.

4. LB n mašīḫu ša duḫ-nu PN ittašu BM 114788: 2, 5 “PN has brought n measures of millet (instead of sesa­me)”, s. Da Riva 2002, 95ff. for disc. and ref.; add CT 55, 737: 1.

5. For etym. s. Kogan 2012, 247.

                                JW (3–5), MPS (1), NR (2)

duḫšű s. dušű I

+ duKKutu(?) “a garment”; OA, OB

1. OA 2 du-Ku-tů 2 túgkusīʾātum 1 šiknum Prag 429: 63 “2 d. cloaks, 2 kusītu-garments, 1 šiknu-garment”.

2. OB túgdu-Ku-tu-t[u] T. 101: 1; GÚ! du-Ku-tu T. 110: 4 “d. cloak”, s. Durand 2009, 33.             JW (1), NR (2)

dulāqu “mng. uncert.”

Also in OB Susa PN Du-la-qum MDP 28, 431: 1.

+ dulbānūtu “(long-)distance(?)”; NB

PN qīpi ša GN ina pētḫalli [d]ul-ban!-nu-ti iktalda SAA 17, 120: 10 “PN, the messenger of GN, arrived on a (long)-distance(?) horse”. Dietrich, ib. p. 106 “passageway horse”. Cf. da/ulbānu.

dulba/ātu “a part or product of the plane-tree(?)”; OA

1. ḫuršīʾānum ša du-ul-ba-tim AKT 5, 58: 5 “a package of d.” (followed by kamāru-fish).

2. 15 du-ul-ba-tum u mu-lu-ḫu-um AKT 6A, 239: 11 “15 d. and m.-wood(?)”; s. also AKT 6A, 144: 27.

3. Conventionally parsed as fem. pl. of dulbu; exclusively attested in OA, whereas the sg. dulbu is not (s. CAD D 172 s.v. dulbātu “a foodstuff that could be counted, as well as measured by ca­pa­city”; AHw 175). Perhaps better un­der­stood as dulbatu, pl. dulbātu, re­fer­ring to a part or product of the d.-tree (cf. terinnu and terinnatu).

                                            JW (2–3), MPS (1)

dulbu, dilbu, + dalbu “plane-tree (platanus orientalis)”; + Ur III, + OB, + MA

1. Ur III Garšana n ḪAR gišdú-ul-bu-um CUSAS 3, 1256: 29f.; 1375: 31 “n plane tree seedling(s)”.

2. OB [x] lēʾu rabű ša du-ul-bi FM 7, 114 no. 30: 18 “[x] large boards of plane”.

3. MB Ekalte [d]u-ul-báumalli WVDOG 102, 77: 5 “he has fully paid for(?) the [pl]ane”.

4. MB lex. gišdal-bu-um KBo. 25, 5 + 26, 6 b i 16 (list of trees); cf. Emar 6/4 p. 59 Msk 74163b v 4; Emar 6/1 p. 105ff. Msk 731030 iv 51.

5. MA 2 gišdul-bu 2 erű adi narki[bīšina] StAT 5, 72: 1 “2 (poles of?) plane trees, 2 lower millstones with [their?] upper mill[stones]”.

6. The fem. dulba/ātu is only attested in OA, s. above. S. also Postgate 2005, 591.        JW (2, 4–6), MPS (3), NR (1)

dullu “trouble, ritual, work, service”

1. OA ištū buluṭ abīya du-⌈lam⌉ ašdud u ūmam a-du-⌈li⌉-im-ma ē taṣba<tī>ni AKT 9A, 75: 23f. “I have endured hardship because of my father’s health and now you shall not keep me in hard­ship”, s. ib. p. 122.

2. SB ana dul-lu ša PN šarri u mārēšu TCS 5 p. 284 Chr. 13b: 7 “for the d.-ritual of PN, the king, and his sons”.

3. LB on bīt dullu s. van Driel 1990, 221 (land under cultivation that has reached full productivity), s. also Jursa 1995, 126 n. 256.

4. LB dul-lu gamru BM 74682: 1 “completed work”, s. Bongenaar 1997, 359.

5. On d. as corvee work, s. van Driel 2002, 260ff.; Abraham 2004, 36f., with disc. and ref.           JW

dulluḫiš “quickly”

SB ⌈du⌉-lu-ḫi-iš nasḫa bari ul up[puš] ZA 102, 204: 10 “copied in a hurry, collated, not finis[hed(?)]”, s. Maul ib. p. 207.

dul(l)uḫtu, + dul(l)iḫtu “hurry, despatch; confusion, anxiety, trouble”; + OB

1. OB du-li-ḫa-tim annętim PN [īpuš(?)] FM 7, 125 no. 35 r. 6 “PN [caused] this trouble”.

2. OB du-lu-uḫ-tum lā ibbaššī ARM 26/1, 175 no. 39: 47 “trouble must not develop!”

3. OB du-lu-uḫ-tum ina libbi mātim iššakinma ARM 26/2, 278 no. 409: 42 “trouble was made in the land”.

4. OB ina libbi mātim mimma du-lu-uḫ-tam lā tašakkanā assurri du-lu-uḫ-tam tašakkanāma ARM 28, 65: 6f. “do not make trouble in the land! I fear that you will make trouble”.

5. Moran 1992, 22f. n. 24: corr. CAD D 179a to ki-i du-ul-lu-uḫ-t[i-iš] EA 11 r. 27 “as soon as poss[ible]”.

6. NA For the ref. Iraq 18 in CAD D 179a d. 2 s. now SAA 19, 144 r. 7: DNf u DNf2 lū īdâ kī ūmussu itti du-lu-uḫ-ti-a “DNf and DNf2 really know that he is daily among my concerns”.

                            JW (1), MPS (2–4, 6), NR (5)

+ du-lu-qa-ri-ta-an (mng. unkn.); Hurr. word in MB Qaṭna

QS 3, 2: 8; cf. disc. ib. p. 49.

dulűtu s. dilűtu

dumāmu I “leopard”

Lex. [… = mašak] du-ma-mi Emar 6/4, 546: 4 (Ḫḫ) “[skin of] a leopard”.

dummű, + OA dammuʾu “to bring to tears”; + OA

D OA (in a good year shipments from you come to me, but) annī dimʾam tů-dá-mě-a-am “now you have brought me to tears” Prag 735: 22 (diff. ib. p. 309, Rei­ner 2007, 56: tí-im-a-am tutam­mi­am now, you swear an oath to me”).        

                                                              NJCK

+ dummuqiš “well, favorably”; NA

SB du-mu-qi-iš dīniš SAAB 8, 4: 2’ “favorably, justly”, s. dīniš.          JW

dummuqtu “good deed, benevolence”

1. OB du-um-mu-uq-ta-ka … ittabšīʾam AbB 13, 158: 5 “your benevolence … has been imparted to me”, cf. rēš du-um-mu-u[q]-t[i-ka] ana bītini ib. 7 “the beginning(?) of your benevolence towards our house” (broken context).

2. OB kīma īnī imaḫḫarū ina du-um-mu-uq-ta-ka ammar AbB 7, 140: 10’ “I shall see that (the textiles) will be plea­sing (to the merchants) through your good work” (note dummuqtaka instead of expected dummuqtika, cf. Kraus ib.). For d. amāru cf. dummuqu.   JW

dummuqu “good quality; good action”

1. OB ša ṭūb libbiki lūpuš u du-um-mu-qí amrī AbB 11, 41: 16 “I want to do what pleases you – see (how I shall do) my best!”

2. OB panīšu aṭṭul u du-um-mu-qá-am elīšunu artašī OBTR 131: 9 “I saw him per­sonally and I received more kind­ness (or: higher quality goods?) than they”.

3. OB ittī PN šuʾāti dabābam du-um-mu-qá-am dubub AbB 7, 167: 8 “speak well-chosen words with that PN!”, cf. ib. 25.                JW

**dumqiš “well” (CAD D 180a)

Von Soden 1960, 489: del. CAD *dumqiš, Alalakh 109: 3 SIG5gí-iš = damqiš “well”, s. AHw 157a.            EZ

dumqu, dunqu “goodness, good (thing), favor; jewel”

1. OAkk. lū dum-qú-uk CUSAS 27, 73 r. 10 “let (this) be your favor (to me)”.

2. OB ēpiš du-um-qí UET 7, 73 iii 111 “who prepares choice food”.

3. OB ana paššūr du-um-qí ARM 11, 2: 5 “(food) for the table of choice food” (referring to an offering).

4. OB Susa PN Ea-du-um-qí MDP 28, 412: 3 “Ea is my favor”.

5. MB Qaṭna “jewel” (cf. dumāqū): 1 du-un-qú ḫurāṣi QS 62: 32 “1 gold jewel”.           JW (1, 3), MPS (2, 4, 5)

dumuqtu “good deed, favor, welcoming gift”

1. OB du-mu-uq-[tam] [u]šēṣűniš­šunū­š[im] M. 5009: 7 (Fs. Garelli p. 19) “they sent out a welcoming gift for them”.

2. OB [an]nītum ana [PN l]ū du-mu-uq-[tum] A. 3185 (Durand 2000, 401f.) “this shall be a welcoming gift for PN”.

                                                                     JW

dunānu “decorative disc of a chariot(?)”

1. NA amēlu ša É.ḫÚB ša DN amēlu ša pan ēkalli šanű isse dGAšAN du-na-ni irakkubū SAA 20, 18: 35 “the man of the É.ḫÚB of DN, the ša pan ēkalli, and (his) deputy are riding (the chariot) together with the lady (i.e. Ištar?) of the d.”; bēlat d. also SAA 20, 37 r. 22; SAA 20, 15 r. ii 41.

2. NA PN ša gišdu-na-ni pass. in CTN 3, s. p. 286 “PN of the d.”, cf. Kinnier Wilson 1972, 54f. (“standardbearer”).

3. Disc. s. Deller 1992, 296f.

                                            JW (1–3), MPS (1)

dun(n)āʾū pl. tant. “increase, surcharge(?)”; OA

1. balūm dunāʾē “without sur­char­ge(?)”:

a) (n silver) balūm du-na-e ištē PN TPAK 1, 200: 1 “ni silver without sur­charge(?) is owed by PN” (cf. ibid. 25; AKT 7A, 141: 8; AKT 8, 199: 3; TC 3, 211: 12).

b) (n silver) balūm du-na-e ina 1 ma-na-i-a PN iddinam TPAK 1, 200: 25 “PN gave me n silver – (weighed) with my 1-mina weight – without sur­char­ge(?)” (cf. CCT 1, 26b: 5).

2. dunāʾē nadāʾu “to lay down d.”: ina 1 manāʾem ša PN ilqeʾū du-na-ú ulā nadʾū kaspum takīttam na-ší-e kt a/k 516b: 13 quoted in Dercksen 1996: 83 “they have received it (a loan of silver) – weighed with the one-mina weight of PN; d. have not been layed down and the silver is the correct amount”, s. also takīttu. S. Veenhof 2015, 261f. for add. ref.

3. The conventional transl. “increase, surcharge” is based on the etym. pro­posed by Veenhof 1972, 67: a PuRuSSāʾ form of danānu, “to be(­come) strong”, hence “increase (of an amount to be paid, agio)”. However, this is semantically tenuous, and the only attested PuRuSSāʾ derivation of a II/gem. root shows a different pattern (qalullāʾū “discredit, dishonour” from qalālu “to be(come) light”, a rare var. of qulālū). Another suggestion, based on the expression du-na-e nadāʾu, is that dun(n)āʾū are small weight stones that could be placed on a balance to com­pensate for a deficiency in weight (Veenhof 2015, 261f.). The etym. remains uncert.   NJCK

dunnu pl. dunnāti “power, strength; (fortified) farm(stead); a type of bed, furniture; part of the lung”

1. OB in transf. mng. dunni panim “hard of attitude”: ša īrišūma ūṣű ana mę du-ni panim īšű AbB 10, 42: 43 “(those) who cultivated and went out have a strong attitude about the water”; cf. danānu, dannu.

2. “fortified farmstead”:

a) OB kīma du-un-ni ḫabtu AbB 7, 116: 4 “that my farmstead has been plundered”; s. ib. 12, 19, 28.

b) OB tenēštam ša du-un-na-a-tim u dimātim AbB 10, 150: 22 “the po­pu­la­tion of the forts and watchtowers”; cf. AbB 7, 49: 8.

c) On MA d. as a type of settlement similar to dimtu in the Nuzi texts s. Koliński 2001, 30ff.

3. NA qirsi ša gišdu-un ma⌉-ḫi-i-ri⌉ SAA 19, 207: 8 “take a cart(?) with benches(?)!”, cf. CAD D 185 dunnu B.

                             JW (1–2), MPS/JW/FJMS (3)

dunqu s. dumqu

+ Dup(p)aššu I “a type of dyed wool”; MB Ugar., Hurr. lw.(?)

1. SIKI.ZA.GĚN ḫašmāna SIKI.ZA.GĚN : ḫandalāti ů SIKI.ZA.GĚN : DU-pa-aš-ši u aban gabî maʾdiš bēltiya lišēbila Ug. 5, 48: 9–13 “may my lady(?) send me a great deal of ḫašmānu-type blue wool, ḫandalātu-type blue wool, d.-type blue wool, and alum”.

2. For the interpretation as a type of wool, s. CAD U 194; for a color or hue, s. van Soldt 1990, 344; Lacken­ba­cher 2002, 297; Thavapalan 2018, 12. Hel­tzer 1978, 58 n. 129 proposes a con­nection to dbš “honey”, which is un­likely.      MPS/NR

+ Dup(p)aššu II (mng. uncert.); MB Ugar., Hurr. lw.(?)

1. šar GN 50 manā ḫurāṣa ištu 10 ḫarrānī ša bīt du-up-pa-aš-ši ana Šamšī ittadin PRU 4, 151, 17.59: 18 “the king of GN has given 50 mina of gold from 10 caravans of the house of D. to my Sun”.

2. Perhaps to be understood as bīt tup­pašši “house of tabletship, accoun­ting house, sealed storehouse”, s. Sasson 1966, 135 n. 52; Archi 1973, 213; Arnaud 1996, 60; Beckman 1999, 183; Lackenbacher 2002, 102. It remains un­certain whether -šši is a Hurr. suffix (Sasson 1966, 135 n. 152). Heltzer 1978, 149 proposes a con­nection with Akk. duppussű “younger brother”. Sivan 1984, 215 connects the passage with Dup(p)aššu I.            JW/NR

duppu s. duBBu

duppuru I “to move away, withdraw; stay away” s. dapāru

duprānu s. daprānu

+ duqdu “almond”; NA

1. [gišzi]q-puša gišduq⌉-di [ša] supurgillum [ša] angāšē [i]mattuḫū SAA 1, 226 r. 1 “they are collecting sap­lings of almond, quince and plum(?) trees”.

2. 1 kappi duq-di ṣarpi SAA 7, 81: 1 “1 bowl of almond wood (and) silver”.

3. duqdu is the NA form of šiqdu/ šuqdu elsewhere in Akk. For further ref. cf. AHw 561 and CAD L 238 *luddu. MPS (1, 3), JW (2)

duqduqqu s. diqdiqqu

+ duqqu “crushed, pulverized”; OA

ḫusārum du-qú-um “crushed lapis lazuli” TC 3, 49: 41; Prag 623: 8. S. Michel 2001, 348f.; cf. daqāqu D and daqqu; GOA § 7.2.3.                                                              NJCK

durāru s. andurāru

durāʾu, + adrāʾu? “arm, foreleg”; Aram. lw.

NA ina muḫḫe ad-ra-ʾ ša nā[re ša šarru bēlī] išpuranni mā ḫu-ú-ṭ[a-šu?] libbi ad-ra-ʾ ša pitte [x x] nārātu ša ana libbe […] kaqquru matiḫ SAA 19, 88: 4, 6 “as to the arm(?) of the ri[ver, about which the king, my lord], had written me: ‘Dig [it!]’ The inner part of the arm(?) in the area of […] (and) the rivers, which […] into it – (its) ground is elevated”. Luukko ib. p. 92 interprets ad-ra-ʾ as var. of durāʾu, a loan from Aram. Note, however, that the word is not used with rivers in Aram. On etym. s. Cherry 2017, 100f.

+ duraʾuʾannu “a leather or woolen object”; Nuzi

kušdu-ra-ú-a-an-nu, Santag 4, 92 no. 29: 3 (among parts for a chariot), s. Müller ib. p. 93; cf. HSS 15, 208: 2, 6 (cit. AHw 1373a s.v. turā’u).                                                    JW

durru “anus” s. ṭurru II

dūru I “wall, rampart, fortification, fortress”

1. Early OB maṣṣartum ina dú-ri-im lā urradam AS 22, 7: 15 “the guard shall not come down from the wall”.

2. OB šarrūtum nalbanassu u palűm du-ur-šu ARM 10, 51 = ARM 26/1, 479 no. 238: 13 “kingship is his brick­mold and regnancy his wall” (cf. Heim­pel 2003, 268).

3. On dūr libbi (cardiac septum?) in ex­tis­picy s. Durand 1988, 277 on ARM 26/1, 109: 11.

4. LB PN Nabű-dūr-e-di OECT 12 A 105: 4, 8 “Nabű is the wall of the lone one”.

5. On dūr šinni “gum” s. disc. Kogan 2003, 128f.

6. samān dūri AHw 178b belongs here and not to dūru II.

                                    JW (1–3, 5), MPS (4, 6)

dūru II “permanence”; + OA

1. OA adī dūremma “forever”: ša ištē aḫḫuʾātēšunu izanniʾūni adī du-re-ma izanniʾū AKT 4, 63: 5 “do people who get angry with their sisters have to stay angry forever?”, s. Veenhof 2008/9: 201.

2. OB kīma lā kűm ina du-ri-im ul tīdē AbB 3, 63: 7 “will you never under­stand that it is not yours?”

3. OB ištū dūrim “long-since”:

a) ina lā mašqītim ištū du-ri-ka ammīni mę tereddē AbB 10, 171: 20 “why have you long-since been funneling water (even) when there is no irrigation?”

b) ištū [d]u-ri-im matīma šeʾam ina panīya ul ikmisūnim AbB 12, 31: 10 “never before have they brought the bar­ley in before my arrival”.

c) OB qaqqad kirîm šuʾāti ištū du-ri-ma PN AbB 5, 219 r. 7 “the head of that garden has long-since been PN”.

4. For samān dūri AHw 178b, s. sāmānu; belongs to dūru “wall”.

5. NA/SB murṣu ša du-ur ūmē SAA 2, 14 ii 14 “sickness forever”.

                        JW (2–3), MPS (4–5), NJCK (1)

dūru III “a lance”; + OB

1 du-ur kaspim ARM 32 p. 203 A.1389: 3, 6, 11, 14, 18, 22 “1 silver lance”, s. Arkhipov 2012, 106.       JW

durummu “a bird”; + Ur III

Ur III dur-ru-ummušen FLP 145: 15, s. Owen 1981, 37.              JW

duruššu “foundation”

SB du-ru--šú?⌉ Jiménez 2017, 379 iii 8 (in broken context).

dusinnu s. tuzzinnu

dušmű “(house-born) slave”

1. OB lit. du-šu-um-šu (Sum.: i-mi-du-du) anāku OBO 278, 357: 5 “I am his slave” (Guichard 2015, 368).

2. SB du-uš-mu-u pāliḫku AMD 8/1, 431: 11 “the servant who honors you”.

                                                                     JW

duššű “abundant, copious”

1. Borger 1962, 253: Lex. du-uš-šu-u RA 17, 174 K 14889: 1. Joined with K. 4165+ by Fincke 2015 (Nabnītu).

2. Lex. lu-ú = LU = ú-du-ú = du-uš-šu-u MSL 14, 186: 189 (Ea).

3. SB nīqūka nindabūka du-uš-šú-tum RA 82, 160: 41 “your lavish sacrifices and offerings”.    JW (2–3), MPS (1)

+ duššuptu, daššuptu “sweetness, sweets”; OB

1. Early OB (sesame) [i]š da-šu-pá-těm ARM 19, 393: 4 “for sweets”.

2. OB lit. [li]bbī ītegram du-šu-up-ta⌉-ka CUSAS 10, 9: 8 “your sweetness coiled around my [hea]rt”.

3. For the PNf Duššuptu s. AHw and CAD D s.v. duššupu.    

                                         JW (1, 3), MPS (2)

dušű I, + duḫšu, + duḫšű, + tuḫšu “a mineral, quartz, (blue) frit, beadwork, faience; dyed leather or wool”; + MA, Hurr. lw.

1. Lex. za-gěn-na : uq-ni-tum : tu-uḫ-šu Emar 6/4, 556: 18 (Ḫḫ); [siki]⌈sag-gil?-mud⌉ : ḫa-aš-ma-nu : tu-uḫ-šu ib. 20, s. Pentiuc 2001, 47.

2. OB LÁ.Uḫá DUḪ.šÚ.A ARM 21, 232: 14; sikiDUḪ.ŠÚ.A ARM 22, 50: 14, cf. ARM 22, 51: 14; sikitu-uḫ-ši-im ARM 23, 545 no. 580: 12; sikidu!-uḫ-ši-im ARM 18, 30: 5.

3. OB [pat]innu ša du-uḫ-ši-im ARM 10, 18: 7 “sash of blue wool”.

4. OB 100 gištuppī na4DUḪ.ŠÚ.A ARM 25, 404: 1 “100 platelets of d.-quartz”. For additional Mari ref. s. Arkhipov 2012, 33f.

5. OB PN Du-uḫ-ša-tum ARM 23, 572 no. 607: 18; Du-úḫ-šu-⌈um⌉ YOS 14, 132: 10.

6. SB kubša ša uqnî du-še HS 1886: 3’ “a kubšu-headdress of lapis (and) quartz”.

7. MA (dyed leather) s. Wiggerman 2000, 200 (T98-7, T 98-30).

8. NA ina amtim ša ana PN iddinuni inaduḫ-ši⌉ BATSH 6, 2: 8 “con­cer­ning the slave-girl whom he gave to PN for(?) d. (i.e. for crafting beadwork?)”.

9. NA kušduḫ-ši-i Ass. 2001.D-377: 5( MDOG 134, 48) “d.-leather”, cf. Radner 1997, 301 + n. 1691 (“green kid leather”) with further ref.

10. LB sikidu-šu-ú CT 57, 255: 15.

11. On the NA profession ṣārip du()še s. Dalley 2000, 6, 15f. (“a refiner of frit, faience and glass”, not connected to red-dying); in LB also a tanner of colored leather (s. dubsar 3, 77: 19).

12. For lit. and etym. s. Dalley 2000 and Richter 2012, 466.

                                EZ (6), JW (2, 4–5, 7–12),

                                        MPS (1, 4), NR (3, 1)

dūšu I “a silver object”; OAkk.

2 du-śa-an KŮ.BABBAR CNIP 3, 25: 2 (among other silver objects), s. von Soden 1990, 136.  JW

dūtu, + duddű “virility, manliness; cod­piece; secret place”

1. Lex. du-ú-ti//tum = mašḫandu, DU8.UD.DA // du8-⌈ud-du!-u⌉ // du-ud-du-ú = mašḫandu AOAT 50, 375: 211f. (malku) “codpiece = warming cloth”. Cf. Hrůša ib. p. 237.

2. OB lit. du-ta turram CunMon. 8, 110: 11 “restoring manliness”.

3. SB du-ut-ka lūmid ORA 7, 285: 58 “let me take refuge in your secret place”, s. ib. p. 294.

                             JW (2, 3), MPS (1), NR (3)

duʾu II s. diʾu III

+ duʾʾudu “to fondle, to make love(?)”; SB

(namrirrašu) ú-da-ʾ-as-si-ma ittanas­ḫar­ši Fs. Kraus p. 200 iv 12 “(its bril­liance) fondles (?) her and seeks her wel­fare”; Ebardurgarra bēltum ú-da-ʾa-si-ma ib. 14 “E. fondles(?) the mis­tress”, s. Lambert ib. p. 216 (denom. from dādu?).        JW

duʾummatu s. daʾummatu

+ duZZuru “a textile”; OB

1. 2 du-Zu-rum ARM 22, 324 iv 5 (between bridles and slings).

2. 2 túgdu-Zu-ru SAG ARM 22, 110: 4 “2 first-quality d.” (between textiles).

3. For further ref.s and disc. s. Durand 2009, 33f.     MPS/NR