B

baʾālu “to be exceptionally big, bright; to be in force, forceful”

 

1. G OB mādiš ib-il AbB 13, 15: 11 “He was very forceful(?)”. ibissű ... mādiš ib-ta-il AbB 10, 32: 36 “The loss has become very great”.

 

2. D OB “to make important, exaggerate, enlarge” (see AHw. 1546 for other D- and Dtn-stem forms): apītam ub-ta-aḫ-i-il AbB 13, 85: 18 “I have enlarged the fallow land”.

MPS

 

baʾāšu “to smell bad, be of bad quality”

 

1. For the Sem. etymology see Dhorme 1960, 159: original meaning “to be bad”, see bīšu I AHw B 131.

NR

 

2. G a) First OB (Mari) ref.: karānu bé-iš ana lęmim ul naṭū FM 7, 19: 15f. “the wine smells bad. It is not fit for consumption”.

MPS

 

b) NA: read Wiseman Treaties 603–605 (CAD B 4b, baʾāšu 1a and CAD B 151b, bašű n1’) after SAA 2, 6: kī ša pispisu bé-ʾ-šu-u-ni <...> nipiškunu li-ib-ʾi-iš Just as (this) bug stinks, just so may your breath stink”. For pispisu see CAD P 425b. For the emendation of li-ib-ši “so may your breath be” (thus CAD, see above) to li-ib-<ʾi>-ši “so may your breath be bad smelling” based on the duplicates see Deller 1966, 306. See also baʾāšu D.

 

3. D NA: The duplicate X 21 (Iraq 20 pl. 46) of Wiseman Treaties 603­–605 has nipiškunu [l]u-ba-i-šu “may they (the gods) make your breath bad smelling” (Deller 1966, 306). See also baʾāšu G.

 

4. After von Soden the verbal form ib-ta-na-šu (AfO 11, 224, 75, see CAD under baʾāšu A 1a) has to be read ip-ta-na-šu and derived from pašű(m) (ult. ū), which occurs also in YOS 10, 14, 4 as i-pa-aš-šu (von Soden 1968, 458; AHw 846; CDA 270). However i-pa-aš-šu is understood as a form from the verb apālu in CAD A/2, 162a and CAD P 267a (see under **pašű). The verb ib-ta-na-šu remains uncertain (id.)

NR

 

babālu s. wabālu

 

babbanű, banbanű “good”

 

The postulated original form banbanű attested for the first time: NA lit. ana kirî ba-an-ba-nat  SAA 3, 14: 18, 24 “beautiful garden”. SB ba-an!-ba-nu-u ib. 7 r. 1 in broken context.

MPS

 

bab(b)iltu “tribute”

not in the dictionaries

 

OB GN ša ba-bi-il5-ta-šu-nu ušātiqa ḫursāni Idiqlat u Purattum CUSAS 18, 2: 4–7 “water of GN, whose tribute Tigris and Euphrates made pass the mountains”.

MPS

 

babbilu “bearer”

 

Unparalleled plene spelling OB ba-ab-bi-i-li AbB 8, 78: 26 “bearers”. Mistake for -li-i? Hardly noun pattern PaRRīS. 

MPS

ba-ab-bi-li YOS 13, 77: 2; CT 47, 80: 37 (as ration recipients, s. von Soden, ZA 69, 271). ba-bi-lam AbB 1, 42: 7. aššum ba-ab-bi-limeš PN ana šarri iqbīma AbB 10, 81: 16’ “because of the bearers PN has spoken with the king”. S. Kraus 1984b, 236f.

NR

 

babbilūtu “transportation”

 

OB ba-ab-bi-lu-tim ša šamaššammī AbB 13, 156: 10 “transportation of sesame”.

MPS

 

bābtu I “city quarter, district”

 

“Residential unit” (Dombradi 1996, 245 with ref. to further lit.): ba-ab-tum ů i-ta-šu iz-zi-zu-ma RA 25, p. 43: 5 “the b. and his neighbour were present” (this ref. is not understood in CAD B 10b, 2’a’). [D]AG.GI.A ů UGULA DAG.GI.A VS 18, 1 “b. and overseer of b.”. awīltum ša ina bīt abīka ušbu aššūssa ba-ab-ta-ka! īdű kīʾamma ittallak CT 45, 86: 32 “(the gentlemen questioned him:) the woman who has been living in your father’s house and of whose married status your b. knew – shall she go out thus?” (dissolution of a marriage, s. RA 70, 153ff., AfO Bh. 23, 120).

NR

 

bābtu II “commercial goods; remainder”

 

b. with the assumed meaning “remainder” occurs in NB astron. diaries inserted in the river level statements illu n si bābtu m si gin “the river level – n fingers b. – rose m fingers” (Sachs/Hunger 1988-1996, 1: 35): itu-bi illu ta 10 en 13 5 si gin 32 na <ta> 23 en 25 8 si ba-ab-tú 5/6 kůš gin Astronomical Diaries 2, -203: 7 (= LBAT 304) “that month, the river level from the 10th to the 13th rose 5 fingers, 32 was the na (gauge); <from> the 23 until the 25th, - remainder(?) 5/6 cubit – it rose 8 fingers”.

NR

 

bābu “gate, door”

 

1. OA bābiš “at the gate” (not in the dict.): apputtum iʾidma ba-bi4-iš TÚGḫá u AN.NA re-e-šu-nu na-áš-ú-ni CTMMA 1, 79: 26 (letter) “please take care at the gate of the textiles and tin, which are being checked!”

            “Residential unit (?)”: KŮ.BABBAR iqqaqqad šalmišunu u kēnišunu ibbītīšunu u ba-a-bi4-šu-nu rakis FAOS Bh. 3, p.25 no. 10: 21 “(the obligation to pay back) the silver is guaranteed by whoever one among them is (financially) sound and (legally) responsible, by their houses and by their b.s”.

NR

 

2. OB said of seals (unclear): kunukkātim ša taknuku ba-ab qātīšina šuṭramma AbB 13, 56: 6’–9’ “The sealed documents which you sealed, write for me ‘the gate of their hands’”. W. H. van Soldt, ibid. p. 51 suggests “in the gate of their ...” or “the beginning of their list”. M. Stol apud van Soldt, ibid., suggests that bābu is perhaps “a part of the seal”.

            In transferred mng. (see CAD B 25f., 5)(?) ina buqūmi 5 immerī luterrakkum AbB 12, 163: 15’ “At the beginning(?) of the plucking I will bring you 5 rams in return”, see W. van Soldt ib. p. 129.

            kīma ba-ab dūrija lā ibarrīʾū AbB 12, 166: 35–37 “that (oxen and sheep) do not starve at the ‘gate of my wall’”. See W. van Soldt, ib. p. 133 “in my city quarter” with comm. “probably refers to (a sector) of the city wall”.

OB lit. ba-ba-am ša wālittim ... pārikat YOS 11, 19: 6 “(Lamaštu) is blocking the gate of the woman giving birth”. ba-ab laʾî ibāma … ba-ab wāli[d]ātim ibāma ZA 71, 61–63: 4, 6 “she passed the gate of the babies … she passed the gate of the women in labor”.

MPS

i[n]a šībūt GN u IGI ba-bi-im CT 2, 9: 5 “In the elders (council) of GN and in front of the gate” (about court proceedings).

 

3. MA CAD B 18, 1c1’: upassak KÁ É ú-[tar Ebeling Parfümrez. 21 r. 3 (MA rit., see CAD P 536b under *pussuku; Deller 1966, 307).

 

4. NA CAD B 15b, 1a1’: ana lappanī šēʾī -ia-a [t]arruṣā qātāya STT 65: 16 “my hands are streched out to (even) my poor neighbors” (Deller 1966, 307; see also CAD Š/2, 363b and CAD T 213a).

CAD B 18f., 1c2’: ḫ]azannāte ina ša É ubūsāti ša DN ittitissū ND 1120: 22 (Iraq 14, pl. 23) “the . have taken up a position in the gate of the ‘stable of DN’” (Deller 1966, 307; van Driel 1969, 200f., see also CAD A/1, 92b).

CAD B 19, 1c3’: ina sukki tuššab Bu 91-5-9, 118: 11’ (SAA 13, 135) “She will take a seat in the shrine’s gate”; TA KÁ sukki <...> tu[rrad] id. 13’ “She will then go d[own] from the shrine’s gate”; KÁ dKal-kal Ebeling Parfümrez. 36 iv 3; KÁ dGAM-kŕd-ri id. 37 ii 20 (Deller 1966, 307).

CAD B 21, 1d2’: akī iṣi damqi elâku ina mālakāni STT 360 r. 16 “I stand up like a healthy tree at the gate of the processions” (Deller 1966, 307; CAD M/1, 159a under mālaku A).

CAD B 24, 3b: For bāb bitqi see bitqu.

CAD B 25f., 5b: for the expression panu u bābu see after Borger 1971, 66 also 83-1-18, 506: 13’ (K. 6057+, HKL II 349): p]a-na u KÁ.

NR

 

badādu s. buddudu

 

ba(d)da/ālu “representative, vizier”; Ebla. WSem. lw.?

not in the dictionaries

 

The attestations of ba-da-lum in the Ebla texts, which is tentatively transcribed as /bad(d)a/āl=u(m)/ (Sanmartín 1991, 183), and especially its equation with Sumerian UGULA (while ARET 1, 10 iv 5-7 has Zi-mi-su ba-da-lum Ur-sá-umki, TM.75.G.1252 v 3-8 has instead <...> EN Ur-sá-umki <...> Zi-mi-su UGULA URU-) lead to the conclusion, that ba-da-lum denotes a top-ranking official which stood lower than EN and could represent him. Hence the translation “representative, vizier” (Archi 1988, 2f.; see also Lipiński 1988, 258, Sanmartín 1988, 172, Schloen 2001, 227f., Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 291). The meaning “merchant” (Fronzaroli 1984, 137), which was automatically transferred from Ugaritic bidalu, must be abandoned. The kind of relation of Ebla baddālu to Ugaritic bidalu and its etymology remain controversial (see discussion under bidalu).

NR

 

badāqu “to repair”, NA, Aram. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

NA a-a-i dullu ša šarru bēlī e-pu-su-su-nu u ba-di-qu-nu mar dul-lu!-nu ša šarru bēlī ep-pa-su-nu gabbišu dammuq SAA 16, 126 r. 22’ “which work (exists), that the king my lord has performed and (later) was repaired?” For the Aram. etymon cf., e.g., Sokoloff 2009, 120, who distinguishes two roots BDQ, the one meaning “to disperse” (corresponding to Akk. batāqu), the other meaning “to repair”; other scholars assume only a single root BDQ. For a loan from Aram. speak the form BDQ instead of BTQ (but there exists an OB by-form bi-du-uq-tum of butuqtu “sluice channel”, CAD B 223 = AHw 144 butuqtu 1a) and the mng. “to repair”, only attested in NA and LB (cf. badqu).

MPS

 

baddu?, baṭṭu? “reconnoiterer(?)”, Amor. lw.?

 

Durand 1991 rejects (as already previously Edzard 1964, 144) the mng. diviner, proposed by Driver 1967, 108 (see also WO 2, 19f.), connects the word with hebr. BDD “alone” and translates “homme isolé” for ARM 2, 30. Heimpel 2003, 479: “reconnoiterer”. Cf. also Akk. buddudu “to waste, dissipate” (SB, NA). For FM 9, 13 s. baddű.

MPS

 

baddű “a musical instrument(?)”

not in the dict.

 

OB PN nârum [ša] ba-ad-de-e ileʾʾű ana nargallūtim ina GN taškunšuma FM 9 p. 100 no. 13: 6“you appointed the musician PN, [who] is not able to hold b.s, to the office of chief musician in GN”. Durand 1991 sees here the word with baddu and transl. “gens islólés”; Ziegler, FM 9 p. 100 “solistes”. The context rather speaks for a musical instrument. Moreover, the spelling -de-e points to a word baddű instead of baddu.

MPS

 

bâde

s. bātu

 

bādisu “?”

not in the dictionaries

 

NA: After Deller 1966, 307 in the unpublished text VAT 8667: 6 occurs the previously unknown designation of a group of people: n NINDAmeš ba-di-sa-[ni/te].

NR

 

badiʾu “in his hand”; EA. WSem. gloss.

only CAD

 

Sivan 1984, 133; 209 and 211 deduces prep. with 3 m. sg. suff. bādihu (ba-di-ú) from *bi-yadi-hu” (compare CAD: “ba-jadihu”).

NR

 

badqu “repair work”, NA and LB, Aram. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

Cf. the ref. collected in CAD B 167f. batqu 2d and disc. sect., supported by the new lemma badāqu.  Hardly correct AHw B 115 batqu 6: Ellipse.

MPS

 

bādu “evening”

 

NA CAD B 27b, bādu b: UD 16 KÁM šá ba-a-de i-šá-[ Bu. 91-5-9, 104: 4 (Deller 1966, 307).

NR

 

BA-DU-tum (mng. uncert.); OA

not in the dictionaries

 

7 arḫālu ŠŔ.BA 2 BA-DU-tum 1 papru BIN 4, 90: 6 (s. also Michel 2001, 486, 368a). Note that CAD A/2, 255 under arḫālu and CAD P 115 under papru spell BA-DU-tum as pá-tů-tum.

NR

 

bāʾertu “female trapper/fisherman”

 

First OB ref.: women in the harem of Mari, summarized as fŠU.ḪA FM 4 p. 183 viii 12.

MPS

 

bāʾeru “hunter, fisherman”

 

1. MB: u ŠU.ḪAmeš tâmti ša ana GN1 u GN2 ginâ izabbilū DUMU PN kī itbalušunūti ginű KU6meš batiq JCS 19, 97: 22 “and (concerning) the fishermen of the sea, who have been delivered a regular offering to GN1 and GN2, – when the son of PN has took them away, the regular offering of fishes was cut off”. S. Sassmannshausen 2001, 115f.

NR

 

2. SB: ba-i-ri-ma Šūpę-amēli 29, cf. pariktu.

MPS

 

3. NA: CAD B 31a, lexical section: ŠU.ḪA ba-ʾi-ru STT 383 vi 4’ (Deller 1966, 307; see also Or. 34, 471).

CAD B 31, 1a1’a’:  [n l]úMU 14 ŠU.ḪA ND 2497 B 5 (Iraq 23, pl. 18; Deller 1966, 307).

 

4. N/LB: adī 2 MU.AN.NAmeš PN1 <…> ina IGI PN2 ba-ʾi-i-ri šummē ša šarri ba-ʾi-ru-tu ša šummē ulammassu BM 61196: 3 (WZKM 83, p. 31f.) “For two years PN1 <…> is at the disposal of PN2 the dormouse hunter of the king. He will learn him the dormouse hunting”.

NR

 

bāʾerūtu “hunting”

 

For LB bāʾerūtu ša summē “the dormouse hunting” s. bāʾeru “hunter”.

 

+baḫiltu, pl. baḫlātu, baḫilātu (a vessel); OB Mari

 

b. of gold, silver and bronze are known from Mari. 1 mana KŮ.SIG17 KI.LÁ.BI 2 GAL ba-aḫ-la-tim šūbultum ana PN LUGAL Anšan ARM 25, 2: 3 “1 mina of gold (is) the wight of two b.-vessels (which are) a gift for PN, the king of Anšan”. 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il5-tum GA[L KŮ.SIG17] ARM 31: 187: 17’. 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il-tum KŮ.BABBAR ARM 31, 78: 1. 2 GAL ba-aḫ-la-tum ZABAR ib. 109: 6. 1 ba-ḫi-il-tum ša GÚ- ṣipirtim KŮ.SIG17 ib., 85: 17 “1 b.-vessel whose neck (is decorated) with gold ornament”. [1] libbu ša ba-ḫi-il-tim KŮ.SIG17 SŮ.A 2 1/3 GÍN(“SU”) KI.LÁ.BI 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il-tum GAL KŮ.SIG17 1/3 mana 5 GÍN(“SU”) KI.LÁ.BI 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il-tum TUR KŮ.SIG17 qadum libbiša 4 GÍN(“SU”) KI.LÁ.BI ib. 186: 5’ “[1] libbu for b.-vessel of fine gold, its weight (is) 2 1/3 shekels; 1 big golden b.-vessel, its weight (is) 1/3 mina 5 shekels; 1 smal golden b.-vessel together with its libbu, its weight (is) 4 shekels”. 1 GAL ba-ḫi-[il-tum KŮ.SIG17] tamlī na4ZA.GĚ[N] u na4ṣí-[ir-pí-im] kawārum u ta[arbāṣum] ṣibbit KŮ.SIG17 1/3 mana 8 2/3 GÍN(“SU”) KI.LÁ.BI ib. 203: 7 “1 golden b.-vessel inlaid with lapis lazuli and fired (clay), ‘wall’ and ‘enclosure’ (decortive elements) (are) golden ”.

            Note also the pl. form baḫilātu:  2 ba-ḫi-la-tim ib. 149: 3. 12 ba-ḫi-la-tum ib., 225: 9. 2 GAL ba-ḫi-la-tim ib. 287: 7.

Cf. biʾiltu “an alabastron”: the same word? (after CAD B 223 and AHw 125, however, from baʾāšu “to smell bad”). For disc. and further ref.s s. Guichard, ARM 31, 183ff.

NR

 

baḫrę? (a stone, phps.) “coral”

 

OB: 1 šūši ba-aḫ-ru-úurudu KI.LÁ.BI 1 GÚN 10 MA.NA YOS 5, 227, 3 (Edzard 1970a, 160) “60 copper baḫrű with a total weight of 1 talent and 10 minas”.

NR

 

baḫű II “to be(come) thin, scarce”

 

OB (oldest ref.): ul i-ba-aḫ-ḫi AbB 10, 177: 34 “does not become scarce”(?, context uncl.).

MPS

 

bāʾiru “hunter” s. bāʾeru

 

baʾʾītu “thing sought”

 

See Borger 1971, 66 and EAK 1, 53, note 3. Cf. also ʾu.

 

ba-ka-tim (mng. unkn.); OB

Not in the dictionaries

 

ba-ka-tim ša upaḫḫiru abbil, 114: 9 “b. which I had gathered”.

NR

 

*bakīram s. šurrâm and makkārum

AHw. 97 and 1548, CAD B 34.

 

The entry “bakīram” is the result of a wrong interpretation of ARM 1, 70: 5 (correct: šurrâm) and VOM 181: 18 (correct: makkārum) and must be deleted. For discussions s. šurrâm and makkārum. Cf. Streck 2000, 85.

NR

 

*bakta s. maqta

 

bakkītu, bākītu “wailing woman”

 

MB Bo. (oldest ref.) bá-ki-ti-ia KBo. 36, 27: 18f. The many spellings with a single k point to a by-form bākītu.

MPS

 

bakkű “squalling, crying”; NA

 

1. NA lit. bak-ka-ni-i ṣar-piš ana NU.gišKIRI6-ni ni-ib-ki  SAA 3, 16: 20 “We are crying bitterly. We have cried for our gardener”. Cf. Deller 1966, 307.

MPS

 

2. For ZA 30, 220 (AHw 97a; CAD B 35a) s. bakű “to weep”.

 

bakű “to weep”

 

1. bākű: Correction for SB ZA 30, 220 = MC 2, § 7: 337 (AHw 97a and CAD B 35a under bakkű): correct reading of the the manuscript Aa is ṣeḫri [b]a-{ʾ}-ki-i (instead of ba-ak-ki-i). It is confirmed by the manuscript Ab with its []eḫri ba-ki-i (Farber 1989b, p. 52: 137 and p. 55).

 

2. NB: See von Soden 1968, 458 ad BIN 1, 46: 40 (see CAD B, 37a): correct?

 

3. Gtn OB anāku annīkī ūmiša ina bi-ta-ki īnāya ittaḫmaṭā AbB 13, 175: 12–14 “As for me here, my eyes were burning feverishly every day because of (my) constant crying”.

NR

 

bakűtu “weeping/mourning ceremony”

not in the dictionaries

 

OB (oil) ana 4 ba-ku-ut šarrim FM 3 p. 229: 2 “for the 4 weeping ceremonies for the king”. See also ib. p. 233: inuma ba-ku-tim ša šarrim “at the occasion of the weeping ceremony for the king”. Cf. Jacquet, FM 12 p. 37.

MPS

 

balālu “to mix (up); alloy”

 

1. G a) OB Mari te-er-tam e-[pu-uš-ma] ba-a[l]-la-a ARM 26/1, 136: 3'f. “I m[ade] an extispicy [and] the (signs) were mixed”.

With object people (cf. CAD b. 1f, 2 and 7): DUMUmeš Si-im-a-al it-ti-šu-nu ab-lu-ul-ma a-[la]m i-n[a]-aṣ-ṣa-ru ARM 26/1, 144: 19–21 “I mixed sons of Simʾal with them and they guard the city (together)”. u DUMUmeš GN1 ša ištu GN1 tassuḫam ana adaššim ša GN2 šūribšunūti [i]tt[i DUMUmeš] ālim bu-lu-ul-šu-nu-ti CRAI 38 p.105, note 63 “and the citizens of GN1, which you have removed from GN1, let them enter the enclosure wall of GN2 and mix them with the citizens of the city”.

“To make an alloy”: 3 MA.NA annakum ana ba-la-al 24 MA.NA URUDU billi 8-ŔM ARM 22, 205 ii 8–11 (cf. also ib. 17, iii 8) “3 minas of tin for making an alloy of 24 minas of copper, alloy of 8 (to one)”. 2 1/3 MA.NA URUDU LUḪ.ḪA <…> 1 MA.NA AN.NA ina 8-su TA.ŔM ba-li-il RA 64, p. 21, 1: 4 (s. comm. of Dossin ib. p. 40 ad L. 4) “2 1/3 minas of copper <…> 1 mina of tin at the rate of 8 shekels (of tin) pro (mina) are mixed”.

inūma laḫtanam ib-lu!?(ed.: li)-lu ARM 21, 130: 7f. “when they mixed (beer in) the l. vat”. (metals) ša PN ina kiškattî[m] ša PN2 ib-lu-lu ib. 285: 9–12 “which made PN to an alloy in the kiln of PN2”.

OB lit. ba-al-la-at qerbetum ina damīšunu FM 14 iii 6 “The meadowland was smeared with their blood”.

            In transf. mng.: ṭēmam ina nadānim ba-la-lum i-ba-al-la-lu ARM 27, 162: 34f. “when they deliver the report, they cause much confusion”.

MPS, NR

 

b) MA: In the context of brewing beer: ú-ra-ṭu-bu i-ba-lu-lu Chuera 12: 33f. “They will soak and brew”. See [lu]-ub-lu-ul in destroyed context ib. 30: 7’.

MPS

 

2. Gtn: OB Mari ana bi-ta-al-lu-[li-im] ana bīt sābītim ana mēlulim “(they come to you only for …) for constantly mixing (?), for alehouse, for play”. For interpretations of b. here (“pratiquer la débauche”, “souiller”) s. Durand, MARI 3, p.135 and LAPO 16, p. 66.

NR

 

3. N: OB ina šittīn lā ab-ba-al-la-al ARM 26/2, 392: 37 “I will not be mixed up in two-thirds” (Heimpel 2003, 338f. with n. 3). OB lit. ilū mātim ib-ba-lu inepri UET 6/2, 395: 11the gods of the land were spread with dust”.

 

4. Ntn (first ref.): OB lit. i-ta-ab-la-al elī inbī u dādī YOS 11, 24 i 23 “constantly mingle on top of (my) fruits and desires!”

MPS

 

5. After von Soden 1968, 458 the logogram ḪI.ḪI in recipes, placed in CAD B 42f. under bullulu “to mix”, should be interpreted as the G-stem taballal instead of tuballal. The syllabic spelling tu (instead of ta)-bal-lal in KUB 4, 48 III 9 von Soden explains as a mistake.

NR

 

balangu, bulukku, bulungu, NA pilaggu (a large drum)

 

1. Emar: New by-forms: bu-lu-uk-ki Emar 545: 103 and gišbalag = bu-lu-un-g[u5(KU)] ib. 380.

MPS

 

2. NA: New by-form: arim pi-lag-gi ša LÚ.x[xx] SAA 3, 8 r. 13’ (CAD P 372b under pilakku “spindle”) “The drum of the ... is tuned (?) (lit.: “covered with skin”)!” Note that Livingstone, SAA 3, 143a translates pilaggu as a “lyre” (as well as CAD P 359b under pigű).

NR

 

balāṣu I “to stare”

 

1. For the lexical entry KAzi-par?.ŠU.GÁL = ba-la-ṣu (AHw 98b) see Matouš 1964, 136.

NR

 

2. G: a) OB lit. ina pīka u šīnātika ib-ta-li-i-ka TIM 9, 53: 6 “it stared at you in your mouth and your urine”. S. Streck/Wasserman 2011, 123.

MPS

 

b) SB: Read ZA 4, 241: 39 (CAD B 45a, 1b) [leq]e damāṣu ba-la-ṣu u utnēnšu “accept obeisance, raising of eyes, and his prayers” (von Soden 1968, 458; ZA 61, 60: 217; CAD U 336b).

 

3. Dt: After Borger 1971, 66 (see BAL 31, 3. ed. of 2006) balāṣu occurs in the LH § 159: ana sinništim šanītim ub-ta-al-li-iṣ-ma ana emišu māratka ul aḫḫaz iqtabi “(if a man <…>) should have his attention diverted to another woman and he says to his father-in-law, ‘I will not marry your daughter’”. However AHw 814a and CAD P 54a interpret this verbal form as Dt-stem from palāsu (see also e. g. Roth 1995, 111). See also Borger 2008, 439, who connects balāṣu with syr. blṭ.

NR

 

balāt “without”

 

1. Delete ba-laṭ šarri Iraq 20, 182: 11 (NA let.) “by the life of the king” CAD B 50b (Deller 1966, 307: only NB!) and see for this ref. ba-lat šarri CAD B 45b.

Note the correction of Deller 1966, 307 for ABL 476 r. 1 (CAD B 45b): read ba-la-tu-US-šú-nu or ba-la-tu-uš10-šú-nu.

balāt + DN: (mannu ša ina urkiš ina matīma ... ) [ina] muḫḫišu ba-lat DN ilku [tupšikku] i-me-su-ma ina da[nāni] T[A] IGI DN ekkim[šu] ND 5550: 21-23 (Iraq 19, pl. 33; Deller 1966, 307; SAA 12, 96) “(Whoever in the future, at any time <...>) without the permission of Nabű, imposes labour-duty or corvée work on him or takes him away from the service of Nabű by force”.

NR

 

2. OA ba-lá-at (in broken context) AKT 5, 18: 49. OA occurences show that the word cannot, pace AHw 101, be a fem. pl. of balűtu, because a contraction *balū-at is impossible.

 

3. Cf. AHw balűtu.

            With prep. ana + loc. + suff.: a-bal-la-tuk-ka memēni lā eppušū šumma mār šipri ettiq a-ba-la-duk-ka lā ettiqū SAA 15, 241: 6, 9 “without you they should do nothing! If a messenger passes by, they must not pass by without you!”

MPS

 

balāṭu I “life”

 

1. OB: Note the spelling bala-ṭí in OB šu-lum bala-ṭí ů da-ri-i lu-uš-me CUSAS 9, 6: 22–24 “May I here greetings of long life and being eternal”.

MPS

 

2. EA: The expression ana / ina balāṭ “coming year” (CAD B 51f.; AHw 99a) possibly occurs also in the Amarna letter EA 17: 30 as [i-n]a TI (for MU.TI)-ma (Moran 1992, 42, note 5). The alternative reading [NU.KŮR]-ti-ma proposed by Adler 1976, 122 does not correspond with the traces (Moran, ibid.).

 

3. NA After Deller 1966, 307f. the meaning “to pay homage” (CAD B 47b, 1b1’) could fit also to dnuska SUKKAL DINGIRMEŠ TĚL.LA ana dEN taqabbi Ebeling Parfümrez. pl. 10: 23’ // STT 88 x! 41-42.

            CAD B 48f., 1c2’: for ana balāṭ napšāte in NA votive inscriptions see also Or NS 35, 205 (Deller 1966, 307f.).

            CAD B 49b, 1d: For ABL 664 r. 5’ see now SAA 10, 243: qāssunu ša ba-la-ṭi ina [UGU] šarri bēliya ummudu “(Bel and Nabű) will lay their lifegiving hands upon the king, my lord”.

            CAD B 51, 2a3’: (Nabű ... ) u4-mu 1-en la ba-laṭ-[su liq-bi] ND 5463:17 (Iraq 19, pl. 32,  Deller 1966, 307f.); for lā balāssu see Hirsch, AfO 21 (1966) 84f.

            Deller 1966, 307f. adds a section d) to balāṭu 4 (CAD B 52a): “In NA rituals: food (for the gods)” DN TĚL.LA muḫra/muḫrū taqabbi Ebeling Parfümrez. pl. 10: 10’f., 24’; pl. 11 r. 8, r. 9; r. 10; r. 12; r. 14; DN TĚL.LA m[uḫ-ra ta-qa-bi] STT 88 x! 8–9 (cf. Frankena, BiOr 18, 201b and 203a/b (“take the food”!).

NR

 

4. SB ba-la-ṭa/ṭu/ṭů ša lā namāri ina muḫḫi mūti minâ utter Ballad of Early Rulers 19 “a life without light, what has it more than death?”

MPS

 

balāṭu II “to live”

 

1. G a) OB lit. [u]l ib-lu-ṭú šunu imtūtū FM 14 iv 5 “they did not stay alive but died”.

MPS

 

b) MA CAD B 56f., 3a1’: bal-ṭa-ku ma-ṭi-ma ša ba-la-ṭi-ja me-ta-ku ma-ṭi-[ma ša mu-a-ti-ja] „ich bin am Leben, aber ich habe zu wenig, um am Leben zu bleiben; ich bin tot, aber ich habe zu wenig, [um tot zu sein]“ Bo. 845: 10’ (MA letter; Deller 1966, 305). Cf., however, the same passage in von Soden 1988, 345: bal-ṭa-ku-ma ṭé-ma ša ba-la-ṭi-ja me-ta-ku ma-?[   ] “Ich bin wieder am Leben, dann den Bescheid über meine Genesung, (dass) ich (fast) tot war und …[”.  

            CAD B 57a, 3a2’: KAJ 1: 8 read with AS 30 adi bal-ṭú-ni instead of *bal-ṭu-ni (Deller 1966, 305).

 

c) NA CAD B 53, 1a: libbinni ib-ta-a[l-ṭa] SAA 10, 185: 15 “our hearts were delighted”; cf. ŠŔ-bi lib-l[a-ṭa] id. e. 2 “may my heart be delighted!” (already Deller 1966, 308).

CAD B 57a, 3a2’: adi UDmeš ša PN bal-ṭu-u-ni ipalluḫū-šú SAA 14, 208: 2’-r. 1 “As long as PN lives they shall serve him(already Deller 1966, 308).

CAD B 57b, 3b: PN šarru māt Aššur i-bal-la-ṭa u ušēzaba issu libbi sīḫi annî SAA 4, 322 Will Assurbanipal, king of Assyria, survive and escape this insurrection?” (extispicy). Note, that this passage is cited as ABL1368 r. 1 by mistake in CAD B 73a under balű 1b “to come to an end” with i-bal-la instead of i-bal-la-ṭa (Deller 1966, 308).

NR

 

2. D a) OA “to assess the value of, to consider an asset or credit” (Prag p. 20 with lit.; cf. CAD B 62 b. 9): luqūtam ... ba-lí-ṭá-am Prag 431: 6 “estimate the goods!” Stative ba-lu-uṭ-ma ib. 16 “is estimated”.

MPS

 

b) OB: “To draw the balance, to render the account”: “Now take your tablets (records) and come here and bu-ul-li-iṭ the accounts/accounting of your barley” OBTR 311: 11. bu-ul-lu-uṭ ZI.GA ŠE.Ě.GIŠ ARM 22, 276 iv 40 “drawing the balance of expenditures of sesame”. bu-lu-uṭ ZI.GA UD.KA.BAR ARM 22, 203 r. iv 8 “drawing the balance of the expenditures of bronze”. ana bu-ul-lu-uṭ našpakim šakin M. 11500 (MARI 3, 262) “(this document) is established to render the account of the accumulation (of grain)”. For further ref. in Mari s. Durand 1984, 260ff. S. also Veenhof 1987, 49f.

NR

 

3. Dt OB mu-úš-ke-num DUMUmeš ON aš-šum bu-ta-al-lu-ṭě-im a-na-na-ba-al-ka-at-ti ša-di-im it-ta-al-ku ARM 28, 51: 10–13 “The poor people from ON went to cross the mountain in order to provide themselves”. See also Kupper 1988, 6 and Borger 2008, 439.

MPS

 

balittu

See balītu.

 

balītu “backwater”

 

1. There is probably only one word balītu instead of two, balittu (CAD B 63 “reservoir, pond”, and balītu (ib. “desert land”); AHw. 99 only has balittu “Reservoir; Fischteich”. t is never doubled, hence the form appears to be balītu, derived from the prep. balū. After Durand 2000, 545, the word has, at least in Mari, the meaning “backwater”.

 

2. OB eqel ba-li-tim FM 2, 11: 19, 25 “field at the backwater”. ba-li-tum šī (in broken context) FM 2, 36: 5.

ḫarrānum ša ba-li-tim ARM 22, 328 ii 20, 31 (-tum! correct?) “road (leading to) the pond” (in description of field).

MPS

 

baʿlīyu ? “lordly”, WSem. word

 

SB lex. ba-li-u[m] = bēlu AOAT 50, 430: 14 (exp. malku) “lordly(?) = lord”.

MPS

 

ballu “mixed”

 

Said of evil in NA EDIN ḪUL! bal-li! SAA 9, 2 ii 24 “steppe of mixed evil” (i.e., evil of all kind?), see comm. of S. Parpola, ib. p. 16.

MPS

 

ballukku, balluggu (a tree; an aromatic substance)

 

1. By-form balluggu: OB 4 GÍN KŮ.BABBAR šīm 2 GÚ ba-al-lu-gi ARM 22, 261: 9f. “2 shekels of silver, the price of 2 talents of b.” (in list of aromatic trees).

ba-lu-gu-um (besides kikkirēnu) FM 2, 4: 14.

 

2. OB Mari [n] MA.NA ba-lu-ku ... [a-n]a diziptuḫḫim ARM 21, 106: 1–3 “3 minas of b. (and sweet cane) for making sweet beer”. 5 MA.NA šurmēnum 5 MA.NA asum 5 MA.NA ba-lu-ku ana kisamim ib. 10–13 “5 minas of cypress, 5 minas of myrtle, 5 minas of b. for kisamu-drink(?)”. 20 MA.NA ba-l[u-ku] ib. 119: 3 (besides other aromatics).

MPS

 

2. The passages from EA 22 iii 33 and EA 25 iv 51, which are quoted in CAD B 64 under ballukku, must be corrected after Moran 1992, 59, note 35. The spelling ŠIM.BAL in EA 22 iii 33 must be changed to ŠIM.BÚLUG. For EA 25 iv 51 see kanaktu.

NR

 

ballūṣītu (a bird; a lizard)

 

SB (if a falcon hunts for prey and) bal-lu-ṣi-timušen išši CUSAS 18, 36 ii 18 “picks up a b.-bird”.

MPS

 

balṣu, palṣu in b/palṣa īni(m) “staring”

 

baltām(mu) “balsam”, NB, WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

NB Jursa 2009, 156f. has found baltām(mu) in three New-Babylonian lists of aromata: šimba-al-ta-am (BM 77429: 22); šimba-al-tam-[(mu)] (BM 73126); šimba-al-tam-mu (BM 75774). The origin of the first tablet is still unknown (Jursa 2009, 152f.). The other two tablets are from the Ebabbar archive. 

baltām(mu) occurs also as a personal (second?) name of a feminine slave in the archive of the family Egibi (Wunsch 1995/96, 33-63): salbal-ta-am-mu (ibid. 57, Nr. 7: 7 and 11); [salše-pit]-dNIN.LÍL-aṣ-bat šá salba-al-ta-am-mu MU-šú 2-ú (ibid. 63, Nr. 12: 4).

Jursa 2009, 156f. considers baltām(mu) as West Semitic loanword *baśām with /-lt-/ for /-ś-/, which is known in Hebrew and Aramaic as bośem “species, perfumes” (Gesenius 1987 I 182; Jastrow 1996, 199) and Arabic as bašām (Lane 2003 I 209). The source of this resin is thought to be the tree of the balsam of Mekkeh, Commiphora opobalsamum or Amyris opobalsamum (Jursa 2009, 157 and Lane 2003 I 209). The New-Babylonian references of baltām(mu) are the earliest found in non-biblical texts. For the bálsamon or balsamum in the Ancient Greek texts see Jursa 2009, 157.

NR

 

baltu, baštu “thornbush”

 

First OB ref.: 1 majjālu ba-áš-tum! ARM 22, 322: 46 “1 bed of b. wood”. Whereas Kupper, ib. p. 499 translates “lit d’apparat”, Kupper 1992, 164, correctly recognizes the tree baltu here; for further ref. from the Mari texts see ib.

OB lit. assuḫ ba-aš-ta-am ALL no. 23: 8 “I have torn the thorn”. aru ša ba-aš-tim CUSAS 32, 49: 4 “it is hurrying among the thornbush”. Cf. George ib. p. 113f. for further instances of OB baštu. waruq ina ba-aš-tim  RA 66, 141ff. AO 7682: 7 “(the scorpion) is green in the thornbush”.

MPS

 

balṭu “living, alive”

 

1. OB: ana ramānika lā teggī ana pani ilim magal lā [tadda]r ana ba-al-ṭě-im Marduk mimma ul ikallā ramānka itabbal AbB 7, 80: 14 “do not be negligent to yourself, do not have too much fear towards the god: Marduk withholds nothing from the (person) in good health. Take care (?) of yourself!”

OB Mari: URDUmeš ša bēliya ṣābam Kaḫatayem iskipūma 6 LÚmeš pagrī iddű u kalűšu ba-al-ṭŕ-am iṣbat ARM 26/2, p. 132, 357: 26’ “the servants of my lord have overthrown the troop of Kaḫat. They have left 6 corpses; and each have captured (a prisoner) alive”.

For šalmu balṭu in OB contracts (AHw 100b) see also Harris, JCS 14, 133 ff. (Matouš 1964, 136).

NR

 

2. OA in PN: Ba-al-ṭů-šar AKT 7a, 249: 27 “The alive one is king/is just ”.

 

3. Emar: In the sense of “magnetic” in šadânu balṭu (Ḫḫ XVI), see DCCLT MB Ura 10.

MPS

 

3. NA: For the expression balṭūte nasāḫu (CAD 67a, 1a1’) see also SAA 2, 6: 476: eliš TĚL.LAmeš li-sa-ḫu-ku-nu Above, may they take possession of your life” (see also Deller 1966, 308).

NR

 

balṭūtu “state of being alive”

 

1. OB ba-al-ṭú-us-sú ul īdē kīma mītim kispam aktassipšum inanna ina GN <…> wašbūssu iqbűnim AbB 13, 21: 7 “I did not know whether he (my son) was still alive and I kept making funerary offerings for him as if he were dead. Now, they have told me that he is staying in GN <…>”.

OB Mari: u ṣābum b[a-a]l-ṭů-us-sú tūr ARM 26/2, p. 132, 357: 27’ “and the troop (of Mari) has returned safe and sound”.

 

2. Wiseman Treaties 570-572 (CAD B 69b, a1’) read now kî ša šá-aṣ-bu?-tu? tul-tú takkulūni ina bal-ṭu-te-ku-nu UZUmeš-kunu UZU ša MUNUSmeš-kunu DUMUmeš-kunu DUMU.MUNUSmeš-kunu tuʾissu tākuljust as a worm eats ..., so may the worm eat, while you are (still) alive, your own flesh and the flesh of your wives, your sons and your daughters” (SAA 2, 6: 570-572, see also CAD T 466b).

NR

 

balu “without”

 

1. OB: With suff. (see CAD B 71 balu c end): kaspam ana mamman ba-lu-ia lā tušeṣṣē AbB 12, 53: 17f. “Do not issue the silver to anyone without my permission”.

MPS

 

2. MA: CAD B 71b, h: ana namāše ba-lu E[N]-ya palḫāku JCS 7, 167, No. 63: 21 “I am afraid to move on without my lord” (Deller 1966, 305, now see also CAD N/1, 221a, 1d; CAD P 39b, 1f.)

NR

 

balű I “spare donkey”; lw. from Sum.

not in the dictionaries

 

Emar: [MIN (= anše)-á-bal-lá = ba-lu-u Emar 6/4, 550: 233’ (Ḫḫ XIII). Parallel to anše-á-bal = tēnű MSL 8/1, 51: 365 (see AHw. 1347 tēnű 3, CAD T 344 tēnű lex. sect.).

MPS

 

balű II “to be extinguished”

See belű II

 

baʾlu “(exeptionally) big”; SB

 

SB: šumma erű ina ūri bīt amēli iṣṣūra lū 1 2 ikkal bēl bīti šuāti zitta ba-il-ta5 [GU7] YBC 16934, Gs. Sachs p. 282 i 8 (Šumma ālu) “If an eagle eats a bird, either one or two, on the roof of a person’s house, the owner of that house [will consume] an (exeptionally) large share”. S. Foster/Moren 1988, 279ff.

NR

 

baluḫḫu, buluḫḫu (an aromatic plant)

 

OB aššum ḫīl ba-lu-ḫi u kukrim AbB 3, 32: 4, 6 “as to the resin of b. and kukrum”. kukru ba-lu-ḫu ib. 8.

OB Mari: 5 MA.NA gišba-lu-ḫu-um FM 7 p. 94 M.12595: 9’.

MPS

 

*balultu “mixture”

only CAD

 

von Soden 1968, 458 (CAD *balultu): “kann ich die Ansetzung eines Wortes *balultu, neuass. balussu nicht anerkennen, schon weil Substantive nach der Form parus als Gegenstandsbezeichnungen nicht vorkommen. Ich habe die beiden Belege unter balűtu (AHw. 101a) verzeichnet (Bedeutung hier wohl besser „in leerem Zustand“).”

 

balūt “without”

 

SB Ug. ba-lut šaḫḫi AuOr. Suppl. 23, 51: 23 “without š.-cloth”.

MPS

 

balűtu s. balāt

 

bāmâ “half and half, in half”

 

bāmtu I “half”

 

OB ba-ma-sú-nu lū wašbū ba-ma-sú-nu [l]illikū AbB 13, 103: 5’f. “Let half of them stay, half of them go”; ba-ma-at riksim u ša ibaššű ma-ḫa-aṣ AbB 12, 54: 16–18 “Divide (lit. hit) half of the package and what (else) is there” (i.e., divide into two halves, see W. van Soldt, ib. p. 45).

            4 pelî ša lurmim ina ba-ma-tim ilqűnimma ARM 27, 9: 31–33 “they gathered 4 ostrich eggs in the plains”.

MPS

 

bāmtu II “chest, ribcage”

 

1. Lex.: GIŠ.NI-e-ĝu10 = ba-am-ti ṣe-ḫ[e-er-]tum, x-sa-ad-ĝu10 = ba-am-ti ra-b[i-tu]m CUSAS 12 p. 150: 12f. (Ugumu) “my small/big paunch”.

 

2. In the dual: OB Mari ba-am-ti-šu ikūṣ ARM 26/2 p. 337 no. 434: 39 “he skinned his chest (on both sides)”. The dual is also attested in STT 87: 11, wrongly analysed as pl. in CAD B bamtu B a 3’.

MPS

 

bandillu “belly”

 

1. Salonen 1959–1960, 158 compares bandillu “stomach” of unknown origin (AHw 102a) with Ar. bandun “intestine”.

NR

 

2. NA (not in the dict.) (in lists of temple oferings): 10 ban-dil! SAA 7, 202 r. 3 “10 stomachs(?)” (after 3 uzulipšāt “3 scrotums”). 10 ba-dilmeš ib. 189 r. 7. [ba]n!-dil! ib. 208: 15.

MPS

 

banduddű “bucket”

 

1. OB Mari: 1 GAL ba-an-du-du-ú KŮ.BABBAR ARM 31, 235: 3; 1 ba-an-du-ud-ú KŮ.BABBAR ša ma-riki ib., 241: 1 “1 silver b.-bucket from Mari”. For further ref.s and disc. s. Guichard ib. 187f.

NR

 

2. Emar: New by-form banduttű: [gú]r-ba-an-du8-du8 = MIN (= kippat) ba-an-du-ut-te-e Emar 545: 102 (Ḫḫ VI).

 

3. Rare syll. spelling: NA lit. [m]ullâ mullâ ban-(du)-de-šu-un SAA 3, 10: 11 „fill, fill their buckets!“

MPS

NA: For K.8005: 33 (CAD B 79b, b) see also the duplicate K.6692 (Borger 1971, 66).

NR

 

banītu “good treatment; favorable words”

 

OB aššum ana lā ba-ni-a-t[im pānīk]a taškunu AbB 13, 103: 2’f. “because you have set [your mind] on improper matters”.

MPS

 

bannu, bānu “ewer”

 

SB lex. ba-an šipr-rum = nemsű AOAT 50, 405: 204 (malku) “ewer for a ritual = washing basin”. With AHw 102 and CDA 37, against CAD B 95 bānű A 2, Sum. lw. (< bán, cf. also pānu II), not deriving from Akk. banű “to create”.

MPS

 

bantű “bucket”

not in the dictionaries

 

Emar: gúr-ba-an-du8 = MIN (= kippat) ba-an-te-e Emar 545: 101 (Ḫḫ VI) „handle of the b.-bucket“.

MPS

 

banű I “well-formed, well-made, fine”

 

1. OB Mari, said of musicians destined to be blinded: TURmeš la ba-nu-tim “boys not good” ARM 26/2, 297: 14f. Heimpel 2003, 287 translates “untrained”, but perhaps their physical state of still having their eyes is meant. OB TURmeš lā ba-nu-tim FM 9 p. 220 no. 53: 9 “boys not beautiful”.

Referring to an abstract in OB ana ilūtika ba-ni-tim AbB 12, 99: 20f. “to your splendid divine power”.

 

3. MB 32 NA4meš ba-nu-tu4 MBLET 20: 4 “32 fine stones”.

MPS

 

banű II “to be(come) good, beautiful”

 

1. D “to make good”: OB tuppaka ana awīlim bu-un-ni-a-am-ma šūbilam AbB 12, 113: 19 “Send a well-done letter of yours to the lord!”.

MPS

 

2. Driver 1967, 108 connects banű B (CAD B 90) with Hebr. niḇnā “showed oneself good, mended one's ways” in Job 22: 23 (“if thou turnest back to the Almighty (and) mendest thy ways”), which he separates from both Akk. banű “to build” and Hebr. בנה “built”.

 

3. Von Soden 1968, 458 does not agree with the translation “to grow” for banű B (CAD B 90). After him most of the passages in section 1 belong to banű A “to build”. The rest of the passages in section 1 as well as the passages from section 6 he translates “to be(come) good”.

NR

 

banű IV “to create; build”

 

1. KAR 4 r. 20 (CAD B 91a under banű B “to be beautiful”) with DÍM = ana bu-ni-[i] belongs after Matouš 1964, 137 to banű A “to build”.

 

2. After Borger 1971, 66 (CAD B 85b, 1a1’), VAB 3, p. 8 b 1 should be deleted.

 

3. Note, that in EA 292: 29 b[a]-n[i]-t[i] occurs as a gloss to ra-aṣ-pa-te “I built up” (see CAD R 186 and Sivan 1984, 212). It coud be understood either as Akkadian banű in combination with the West Semitic suffix 1 c. sg. (compare ra-aṣ-pa-te) or as the West Semitic translation of ra-aṣ-pa-te. The gloss mark between ra-aṣ-pa-te and b[a]-n[i]-t[i] speaks for the latter interpretation. The reading b[a]-n[i]-t[i] is, however, uncertain (Moran 1992, 335, note 3).

NR

 

bānű; f. bānītu “creator, begetter”

 

banűtu s. rab-banűtu

 

bappiru, pappiru “beer bread”

 

1. For the spelling pappiru see (Stol 2008, 350) a) OB: TIM 9, 51: 9 (pa-pí-ri); Iraq 42, 69 no. 10 i 12 (buqlum u pa-ap-pí-ru-um); b) MA: UDUN pa-pi-ri (Deller, AfO 34, 65).

NR

 

2. OA šeʾam lū tašʾamma bu-uq-lam ů ba-pi-ra-am-ma tēpuš AKT 2, 26: 18 “may she buy grain and make malt and beer bread”.

MPS

 

baqāmu, baqānu “to pluck”

 

1. G a) OB ṣēnū kīma šaddaqdim tabqumu šalmā AbB 5, 230: 9f. “The small cattle, as you plucked it last year, is well”.

 

b) MB Ekalte 18 immerū MU 2 ša šinīšu ba-aq-nu WVDOG 102, 32: 2 “18 sheep, two years old, which were plucked twice”.

 

c) MA (small cattle) ba-aq-na BATSH 9/3, 21: 19; 28: 13 “has been plucked”.

 

2. N a) Lex. [z]é-ba = na-ab-qí-im CUSAS 12 p. 248: 25 (gramm. text) “be plucked!”.

 

b) OB li-ib-ba-qí-im-ma MARI 8 p. 387 r. 4, cf. buqūmu.

 

c) MA ina muḫḫišu errīʾā ulladā i-ba-qa-an-na irabbīʾā  BATSH 9/3, 48: 25f. “incumbent on him, (small cattle) will become pregnant, give birth, be plucked (and) grow”.

MPS

 

3. After Deller 1966, 305f. KAJ 88: 15–18 (CAD B 98, 1a5’) has to be read šumma adi 1 ITI U4meš lā ittidin ina UGU-šu i-ri-a ů ú-la!-da! i-ba-qa-AN “wenn er (sie = UDU.U8meš) binnen eines Monats nicht restituiert haben wird: zu seinen Lasten werden sie trächtig und gebären sie; er wird sie (auch) scheren/sie werden (auch) geschoren”.

            In CAD B 98b, 1c read KAV 1 vi! 44 (Deller 1966, 305f.).

 

4. For the Sem. etymology see Salonen 1959–1960, 158: Arab. buqāmatun “grobe Wolle oder Flachs, Abfälle”.

NR

 

baq(a)ru “cow”; early OB

not in the dictionaries

 

ba-iq-ru-um ša ina ša-la-ta-im ša Tupḫi ša hīrā 1 līmi 3 meʾāt 50 [+ x (?)] RA 97, 169, KTT 55a: 6 “cows from the booty of Tuphu, which were selected, 1350 (heads)”. Cf. Durand/Marti 2003, 170, read biqru. S. also buqāru.

NR

 

baqāru “to (lay) claim to”

s. also paqāru

 

bāqilu “maltster”

 

MB: “house of maltster” (not in the dict.) É MUNU4meš MUN 48: 32’; 50: 16; PBS 2/2, 77; 106: 7’ (always in connection with city gates).          

200 qa MUNU4.SAR ina qāt PN úMUNU4.SAR CT 51, 29: 5 “200 of malt from PN, maltster (for brewer)”. S. Sassmannshausen 2001, 80 for other ref.s of b.

NR

 

bāqirānu s. pāqirānu

 

baqāšu “to be broad, prominent”

 

For an alleged Hebr. בּקּשׁ “made large” see Driver 1967, 108.

NR

 

*baqīšu “enlargement” s. šapākiš.

 

baqru “cow”. Amor. lw.

not in the dict. Cf. buqāru.

 

OB 1! AMAR! GA! ša! ba-aq-ri-im ARM 24, 42: 2’ “1 milk calf of a cow”. Cf. Durand, MARI 5, 210 n. 36, followed by Streck 2000, 85.

See also paqru.

MPS

 

bar?, bur „son“ Aram.

not in the dictionaries

 

In SAA 6, 173: 6 possibly occurs the word bur, which is understood in SAA 6 as the Aramaic word bar “son” in Akkadian: 4 É 20 ANŠE A.ŠŔ ú*-gar*-ru 5 GIŠ.SAR ša Ú.SAR ša mNUMUN-i 6 bur* mdPA.SIG₅ “An estate of 20 hectares of land, an irrigated field, a vegetable garden belonging to Zarî son of Nabű-dammiq”. According to Jursa 1994, 207, an Aramaic filiation is surprising.

NR

 

barāḫu “to beam, shine”?

 

After Driver, EA 20: 74, the only reference outside lexical texts, is correct (cf., however, CAD B 101b and Moran 1992, 49, note 16). For a Sem. etymology see Driver 1967, 106: after him, the meaning “to shine; to rejoice” is confirmed by Syr. ʾeṯbar(r)aḥ “shone forth” and Arab. bariḥa “was conspicuous”.

NR

 

barakku “outbilding”

 

Lex. é-gal bar-ra = ba-rak-ku CUSAS 12, 39: 5 (Kagal).

MPS

 

barāmu I “to be variegated, multicoloured”

 

1. For the Sem. etymology see also Salonen 1959–1960, 158: Hebr. bərōmīm “bunt gewebte (Stoffe)”.

NR

 

2. D First OB (lit.) ref.: libissunu bu-ur-ru-um CM 8, 22ff. ii 19 “their cloth is multicolored”.

MPS

 

barāmu II “to seal (up)”

 

For ABL 1372: 13-14 (CAD B 102b, 1b) see now SAA 13, 157: ḫiṣibšu ina 2-i U4-me TA É meš ab-ti-ri-imI sealed his (load of) produce on the second day out from the Succession Palace”.

NR

 

barāqu “to lighten, shine”

 

1. Salonen 1959–1960, 158 connects barāqu with Egyptian brq, brg “leuchten” and Coptic (e)brēǧ(e) “Blitz”.

 

2. KAH 2, 74: 5 (CAD B 105b, 3) does not belong here: read mut-tap-ri-š[u-ti] instead of mut-tab-ri-i[q] (AfO 6, 82: 30; see also M/2, 308b, a1’).

NR

 

barārī “at dusk, evening”

 

1. The first OB (Mari) reference: ba-ra-ri i-na gišMÁ.TUR [a-ra-]ak-ka-bu-ma ARM 26/1, 54: 42f. “(so that) I can [em]bark at evening on a small boat”. ba-ra-ri bitqam šâtu esekker! FM 1 p. 94 A.250: 28 “at dusk I will block up that breach”.

OB ba-ra-ri AbB 7, 2: 7.

 

2. MA ina mūše ba-ra-ri-ma BATSH 4/1, 2: 22 “in the night, at dusk”.

 

3. Lit.: Cf. Streck 2017, 597.

MPS

 

barārītu, barartu, barīrītu, barīru(?) “dusk, evening watch”

 

1. OB (sheep and tables for DN) ni-iq ba-ra-ar-tim i-na qa-ab-li-tim KTT 345: 1–5 “sacrifice of the evening watch, at midnight”. 4 dipārī ana ba-ra-ar-tim qabśitim u nawā[rtim] anaššī RATL 156: 30 “I will lift four torches at the 1., 2. and 3. wtach of the night”.

Fem. pl. barārīʾātam (for these frozen pl. forms s. Streck 2007, 597 § 11): OB ba-ra-ri-a-t[a-am] AbB 3, 66: 7 “at dusk”. Differently GAG § 113l*: adverb in -attam. Sg. barārītu: Streck 2017, 597.

Mari: šuttī annītum ša ba-ra-ar-tim ARM 10, 50: 13 “this dream was (seen) during the evening watch”.

 

 

2. New by-form barīrītu (cf. barīrītu “a female demon” CAD B 111): OB Mari šuttum šī ba-ri-ri-tum-ma ARM 26/1, 142: 22 “that dream was during the evening watch”. Another new by-form  perhaps barīru (cf. barīru A “rays” CAD B 111f.): mūšu mašil ... ba-ri-ri-im ARM 26/2 p. 132 no. 357: 34f. “midnight ... evening watch(?)” (in broken context).

MPS

 

barāru I “to flicker” or “be dim”?

 

1. Salonen 1959–1960, 158 connects barāru with Hebr. brr Ni. “sich reinigen”, Pi. “läutern”, Aram. berar “aussuchen” and Arab. barra “wohltun”.

NR

 

2. For NA ba-ra-ar ABL 118 (CAD B 107 b. A 2) cf. SAA 10, 290 s. 1: “unsteadyness”.

MPS

 

barāru II ? “to speak blasphemous (?)”

only CAD B 107a

 

Durand, LAPO 16, 101 interprets barāru as “proférer des injures” on the basis of LL (see CAD B 107a), where barāru ša amat occurs together with nasāku ša amāt, raḫāṣu ša amāt and šalāṭu ša amāt. These expressions designate after Durand “avoir un ton hautain, critiquer de façon tranchante”. Hence his translation of DIŠ ib-ru-ur-ma ušḫarrir TDP 190: 26: “Si aprčs avoir proféré des invectives, il s’obstine ŕ se taire”. Etymologically he connects barāru B with he. brr “purify, select” that, however, does not seem enlightening. For the alternative interpretation of iB-ru-ur-ma in TDP 190: 26 see parāru.

 

barāšu “to pluck out”

 

For a Sem. etymology see Arab. bursun, birsun “grobe Wolle” (Salonen 1959–1960, 158).

NR

 

barbartu, barbaratu “she-wolf”

 

First OB/OA (lit.) ref., new by-form barbaratu: šī ba-ar-ba-ra-tum YOS 11, 20: 3 “she (Lamaštu) is a she-wolf”. OA ba-ar-ba-ra-tum Farber 2014 p. 74.

MPS

 

barbaru “wolf”

 

1. OB lit. libbaka kīma U[R.B]AR.RA bāštum [kīma] nēšim šalummatum liklāka ZA 75, 202: 82f. “may dignity, [like] of a wolf, (restrain) your heart, may radiance, like of a lion, restrain you”. kīma ba-ar-ba-ri-im [b]āštam [kī] nēšim šalummat[am lūṭ]erka ZA 75, 180: 4vigor like (that of) a wolf, splendor like (that of) a lion, I will take away from you”.

kīma ba-ar-ba-ri-im lakāta mādmi UET 6/2, 399: 6  “like a wolf (the anger) is quick-running”. našāk ba-ar-ba-ri-im inaššak YOS 11, 14 r. 3 “(the maškadu sickness) bites a wolf-bite”. ul iḫaddī ba-ar-ba-ru YOS 11, 29 r. 25//bar-ba-ra 15: 5 “the wolf shall not rejoice”.

 

2. SB ba-ra-ba-ra OIP 114, 115: 2 (in list of Akk. words between nēšu “lion” and imēru “donkey”).

MPS

 

bardītu (mng. unclear)

not in the dict.

 

OA (silver) ana TÚG ša ba-ar-dí-tí Prag 429: 34 “for a garment of ...”. bar-dí-tí OIP 27, 55: 63. Cf. comm. Prag p. 14.

MPS

 

bardű “crosspiece”

 

SB bar-da-a ana bar-di-i uštanār// MB ba-ar-da-a ana ba-ar-de-e Lamaštu II 166 “crossbar after crossbar, she keeps leaning (into the window)”.

MPS

 

barḫu “shining”

 

1. NA: Deller 1966, 309 tentatively adds the name <m>Bar-ḫi-dA+a K.5580 r. 9’ to barḫu (CAD B 110a). Cf. SAA 16, 129 with spelling maš-ʾa-a-a.

 

2. Note, that Soden (AHw 1547a) connects Akkadian barḫu with Ugaritic ba-ar-ḫu and munusba-ri-iḫ-tu4, which occur in the Silbenvokabuar A (RA 63, 83f. iv 8’f.): PA.GÁ = nu-ʾu-ú ba-ar-ḫu / PA.PA.GÁ = nu-ʾu-ú munusba-ri-iḫ-tu4. Huehnergard 1987, 114f. translates the Ugaritic word as “fugitive, rustic(?)” on the basis of the equation with Akk. nuwāʾu (nuʾű) “unintelligent; barbarian” (compare brḥ “fleeing, slippery; fugitive” in Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 236f.). After Huehnergard 1987, 115 and 323f. the verbal adjective ba-ar-ḫu instead of expected *bariḥu represents an imitation of Akkadian morphology. munusba-ri-iḫ-tu4, however, could reflect both Akkadian and Ugaritic pattern (see MB fPN Ba-ri-iḫ-tum in BE 14, 91a: 21).

NR

 

barī- “between, among”

 

Note ana barī-: išarū a-na ba-ri-šu-nu-ma AKT 1, 21: 10 “they are even”.

MPS

 

barīḫu (a stone?)

 

For STT 108: 97 see now Schuster-Brandis 2008, 31 and 38, line 97: [... q]u [...n]a4SIKIL MU.NI STT 108: 97 // [NA4 GAR]-šú GIM ba-ri-ḫi qu-[x (x)] [n]a4SIKIL MU.[NI] BAM 378 v’ 5’f. “Der Stein, dessen Gestaltung (folgendermassen ist): wie ‘das Strahlende’ (?) [… (ist er):] sikillu ist sein Name”. This interpretation goes back to AHw 105b with barāḫu “etwa ‘strahlen’”, while barīḫu is understood as substantivized verbal adjective from this verb (Schuster-Brandis 2008, 45, note 97). It remains, however, unclear, if barīḫu indeed denotes a stone (so CAD 110b). Note, that Driver 1967, 106 suggests to restore kīma ba-ri-ḫi qu-[da-še]like the flashing stone in an earring” (may be the lit. translation “like ‘the shining’ of the ring qudāšu” would be, however, better) and compares it with Hebr. קדש אבני “bright stones” (Gesenius 1987–2010/5, 1152). See also barāḫu.

NR

 

barīrītu “the glittering one, (name of a female demon)”

 

SB lex. [b]a-ri-ri-tum = [kabittu] AOAT 50, 431: 53 (exp. malku) “the glittering one = [the important one]”.

MPS

 

barīru III (mng. unkn.)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB ba-ri-ri-ka nakru ile[qqē] CUSAS 18, 26: 15’ “the enemy will ta[ke] your b.” ba-ri-ri ib. 17’. In spite of the divergent orthography, George, ib. p. 182, connects the word with parīru.

MPS

 

barkarrű, pl. f. barkarrętum (coarse textile); Mari, Tell Leilan

not in the dictionaries

 

barkarrű is a very popular textile type in Mari, which evidently could denote both: a special type of fabric and a garment from this fabric. In addition barkarrű could be a generic term for different fabrics, generally of average quality (s. T.81; ARM 22, 119). It was woven normally from second quality wool (gurnu, see Durand 2009, 97-99) by a special weaver which was qualified as ša TÚG BAR.KAR.RA (ARM 22, 71: 9, see also Durand 2009, 98). A large quantity of barkarrű textiles was stored in the palace and used very differently: for clothig allocation of the personnel (among them an ox-driver and a courtyard sweeper, messengers, etc.), for purification ceremonies and as a part of chariot equipment (Durand 2009, 97-99).

barkarrű occurs

1. in combination with TÚG = ṣubātu “textile, garment”, which could be understood either as a independent word or as a determinative (Durand 2009, 97f.): 12 ěl-p[ú-um] 4 TÚG KI-[…] 2 TÚG bi-it-r[u? …] ŠU.NÍGIN 18 TÚG ba-ar-k[ŕ-ru] (T.81, Pre-OB) “12 fabrics ilpu, 4 fabrics …, 2 fabrics of first quality, – totally 18 textiles (of the type) barkarrű”; […] 10 11 TÚG ba-ar-ka-ru-ú 11 ŠU.NIGIN 16 TÚG ba-ar-ka-ru-ú 12 ŠŔ.BA 1 TÚG SI.SÁ ÚS 13 3 túgGÚ.Č.Aḫá 14 iš-ka-ar É ia-a-ilki 15 6 TÚG ba-ar-ka-ru 16 iš-ka-ar 17 É sa-ga-ra-timki 18 ŠU.NIGIN 25 TÚG ba-ar-ka-ru-ú 19 11 túgGÚ.Č.Aḫá 20 ba-ar-ka-re-tum 21 iš-ka-ar 22 3 Éḫá ḫa-[l]a-[a] sa-g[a]-r[a]/-timki 23 ma-aḫ-rum (M.5888) “[…] 11 barkarrű textiles . Totally 16 barkarrű textiles; among them unbleached fabric of second quality (and) 3 naḫlaptu garments, the work assignment of the house Yāʾil. 6 barkarrű textiles , the work assignment of the house Saggarātum. Totally 25 barkarrű textiles (and) 11 naḫlaptu garments of fabric barkarrű, the work assignments of three houses (from) the district Saggarātum, received(?)”; 1 4 TÚG bar-ka-ru-ú 2 pí-ir-su 3 S[I.L]A? ia-aḫ-mu-ṣí-AN (M.8599) “4 barkarrű textiles, a piece (for repairing them?), for checking by Yaḫmuṣ-El”; TÚG BAR.KAR.RA (ARM 22, 138: 2 and passim); 4 TÚG BAR.KAR.RA ÚS  a-na TÚG.BA kúl-l[i-z]i (ARM 7, 147: 1) “4 barkarrű textiles of second quality for clothig allocation of the ox-driver”; 7 1 TÚG BAR.KAR 8 a-na ri-ik-si ša ANŠE gišGIGIR “1 barkarrű fabric for the harness(?) of the donkey chariot” (ARM 24 181); 

2. in combination with túgGÚ.Č = naḫlaptu “garment, cloak, coat” (Durand 2009, 69): 11 túgGÚ.Č.Aḫá 20 ba-ar-ka-re-tum (M.5888: 19f., see the translation above); 10 GÚ SI.SÁ BAR.KAR (M. 5681 ii 17) “10 unbleached naḫlaptu garments of barkarrű fabric”; 3 TÚG BAR.KAR.RA ů 3 GÚ.Č.A BAR.KAR.RA (M.11962: 9f.) “3 barkarrű textiles and 3 naḫlaptu garments of barkarrű fabric”.

3. as a characteristic of other textiles (Durand 2009, 34f. and 98): 2 túggi-zu BAR.KAR.RA (ARM 22, 119: 1, for similar passages see Durand 2009, 34) “2 gizzu fabrics of the barkarrű type”; túgGUZ.ZA BAR.KAR.RA (T.341: 19).

Note, that barkarrű appears also in Tell Leilan as a part of a catapult (probably instead of leather): DAL.ÚŠ BAR.KAR.RA (AWTL 88: 1; 98: 2). In all, the evidence suggests that barkarrű was a coarse solid (unbleached?) fabric like tarpaulin. Durand 2009, 98, note 139 and 99 connects barkarrű with maškuru “(inflatable) animal skin” of NA and NB periods (CAD M/1, 374f.; AHw 627a), assuming that the sign MAŠ in maškuru could be read as BAR. In any event, the equation kušlú-úb-mar-tuki “Amorite bag” = ku-šá-nu = maš-ki-ru (MSL 7, 149) points to a Syrian origin of maškuru. If Durand is right, barkarrű is a waterproof canvas fabric.

NR

 

barku “knee”

 

See birku.

 

barmu “multicolored”

 

1. OB lit., said of cloths: aprū ba-ar-mu-ti-im-ma CM 8, 22ff. ii 20 “their (head) is covered with multicolored (cloths)”.

 

2. NA, said of animals: erbiʾu NUMUN! bar!-mu kal-mu-tú SAA 2, 6: 599 “locusts, the multicolored seed(?)”.  SAA 2 p. 85: barmu “a pest”.

MPS

 

barru III s. bāru II

 

barsillu (a garment)

 

After Edzard 1970a, 160 bar-si-lum could be a hybrid from *bardullu (< BAR.DUL5) and kusītu. See also Veenhof 1972, 162, note 276, about barsillu as a word based on a misunderstanding.

NR

 

baršu II (a cereal)

not in the dictionaries

 

Early OB (še)bar-šum ARM 19 p. 164 (index). H. Limet, ib. p. 24 suggests a loan from Sum. bar-si, for which see Milano 1993–1997, 27 (emmer flour).

MPS

 

bārtu “revolt, rebellion”

 

1. OB ina ba-ar-tim ilattakūka ARM 10, 7: 9f. “they will put you to a test by a rebellion”.

MPS

 

2. bārtu possibly occurs also in EA 138: 20: ḪI.G[A.R]I K[I]-ia (for bārti ašriya / ittīya) “against me (?)” (Moran 1992, 223, note 4). Note ḪI.GA.RI instead of normal ḪI.GAR.

NR

 

barű I “to see, look at”

 

1. Gt “to look at thoroughly(?)”: a) OB awātam ana bi-it-r[i]-i-[im] AbB 13, 110: 19 “in order to consider thoroughly(?) the matter”.

 

b) SB Ug. urḫī bi-it-ri AuOr. Suppl. 23, 33: 29 “watch my path!”

MPS

 

2. D “to announce, to disclose, to reveal” (CAD B 331 has a separate lemma burrű): NA kētu anāku lā ú-bar-ri lā a-qa-ba-áš-šú-nu bēt šarru bēlī išapparšanūni SAA 15, 4: 14 “Truly, I have not disclosed nor told them where the king, my lord, is sending them”. Note also the form ú-bar-r[a…] in broken context in SAA 15, 61 r. 3’.

NR

 

3. Dt “to be announced” (CAD B 331 has a separate lemma burrű): OB šumma šāpirī iqabbī li-ib-te-er-ri-šu-nu-ši-im-ma ṣibit ṭēmim liršű AbB 13, 37: 31–33 “If my superior gives order, it should be announced to them, so that they will take action”.

MPS

 

3. OA (uncertain): Matouš 1970, 132f. tentatively considers ba-ri-a-ma in tuppī sunūti pitiama ba-ri-a-ma TCL 20, 99: 15 (CAD B 120a s. v. barű C) as a byform or a mistake for the imp. of barű I G “to see, look at”. Cf. BIN 4, 42: 4: maṣṣartam pitiāma tuppī bi-ri-a-ma “open the strongroom and inspect the tablets” (CAD P 348a). Perhaps imp. D /barriʾāma/.

 

4. See also bitrű II.

NR

 

barű III “to spend time, be stuck, be forced to stay”

not in the dict. Cf. bitrű and šutebrű.

 

1. G OA ref. in Veenhof 2015, 253–259, e.g.: lā ta-ba-ri tibʾamma atalkam AKT 3, 66: 15 “don’t spend time in GN! Get ready and come!”

 

2. Gt a) Veenhof connects this verb with the Gt bitrű “to be continuous” and adds (p. 258) an OA ref.

 

b) SB Ug. ina īnēja bi-it-ra-at dili[ptu] AuOr. Suppl. 23, 33: 26 “anxiety lasts in my eyes”.

MPS

 

3. Gtn(?): ikrib ili u šarri lib-tar-ru-ú ina šaptīya dameqti Marduk bēliya lū kayyān ina pīya Or. 59, 450: 9’ “may blessing for the god and the king constantly(?) last on my lips, may a good (word) for my lord Marduk be always in my mouth”. Mayer 1990, 454 ad 9’, understands the verbal form as Gt libtarű.

NR

 

4. Š “to let wait”. Veenhof 2015, 258f. for OA ref., e.g.: aṣṣēr ša GN ú-ša-áb-ra-ki-im Kt h/k 73: 18 “I will let you wait more than in GN”.

 

5. Št Veenhof 2015 does not explicitely connect with this verb šutebrű (in AHw under berű “to be hungry”, in CAD under bitrű), which clearly belongs here.

 

6. Whether nebrītu “hunger(ration)” (CAD N/2, 147 “food”) belongs here, as Veenhof 2015, 259 postulates, remains doubtful; a derivation from berű “to be hungry” seems equally possible.

MPS

 

*barű C (CAD B 120) “to be on the market, be available”?

 

The verb (CAD B 120: barű C; not in AHw) is uncertain. For TCL 4, 21 and TCL 4, 29 s. berű II “to be hungry”. For TCL 20, 99: 15 see barű I “to see”. ana ba-ru-im in BIN 4, 48: 6 is uncertain. AHw 837a quotes it under parű II D “(Metall) legieren”. lā i-ba-ri-e Kienast ATHE 42: 6 remains unclear. S., however, Dercksen 1996, 50ff., who supports the proposal of CAD.

NR

 

bāru I “tax, tribute”

 

For the etymology, see Salonen 1959–1960, 158: Old Persian *bara, Sanskit bhara.

NR

 

bāru II, barru, pl. ba/irrātu “open country”

 

1. OB: See CAD B 120 bāru B (only one SB lex. ref.). First OB ref. in list of fields: (field) ša ba-a-ri ARM 23, 590: 5 “situated in the open country”. Cf. the disc. of P. Villard, ib. 557, who suggests a variant of būru “cistern” or the word bārű “diviner”, both improbable.

MPS

 

2. NB pl.(?) ba/irrātu, s. von Soden 1977, 185: zaqpi adi bi-rat CM 20B p. 19 no. 11 r. 1, 5 “(from that Y gur of arable land) planted (with palm trees), including the undeveloped land(?)”. Cf. Wunsch ib. p. 20 ad r. 1, 5. ŠE.NUMUN zaqpi u bir-ra-t[um …] BM 50021: 1 (Iraq 54, 132) “arable land (including) orchard and undeveloped land(?)…”. ŠE.NUMUNmeš ā zaqpi u bar-rat-tummeš makkūr šarri BM 116622: 7 (Iraq 54, 132 ad. 1) “those fields, planted (with palm trees), and undeveloped land(?),royal property”. ina libbi X zēru ša ina libbi Y zēru bi?!-rat zittu ša PN CM 20B p. 164 no. 130: 10’, s. also ib. 16’. [zēr]a imaššaḫū bir-ra-tu4 isann[iqū] CM 20B p. 214 no. 181: 28 “they will measure the arable land and check the b.”; s. Wunsch ib. p. 216 ad 28. Cf. also birītu “in-between terrain” CAD B 252ff.

NR

 

bārű, MA bāʾeru “diviner”

 

1. “supervisor” in OAkk. texts from Beydar: ba-rí UDU (NITA) “(male) supervisor of sheep”, UGULA ba-rí UDU “overseer of supervisor(s) of sheep” Subartu 2 p. 176. Cf. disc. Sallaberger, Subartu 12 p. 18.

 

2. Said of Šamaš: ilum namrum ba!-ru-ú (//a-zu) ebbu CT 58, 28 r. 8 “bright god, the shining diviner”.

MPS

 

Deller 1987, 65b; Cancik-Kirschbaum 1996, 145.

 

bâru I “to catch, trap (with a net etc.)”

 

1. G OB TU.TÚLmušen.ḫi.a li-ba-ru ARM 14, 41: 8 “let them catch sukannīnu-doves”.

            Said of persons: la ta-ba-ra-ni-ti la ta-du-ka-an-ni-ti ů a-na ma-tim ša-ni-im la ta-na-sŕ-aḫ-ni-ti ARM 26/2 p. 277 no. 409: 28f. “Do not catch us, do not kill us, and do not move us to another land!” (Heimpel 2003, 350). ša-ak-ni ša aš-ku-na-ku-nu-ši-im la ta-ba-ra-šu la ta-du-ka-šu-ma ib. 31f. “My governor whom I have installed over you, do not catch him, do not kill him!”.

OB lit. bāʾirum i-ba-ar nūnam Fs. De Meyer 82ff. IM 95317: 19 “the fisherman is catching a fish”. ḫāwirī lu-ub-qú-ma-am (// ga-an-zé-e-še) UET 6/2, 386: 10 “let me pluck my darling”.

 

2. D a) OB tu-ba-aḫ-ḫi-ir! (text: RI)-ma FM 2, 128: 14, the first finite D-stem form. OB lit. mu-bi-ra-at mātāti CUSAS 32, 59 i 8 (goddess) “who catches the countries”.

 

b) SB šumma surdű ina bīt amīli bu-ʾ-u-ra īpuš SAA 8, 237: 4 “if a falcon hunts in a man’s house”. Sim. bu-ʾ-u-ra ib. 6.

 

3. N a) OB Mari first ref.s for N: [rīm]am i-ba-ar-ru-ma ina bītišu ikallű [...] ib-ba-ar-ru-ma KUŠ! ana ekal[lim] ubbalū inanna mimma rīma[m] ul i-ba-ru ... serramī i-[b]a-ar-r[u] ... maškī serramī ša kīma ib-ba-ru ana ṣēr bēlija ušabbalam ARM 27, 51 r. 1–11 “They will catch an [aur]ochs and hold (it) captive in his house [... (which)] will be catched, (its) hide they will bring to the palac[e]. Now they have not caught any aurochs ... They will catch onagers ... the hides of the onagers that will have been caught I will will bring to my lord”.

 

b) SB: New N-stem: (if a falcon and a raven fall tangled together on to the king’s chariot) [l]a ib-ba-ʾ-ir CUSAS 18, 36 r. iii 22f. “but are(!) not caught”. See als stative G (or mistake for pret. N?) ba-ʾ-ir ib. 19.

MPS

 

4. Salonen 1959–1960, 158 compares bâru with Soqotri bʾr, bʿr, Mehri bīter, Shehri biter (with reference to Leslau, JAOS 64 (1944) 55).

NR

 

bâru II, OA baʾāru “to stir up a revolt, to fight”

 

Also attested in OA in the G(?)-, Gt- and D-stem, s. Veenhof 2015.

 

1. G a-ba-a-ri-kŕ KTS 1, 1a: 24, for context s. CAD P 210 paʾāru, prob. belongs here.

 

2. Gt merʾū mētim nēnu lá ni-ib-ta-ar AKT 6a, 229: 4 “we are inheritors (lit. sons of a dead). We will not fight against each other”. anāku mera mētim u attunu merʾū mētim lá ni-ib-ta-ar AKT 7a, 34: 17 “I am an inheritor and you are inheritors. We will not fight against each other”. Sim. ib. 30: 13; 58: 15; 59: 15; KKS 499: 4.

 

3. D merʾū mētim nēnu lá tů-ba-ar-ni-a-tí? AKT 6a, 217: 22 “We are inheritors. Don’t fight us!” [l]á tů-ba-a-ra-ni AKT 6a, 85: 14 “don’t fight against me!”

MPS

 

bâru III “to appear, turn up; be durable; to stay firm, stable, in good health”

 

1. G a) OAkk: Matouš 1964, 137 with von Soden, Or. 31, 157 interprets the PN Li-bur-an-ni-Suen (AHw 108b bâru III) as “Suen, bestätige sich mir gegenüber!”.

NR

 

b) OB ma-a-tum ka-lu-[ša a-na] be-lí-ia bu-ur be-lí i-ta-ás-si ARM 26/2 p. 96 no. 327: 2f. “The entire land will be calling out, ‘Stay in good health, my lord!’” (Heimpel 2003, 304). ma-at GN ka-lu-ša a-na PN bu-ur be-lí iš-ta-si ARM 26/2 p. 197 no. 383: 7f. “The entire land of GN called to PN, ‘Stay in good health, my lord!’” (Heimpel 2003, 331).

MPS

 

c) NA (CAD 127a, 2): laššu UDUmeš ina muḫḫiya ina pan DN irtaksū PN TA IGI DN [i]b-tu-ar Tell Halaf 106: 9–11 (AfO Beih. 6, 106) “(PN declared:) ‘The sheep are not at my disposal. They dedicated (them) to Adad.’ PN has established (it) before Adad” (Deller 1966, 309).

 

d) There is disagreement regarding PN with the elements li-bur, LIL-bur and LIL-bir, which partly occur in the same names (e.g. Ina-Esangila-li-bur/lil-bur/lil-bir, for the attestations see Bongenaar 1997, 31). AHw 108 and 522 derives the form li-bur from bâru III and LIL-bur/bir from labāru. CAD introduces the reading lix for LIL and derives all these forms from bâru (see also AHw 1547a and Stamm 1968, 155, note 4). After Borger 1971, 66 all three forms belong to bâru; he argues against the otherwise unknown lautwert lix, and interprets the forms with LIL as derivates of li-bur: li-bur > lil-bur > lil-bir (see also Borger 2010b, 360, n. 544).

NR

 

2. D a) OB “to affirm, convict”: ina bīt Šamaš li-bé-er-ru-šu-n[u-ti] AbB 13, 41: 21 “They should establish the truth about them in the Šamaš temple”.

 

b) OB Mari inanna bēlī ana bu-r[e-e] PN u mārī ālim dannātim lišpuram FM 8, 25: 15–18 “Now may my lord, in oder to notify PN and the inhabitants of the town, give firm orders”. šu-tam bu-re-e-š[u-um?] ib. 10 “notify h[im] of what is his (duty)!”. Durand, ib. p. 96, derives both ref. from būru “well” and translates “aux puits” and “ceux qui font partie de ses puits” (reading šu-ut), an interpretation which appears to make less sense.

MPS

 

c) MA: For the meaning of Hendiadys burru u kunnu see also Goetze 1956, 109 (after Matouš 1964, 137). Note that after Westbrook 2003, 97, ubtaʾʾerū(š) uktaʾʾinū(š) in Middle Assyrian Laws has the meaning “(if) the burden of proof against him (/her/them) has been discharged by all means, human and divine”, expressing the requirement of both rational and suprarational evidentiary procedure.

 

d) NA (CAD 130b, 3f.): For Hendiadys barrū u kannū (baʾʾurū kaʾʾunū in MA) in NA see Deller 1966, 309: šulmu ina birtišunu bar!-ru! kan-nu uṭṭurū issi pan aḫiyāši VAT 16386: 14f. (AfO Beih 6, 106) “There is peace between them. They are proved, established and fully paid, one in respect of the other”.

NR

 

3. Dt “to be announced” (CAD B 331 has a separate lemma burrű): OB šumma šāpirī iqabbī li-ib-te-er-ri-šu-nu-ši-im-ma ṣibit ṭēmim liršű AbB 13, 37: 31–33 “If my superior gives order, it should be announced to them, so that they will take action”.

MPS

 

bārűtu, baruttu “work, lore of the diviner”

 

OB ina ba-ru-ú-tim ša kakkī anāku etmēku ARM 10, 120: 6–8 “I am occupied with a divination concerning weapons”. See also ba-ru-tim-ma ib. 9 and ba-ru-ut-t[im] ib. 11.

MPS

 

basāmu “to gladden, to please”

not in the dictionaries.

 

1. G OB awīlę bi-si-im-ma warkānum dīnam awīlū iqabbűnim AbB 14, 41: 14 “humour the gentlemen up, so that later the gentlemen will pronounce a favourable judge”. S. Veenhof 2005, 206.

 

2. D a) OB awâtim nu-ba-ás-si-im-ši-na-ti-i-ma banīʾā AbB 8, 69: 8f. “We have pleased (them) with this matter and they are good”; kusīt šikkatim ana bu!-sú-mi-ša idnī AbB 9, 16: 38 (with corr. in BiOr 39, 590) “Give (her) a kusītum-garment with a tassel to please her”. Note that CAD Š/2, 432b interprets the last ref. as pussumiša “for veiling her”. Not in CAD P 217f. pasāmu D.

 

b) bu-sú-mu (var. bu-uš-šu-u) = a-aš-šu (Hitt.) KBo 1, 44 + KBo 13, 1: iv 12 (StBoT 7, 19). After Otten/von Soden, StBoT 7, 22, both equations, bussumu “pleasant” and bušű “goods”, reflect two meanings of Hitt. aššu-: adj. “pleasant” and subst. “goods”. Cf. Aram. bassem “to please”.

NR      

 

*basāru s. BaZaru.

 

basi “soon”

 

1. Salonen 1959–1960, 158 proposes to connect basi with Arab. basbasa “sehr schnell gehen”.

 

2. NA CAD 133b, a2’:  ba-si ŠE.PADmeš ina pa-ni-šú-nu lu ta-a[b-kat] Sm.714 e. 3 (SAA 1, 14) “so that the barley at their disposal will be p[iled]”; liš-pu-ru [xxxx] ba-si nu-[šá-aṣ-bit] né-pu-[uš] K.15017: 5’-6’ (SAA 10, 272) “Let them send (word) [to ...], so we can [undertake] to perf[orm it]” (see also Deller 1966, 309).

NR

 

baskiltu, biskiltu (a wooden object; a part of the middle “finger” of the lung; a boil)

AHw 1547b; CAD M/1, 324 under *maskiltu

 

1. “wooden object”: OB bi-us-ki-il-tu AbB 9, 16: 18 (s. von Soden, BiOr 39, 590); gišba!-ás-ki-la-tim [l]e-qé-a-am AbB 7, 43: 6’ (reading after von Soden 1978, 207) “take a b. for me”.

 

2. In a med. text: šumma awīlum ina pī qinnatišu ba-as-ki-il-tum ittaṣīʾam YOS 11, 29: 8 “if a boil has grown out in the anus of a man”. Cf. ibid. 28: 3.

NR

 

baṣāru “to tear off”

 

1. NA (first ref.): ma-ga-di ů ba-ṣa-a-ri  SAA 10, 289: 11 “... and harvesting (the grapes)”.

MPS

 

2. See also pazāru and BaZaru.

 

baṣāṣu “to trickle”

 

1. D? (first attestation): NA tu-<ba?>-ṣi?-ṣi šimmatum imatki STT 136 i 19 (JNES 33, 342) “šimmatu, you let trickle your poisonous spittle”. Cf. the corresponding line in the duplicate K. 9587: i-ta-az-zi-i i-ta-az-zi-i (< nezű Ntn “to void” after von Soden 1974, 344 ad. 19).

 

2. For references collected by Deller 1966, 309 see now CAD P 226b under paṣāṣu.

NR

 

baṣīḫu “inhabitant of the marshes”

 

For a Sem. etymology see von Soden 1968, 458 and AHw 1547b.

 

bāṣu “sand”

 

1. OB GN uruBa-ṣumki etc. RGTC 3, 39. ON: Bāṣu, Ša-bāṣi “That of sand” ARM 16, 31 s. v. Šabazim; ARM 27, 141: 30 and p. 234 n. j.

OB lit. šaḫur ina ba-ṣí RA 66, 141ff. AO 7682: 8 “(the scorpion lies) quiet in the sand”.

 

2. First (fem.) pl.: SB KUR šá ba-ṣa-a-ti šá Elam SAA 3, 28 r. 14 “land of sand belonging to Elam”.

MPS

 

3. For further references see von Soden 1968, 458 and AHw 1547b. For VAB 2, 55: 62 (EA 55) see, however, Moran 1992, 128, note 11 and CAD M/1, 347a, 1e4’.

NR

 

bašālu “to be cooked; become ripe”

 

1. G OB “to ripen”: aššum ḫazannū adī lā ba-aš-lu lā napālim PN išpuram AbB 12, 25: 4–6 “PN wrote me regarding not to dig up the garlic before it is ripe”. See also in the same context ba-aš-lu-ma ib. 7 and 10. Cf. bašlūtu. eqlum ša ta-aB-ru-x-an-ni ka-lu-šu ba-ši-il AbB 11, 13: 5 “the field that you …-ed me is ripe, all of it”. 

            Said of aklu “food” (i.e., grain): akalni Adad adīma ba-aš-lu ikki[m?] CUSAS 18 p. 309: 2 “Adad will take away our food as soon as it is ripe”.

            OB Mari: šeʾum ib-ša-al-ma ARM 14, 69: 13 “the barley has ripened”. šamaššammū ... ib-ta-áš-lu FM 8, 23: 8 (wrongly read ip-ta-ás-lu) “the sesame has ripened”.

MPS, NR

 

2. Š a) OB (juniper wood) ana šu-ub-šu-ul 3 GAG SAG ARM 23, 514: 2f. “for melting 3 best quality nails”.

 

b) “to melt” (CAD B b. 8): OA  ú-ša-áb-ša-al-šu!-ma Prag 483: 18 “I will melt it (gold)”.

MPS

apputtum ša 16 mana kaspim ḫurāṣam sāmam ša ša-áb-šu-lim šaʾamma WAG 48-1462: 17 (Fs. Matouš II 114) “This is important: buy for the 16 minas of silver some red gold for smelting”. Dercksen 2005, 31 note 33, notices that red gold is the gold of high quality and does not need refinement by exposure to high temperature. Hence his interpretation: “red gold or gold which needs cupellation”.

NR

 

b) NA: For ABL 719 r. 2 (CAD B 136b, 6a) see SAA 10, 297. Since the text is poorly preserved, it is hard to say, whether cooking or preparing of medication (thus Deller 1966, 309) is meant here.

NR

 

3. Štn (not in the dict.): (silver) uš-ta-na-áb-ša-lá-kum Prag 720: 10 “I will repeatedly melt for you”.

MPS

 

bašāmu II “to create, form”

 

1. CAD also has bašāmu B “to carry away” and C “mng. unc.”. According to von Soden 1968, 458 and AHw 1547, the only non-lex. ref. of bašāmu B belongs to balāmu (AHw 1546), and neither bašāmu B nor C exist. CDA has bašāmu III “to allocate”.

 

2. G a) OB Mari (oldest ref.): šallatum šī ana zitti rēdî ba-aš-ma-at ARM 26/2 p. 274 no. 408: 24 “those prisoners of war form the shares for the soldiers”.

MPS

            OB in the meaning “to set a price” (Kraus 1985, 173, note 192, b; Moran 1987, 134): tamkārū izzizūma kasapšunu ib-ši-mu-ú-ma kaspam addin AbB 10, 192: 16 “the merchants took action and set the price and I have paid”; šīmšu ullânumma bi-iš-ma-am-ma ina tuppim šuṭramma šūbilam Sumer 14, 73 no. 47: 25  “as for its price, set it immediately and write it to me in a tablet and send it to me” (s. already CAD B 139 under bašāmu C). Note, however, that von Soden 1968, 458 prefers the spelling ti!-iš-ba!-am-ma (< *tašābu “to sit down”, AHw 1337b) instead of bi-iš-ma-am-ma. CAD U/W 76b favors the same interpretation: ti!-iš-ba!-am-ma “(as for its price,) stay over there (but write it to me in a letter and send it to me)”.

 

b) VAB 4, 122 i 23 (CAD B 138b, 2) read with Borger 1971, 66: ištu ibnânni bēlu ilu DŮ(bānű)-ú-a DN ib-ši-mu nabnītī ina ummu “After the lord, the god, my creator had created me (and) DN had formed my features (when I was still) in my mother’s (womb)”.

NR

 

bāšītu “(people or staples) on hand; valuables, possessions

 

1. OB tuppi ba-ši-ti-šu ARM 10, 134: 4 “tablet (recording) his possessions”; ēm ba-ši-ti ibaššű lukšudamma šęm ana bītija lušāmam ARM 13, 150: 12–15 “wherever there are staples for me, I will go there and buy barley for my house”. In Tuttul: ba-ši-tum KTT 285: 68; 351: 1. 2 GUD 5 UZU ba-ši-tum FM 12 p. 214 M.18095: 30 “2 oxen, 5 (pieces) of meat, staples on hand”. Cf. Jacquet, ib. p. 215 with lit.

MPS, NR

 

2. MB Ekalte būši ba-ši-ti, bušītum u ba-ši-tú, būšši u ba-ši-ta-ši  WVDOG 102 index p. 160 “possessions and valuables”; see CAD B bāšītu 1c, d.

MPS

 

3. EA: bāšītu in the meaning “(people or staples) on hand”,  in the lexica only known for Mari (CAD B 139b, 2.), seems to appear also in EA 196 Rs. 3’-5’: 3’ ů 4’ [ša]-ka-an i-na ÚR : su-n[i-šu] 5’ [ba]-ši-ta5 “and [he pu]t in [his] lap (anyone) [pre]sent” (transl. after Moran 1992, 274).

NR

 

bašlu “cooked; ripe”

 

1. OB. mng. “finished”(?): mārakum ba-aš-lum ... rupšum ba-aš-lum AbB 3, 34: 21, 24 “finished(?) length ... finished(?) width” (s. CAD R 413f.).

MPS

 

2. NA CAD B 140a, 1: ADD 1056: 4 read now [su-pur]-gil-li ba-áš-lu-te “ripe quinces” (Deller 1966, 309; CAD S 396a, b).

Also with ebūru “harvest”: BURU14 ba-áš-lu na-as-qu ND 2664: 8 (Iraq 23, pl. 22; Deller 1966, 309; see also CAD N/2, 31a, a2’).

CAD B 140b, 3: 1 1/2 MA.NA KŮ.BABBAR ba-aš-lu Ass. Fd. Nr. 10805 e: 3 (Deller 1966, 309).

NR

 

bašlūtu “ripeness”

not in the dictionaries.

 

OB ana mīnim ḫazannū la ba-aš-lu-us-sú-nu innappalū AbB 12, 25: 12–14 “Why should the garlic be dug up before it is in the state of ripeness?”. Cf. bašālu.

MPS

 

bašmu “horned viper”

 

OB lit. ba-aš-mu MUŠmeš šu-ku-ú ša daltim CUSAS 10, 1: 27 “horned vipers, snakes are its (the temple’s) door poles”. šapal šuppātim nadī kī ba-aš-mi Fs. Wilcke 61f. Sb 12360: 3 “it is lying like a viper under the rushes”.

MPS

 

baštu see baltu

 

bāštu “dignity, (source of) pride”

 

1. OB lit. nišī ba-aš-tim YOS 1, 24 i 9 “people of dignity”.

OB lit. ba-aš-tu unnēnu šēdu u lamassu kűmma Ištar CM 8, 22ff. i 25 “dignity, prayer, genius and protective spirit is yours, Ištar”.

 

2. OA with šakānu: ba-áš-tam jâti ta-ša-ki-ni Prag 711: 34 “you will make me proud(?)”.

MPS

 

3. NA CAD B 142b,  1a1’: ulṣu bal-tu ḫidűtu mēlulu u nummur kabatti ana LUGAL EN-ia lū taqīš CT 53, 149: 3’-5’ (SAA 10, 97) “May (the goddess DN day after day, month after month and year after year) present the king, my lord, with rejoicing, pride, joy, jubilation and merry mood” (see also Deller 1966, 309).

 

2. See also von Soden 1968, 458.

NR

 

bašű “to be (at hand, available; exist)”

 

1. G NA CAD B 151, 1m: translate ABL 390 r. 7f. with GAG §185h and CAD I/J 26a, f’ (against CAD B) as an assertoric oath “I swear by the (named) gods, your gods, that there is no crime (that I have comitted) against the king” (see also Deller 1966, 309f.).

ABL 358:13 (SAA 10, 227) in CAD B 151b, m with the verbal form li-ib-šú is to be deleted: read here with SAA 10, 227 li-qi-šú “may they grant” (cf. Deller 1966, 310).

CAD B 151 b, 1n1’: For Wiseman Treaties 605 see baʾāšu G and D.

CAD B 151 b/152a, 1n1’: AfO 8, 20 r. iv 7’ read now with SAA 2, 2 as ka*-bu*-ut* GUD ANŠE UDUmeš ANŠE.KUR.RAmeš ina KUR-šú a-a ib-ši May there be no more dung of oxen, asses, sheep, and horses in his land” (cf. Deller 1966, 310).

 

2. Š NA CAD B 156 a/b, 3a2’:  fAMA-ka tu-šab-šu-ka-ni 60 DINGIRmeš GALmeš issiya ittitissū 24 R 61 ii 20–23als deine Mutter dich zur Welt brachte, traten die sechzig grossen Götter mit mir (Ištar) hinzu” (Deller 1966, 310).

For NA Imperativ see also md30-šab-si VAT 10467: 7, 10 (Deller 1966, 310; see also Stamm 1968, 148).

NR

 

3. N OB ina libbika lu-ub-ba-ši-ma lā tamaššīʾanni AbB 3, 22: 36 “may I appear in your heart. Do not forget me!”

MPS

 

bāšű “remaining, available”.

 

Substantival use, until now attested only by the fem. bāšītu: OB ba-ši-a-am ... muḫrīma AbB 10, 169: 14f. “receive the possessions”.

MPS

 

bâšu  I “to be ashamed, come to shame”

 

1. G a) Stative in OB PN mAššum-Marduk-ba-ša-ku AbB 7, 187: 21f. “I am ashamed because of Marduk”. Elsewhere, a stative is attested ion OA PN, see CAD B 6 b. 1e1’.

 

b) OA PN hypcor. Ba-šum AKT 6a, 75: 48//76: 50.

 

c) Ug. la ta-ba-ia-áš ORA 7, 208: 32’ “don’t be ashamed!”.

 

2. D a) OA in the sense of “to prove wrong”: awīlam ina awātim nu-ub-ta-iš AKT 3, 92: 24f. “we proved the lord wrong in the matter”. See comm. ib. p. 158 (also Akkadica 18, 32: 33). maḫar kārim nu-ba-i-šu ib. 93: 29 “we proved him wrong before the trading colony”. ana ammīʾātim nu-ba-i-šu ib. 35f. “we proved him wrong regarding those (affairs)”.

MPS

 

b) NA CAD B 6a, 1e5’: Deller 1966, 306 interprets the PN mLu-ba-aš-a-na-DINGIR ADD 425: 14; r. 21 (SAA 6, 283) as *Lā-ubâš-anni-ilu/ilī “der/mein Gott wird mich nicht zuschanden werden lassen” with ubâš as the D-stem.

CAD B 6b, 2b: For the different spellings of PN Lā-tubâšanni-Aššur see Deller 1966, 306f. (e. g. mNU-TÉŠ-a-ni-Aš-šur VAT 14437: 14; mNU-TÉŠ-a-na-Aš-šur VAT 9995: 3; mLa-tú-ba-ša-a-ni-Aš-šur CT 33, 18 B 4; mLa-tu-TÉŠ-šá-ni-ana-DINGIR VAT 8717 r. 11 etc.). See also fLa-tú-ba-ši-ni VAT 9888: 3’ and fLa-TÉŠ-in-ni Ass. Fd. Nr. 9570 u: 4.

CAD B 6b, 2b: PN Aššur-lā-kīnu-ú-b[a-ša] or (with Sandhi) Aššur-lā-kīnu-b[a-š]a (Borger 1971, 66).

CAD B 6b, 2c: After Borger 1971, 66 the formula in colophons NIR.GÁL.ZU (NU.)TÉŠ should be interpreted on the basis of the syllabic writings at-kal-ku la a-ba-aš and at-kal-ku a-a-ba-aš with bâšu in G-stem (see also CAD T 64a, 1a1’).

 

3. For Bagh. Mitt. 2, 57 ii 2 6 (CAD B 5b, b) see šabāšu: ana ša-ba-ši-im lā naṭű “(tribes) can not be subjected to collection (of tax)” (von Soden 1968, 458; CAD Š/1, 6b, 2a).

 

4. Salonen 1959–960, 158 connects bâšu with Egyptian bwt “verabscheuen”.

NR

 

batabtuḫḫu (valuable accessoire of female dress); Ur III

not in the dictionaries

 

Ur III Garšana: túg ba-tab-tuḫ-ḫu-um 3-kam-ús dInana CUSAS 3, 1028: 31 “3rd-quality b.-textile of Inana”. For further references s. CUSAS 4, p. 25. Reading and interpretation after Waetzoldt 1972, 291 and Sallaberger 2011, 357.

NR                                                        

 

batāqu “to cut off, divide, tear off”

 

1. G a) First OAkk. ref.: ab-tůq ṣarbatam MAD 5, 8: 19 “I cut off the Euphrates poplar”.

Also attested OAkk., in the mng. “to fell”: ib-tu-qů RIME 2, 193: 57 (NB copy of OAkk. inscr.; for context s. baqīšu; the spelling is NB orthography for ibtuq). [i]b-tu-qám ib. 140 r. 10’. (The year Narām-Sîn) ... [erēnam] ib-tú-qam RIME 1 p. 86 year z “cut down [a cedar]”.

 

b) In the mng. “to deduct” (CAD b. 1d): OA (silver) ba-tí-iq AKT 6c, 560: 32 “was missing”.

            OA With object awātu “to settle an affair, to decide a case” (CAD B 164 b. 7a), corresponding to Bab. warkata parāsu: awātam bu-ut-qá-ma ... awātum ba-at-qá-at AKT 6c, 665: 12, 17 “settle the affair! ... The affair is settled”.

 

c) OB lit. object enemy: ib-tu-uq nakram kī kiṣir abīḫim FM 14 i 24 “he cut off the enemy like the knot of a rope”.

Object water: mę ab-tu-uq FM 1 p. 94 A.250: 18 “I diverted the water”. mę ab-tu-qú ib. 33.

MPS

 

d) NA umā annűrig assaprakka A šiprika TA pan Muskaya lū l[ā t]a-bat-taq ND 2759: 13-14 (SAA 1, 1) “I am now writing to (tell) you that you should not cut off your messenger from the Phrygian’s presence”. Cf. Deller 1966, 310 and Saggs 2001, 188: N  i[b]-bat-taq “(your messenger) should certainly not be cut off (from the presence of the Mushkaean)”.

A.KINmeš-ni-šú-[nu xx TA pa-ni]-ia la i-ba*-tú-qu ABL 129: 24-26 (SAA 15, 90) “they should not cut off the[ir] messengers [... from] my [presence”. Note that Deller 1966, 310 interprets i-ba*-tú-qu as N-stem.

 

2. D a) OA PN1 PN2 u ālikī ba-tí-iq ATHE 30, 28 “dispatch PN1, PN2 and the (other) travelers!” (CAD A/1, 348a; see also Matouš 1964, 137). See also Hirsch, WZKM 57, 50.

NR

 

b) stative OB Mari: ašlātum ... bu-ut-tu-qa ARM 28, 152: 19 “the ropes are cut”.

OB lit. mīnum ú-ba-ta-kúm? qīštam ša iim Gilg. OB IM 21 “what will fell for you(?) the forest of wood?”

 

3. Š (not in the dict.): ina ša libbika ša-áb-tí-iq AKT 4, 18: 22 “let it take away from that belonging to you(?)!”

 

4. N OB ib-ba-at-qú FM 1 p. 94 A.250: 13 “the water was diverted”.

MPS

 

bataru “ravine”. Amor. lw.

not in the dict.

 

OB bazaḫātūya ina ḫamqim qerbetim ba!-ta-ri-im u GN [š]aknā ARM 14, 75: 24 “my military posts were stationed in the valley, field, ravine and GN”. Cf. Durand 1998, 191f. and Streck 2000, 85.

MPS

 

*batātu “to warp(?); to interweave (?)”; Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

After Durand 2009, 30, the root btt, which is attested in Akkadian from Mari as bittu and probably battu (see battu II and bittu II), denotes “le fait de préparer la chaîne en réunissant les fils en nappe et en les tendant avant le tissage, ce qui est au propre l’ourdissage”. See, however, Wassermann 2013, 265, note 71, who understands bittu II as “weft”, which would possibly imply the meaning “to interweave” for batātu.

NR

 

batiqtu “denunciation; NA information; rumor”

 

NA mā udīni ba-ti-iq- lā aḫarraṣa SAA 1, 29: 19 (see also CAD U/W, 21a) “I do not have the full details yet”; ba!-ti!-iq-tú lā niḫarraṣa ib. 30: 10’ “we have not cleared up the information”; arḫiš ba-ti-iq-[ ...] ib. 7: 5 “quickly [clear up(?)] information!”; ba-ti-iq-tú šī assaparakka SAA 15, 86 r. 9-10 “I have sent you in[fo]rmation!”; ammar GAZmeš-ni ammar ḫabtūni ba-tiq-tú lā  ni-šá-[me ND 2448: 10-12 (Saggs 2001, 115f.) “We have not heard the full details yet, how many were killed, how many were taken prisoner”. See already Deller 1966, 310.

Note, that Saggs 2001, 116, note 12, considers batiqtu in the last passage as a form from batqu “cut (off)”, since according to him the basic meaning of batiqtu “denunciation” is inappropriate here. However, batiqtu could denote “information” in the NA texts, as the passages above show.

NR

 

bātiqu “express messenger; informer, denouncer”

 

1. NA ba-te-qu ana UGU LUGAL [E]N-ia assapra ND 2703 r. 5-7 (Saggs 2001, 232) “I have sent the accuser to the king my lord”; ba-ti-qu-tú ina UGU? ABL 1224: 7’ (SAA 15, 73) “informers t[o ......]”. Cf. Deller 1966, 310.

NR

 

2. SB ba-ti-qu iddūk SAA 8, 567 r. 6 “he killed the informer”.

MPS

 

bātiqūtu “function of an informer”

not in the dictionaries

 

NA [b]a-te-qu-tú ūtuppiš SAA 16, 124: 6 “he has acted as an informer”. ba-ti-qu-tú SAA 15, 73: 7 in broken context.

MPS

 

b/patiʾum, b/padiʾum “a reed container”

 

Ur III 1 giba-ti-um búr 3-sěla CUSAS 4 p. 25 “1 reed container with a volume(?) of 3 liters”. CAD P 285f. mentions two other Ur III references s. v. pattű “bucket”. The Sumerian etymon ba.an.du8, however, requires a stem tertiae -u in Akkadian.

MPS

 

batqu “cut (off); deficit” etc.

s. also badqu

 

1. OB šeʾam ... ba-at-qá-am u maskam AbB 7, 53: 15–17 “barley, of poor quality and bad”.

 

2. OA (silver) ša ina tuppim ba-at-qam laptu AKT 7a, 40/t: 7 “which is written on the tablet as(?) deficit”. ba-at-qam-ma ib. 40/z: 7. Cf. bitiqtu.

            AN.NA-ak qātim ba-at-qám Prag 709: 18 “available cheap(?)/low quality(?) tin”.

MPS

 

2. NA: For ABL 1180 (CAD B 167a, 2) see now SAA 1, 143: ina muḫḫī bat-qi ša ÚŠmeš ša LUGAL ana GALmeš iqbűni mā bat-qu dinaAs to the replacement for the dead concerning which the king told the magnates: ‘Provide the replacement!’” (cf. Deller 1966, 311).

CAD B 167b, 3d: É PN DUMU ŠU.SImeš SIG5 bat-qu ma-aʾ-da ina ŠŔ-bi K.978: 12-15 (SAA 16, 89) “(Whereas) the house of PN, a nobleman (?), is good (but) much repair (must be done) there” (cf. Deller 1966, 311).

NR

 

batqu in rab batqi “supervisor of repairs”

 

NA a-na PN GAL bat-qi ND 2374: 11 (Iraq 23, pl. 12); PN A.BA ša GAL bat-qí VAT 10430: 11’ (list of witnesses; Deller 1966, 311).

NR

 

battatāya “each of several, individually, from all sides”

 

NA ina bat-ta-ta-a-a upallaḫūn(u) SAA 16, 128 r. 7 “they are scaring me from all sides”.

MPS

 

battu I “side, region around”

 

1. After Landsberger 1965, 57, note 108, battu and battuttu are derived from the verb buddudu “to waste, dissipate”. For a Sem. etymology see ib.: Arab. baddada “to separate, disunite”; Hebr. bad “separation”, bādād “isolation, separation”, bodēd “isolated”.

 

2. NA ina UGU URUmeš ša ba-ti ammēte ša Zaba azqupūni  ND 2453 r. 6f. (Saggs 2001, 116f.) “(When I myself entered into GN,) for the towns which I planted on that side of the Zab, (a prisoner came concerning Ursa)”; UNmeš xxx [x] igdurū ina bat-te ammēte ša ÍD ittalkū mā meni(m)mēni ina bat-ti annīte ša ÍD lā rēḫe K.570 r. 4’-6’ (SAA 15, 164) “The people [...] have got scared and go[ne] to the other side of the river. Nobody is left on this side of the river.”; Arbaya ina bat-ti ammīte ša Ḫadina šaknū  K. 889: 5f. (SAA 1, 179) “[The Ar]abs are settled on the other side of the [H]adina river”. Cf. Deller 1966, 311f.

 

3. For nadbāku ša ba-te (Deller 1966, 311f.) see bātu II.

 

4. See also battubattu.

NR

 

battu II (?) “weft (?)” or “warp (?)” OB Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

In the letter from Mari T.263 (Durand 2009, 29f.) occurs the lexeme ba-DU-um in parallelism with ni-du(-um). Both seem to denote items used to make different types of garments: 8 5/6 MA.NA ba-DU-um 3 1/2 MA.NA ni-du 9 ša 1 túgḫa-li ši-ik-nim 10 1/2 MA.NA ba-DU-um 2 MA.NA ni-du 11 ša 1 túgil-Bu-um 12 1/2 MA.NA ba-DU-um 1 1/2 MA.NA ni-du-um 13 ša 1 túgsa-ak bu-re še20-ʾě-im 14 2/3 MA.NA ba-DU-um 3 MA.NA ni-du-um 15 ša 1 túgkap lu-ur-mě-im 16 1/3 MA.NA 5 GĚN ba-DU-um 1/2 MA.NA ni-du-um 17 ša 1 túgsa-ak bu-re da-qum.

            Since a larger proportion of ni-du(-um) than of ba-DU-um is required for each cloth, Durand 2009, 30, supposed that ba-DU-um denotes “le fil de chaîne”, or “warp”, whereas ni-du(-um) means “le fil de trame”, or “weft”. See, however, Wassermann 2013, 265, note 71, who reserves the meaning “warp” for šutű, cognate with Hebrew šətī “warp” and interprets bittu II, which is related to the word battu, as “weft”.

Durand connects ba-DU-um with the Hebrew conjectural lemma *battîm “gewobenes Kleid” (Köhler-Baumgartner 1967/1, 159b; Gesenius 1987/1, 186a, see also bad „Stück Tuch, Leinen“ in ibid. 125a), Ugaritic bt(t) “to cut (?)”(Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 251, cf. Durand 2009, 30 with the translation “ourdir”) and Arabian batta “he cut it off” (Lane 2003, 147f.). Hence his spelling ba-tů-um (older orthography of the Yaḫdun-lim texts). See also *batātu, bittu II and nīdu. For the textiles listed in the passage above see the corresponding entries.

NR

 

battubattu/e “all round, on all sides of”

 

1. MA (uncertain): ellānukka naplis ba?-tu?-bat-te-en KAJ 316:7–9 “look not only upon yourself …” (Deller 1966, 312).

 

2. NA [xxxx] x ba-tu-ba-ti*-ni* ABL 1238: 12 (SAA 16, 97) “… around us”;  [ ] bat-te-bat-te-ku-nu x[    ] ND 2783: 13 (Saggs 2001, 93) “... around you...”; ba]-te- ba-te am-[me?-te? K.13010 r. 2’ (SAA 15, 104) “... around ...”. Cf. Deller 1966, 312.

 

3. See also battu I.

NR

 

Baʾtu “a piece(?)”

not in the dictionaries

 

BA-ʾ-tu4 occurs four times in Emar texts always in context with NINDA “bread” (Pentiuc 2001, 35). Since the signs before BA-ʾ-tu4 are damaged in all texts (one unclear sign in Emar 6, 438: 5’ is preserved), it is not clear, whether this word starts with BA or whether BA-ʾ-tu4 is part of a longer word. BA-ʾ-tu4 could be connected with Hebrew pāʾā “to cleave in pieces” and translated in context with NINDA as “a piece of bread” (Pentiuc 2001, 35).

Alternatively, BA-ʾ-tu4 could be related to Akk. bāʾu “half” (OB) or bātu “half” (only SB lex.).

NR

 

bātu II, bādu “night’s rest; vigil (?)”

not in the dictionaries

 

1. OB adī nūram tu-ka-al-la-mu-šu-nu-ti ay ut-te-er ba-at ilī akḫīka AnSt. 33, 148: 32f. “until you (Girra) show them the light, may the night’s rest of the gods, your brothers, not be restored”. The words NA bādu “evening” CAD B 27 = bâde “abends” AHw 95 and SB/NB bajātu “nocturnal ceremony” CAD B 34 = bajjātu “nächtlicher Opferkult” AHw 97 are later variants of the same word. Since we would expect uncontracted forms in OB and NA, the word does not derive from the inf. bīʾāt/du, but is a different noun from the same root.

MPS

 

2. NA nadbāku ša ba-te SAA 12, 69: 18, 26 “the expenditure for the vigil (?)”. This expression occurs in the text along with nadbākū ša pandugāni ša šarri ib. 7 “the expenditures for the king’s festival paddugānu”; nadbāku ša UKKIN DINGIRmeš-ni ib. 27 “the expenditure for the divine council”; nadbāku ša rimki ib. 32 “the expenditure for the bath” and nadbāku ša garmarte ib. 35 “the expenditure for the kanwartu festival”. Therefore, bātu probably also denotes a festival and is most likely derived from biātu “to spend the night”. Cf. bayyātu “nocturnal offering ritual’.

NR

 

batūltu, NA batūssu “adolescent, nubile girl”

 

1. OB lit. (oldest ref.): ba-tu-ul-tum māratu awīlim ana rigmiya ana {ri-ig} šagīmiya <li>mqut YOS 11, 87: 11–14 “May the girl, a daughter of a gentleman, fall at my cry, at my shout”.

 

2. MA 1 ba-tu-ul-ta BATSH 4/1, 17: 7.

MPS

 

3. NA CAD B 173, lex. sec.: [MUNUS.K]AL.TUR STT 382 x 39 und [MUNUS.KA]L.TUR STT 385 viii 3; s. Or NS 34, 473 (after Deller 1966, 312).

CAD B 173f.: Note the indication of age of batūssu in VAT 9930: 11–12 (unpubl.): MUNUS.TUR šuʾātu MU 15 [zarpat laqqeʾat]. See also [EN] MUNUS.TUR S[UMni] VAT 9844:5 (unpubl.); SAL.TUR la ta-DA-na-at (= tadnat) VAT 15506 r. 4’–5’ (unpubl.). MUNUS.TUR-sa in VAT 15538: 3’ (Deller 1966, 312) is probably a spelling error for DUMU.MUNUS-sa (Radner 1997, 154f., note 794). See Deller 1966, 312.

NR

 

batūlu “boy, young man”

 

NA CAD B 174, lex. sec.: KA]L.TUR ba-tu-lu STT 382 x 38 (Deller 1966, 312).

For PN mBa-tu-lu see ABL 564: 1’; r. 8, 11 (SAA 15, 168; see also Deller 1966, 312).

BE 14, 168: 16 (CAD B 174b) is to be deleted: read now with von Soden 1968, 458, CAD M/1, 23b and CAD P 134a ma-du-tu instead of ba-du-li.

NR

 

baṭālu “to cease”

 

1. Lex. ašar ašpuruka lā ta-ba-aṭ-ṭi-il⸣ CUSAS 12 p. 253: 213 (gramm. text) “where I sent you to, d not stop!”

 

2. Gtn (not in the dict.): OA (first ref.) adī ayyim ūmim ib-ta-na-ṭí-il5-kŕ-ma Prag 430: 28 “until when he will miss again and again (the payment date) for you?”

MPS

 

baṭiltu “interruption”

 

baṭīti (CAD)

 

see baṭű II.

 

baṭlu “ceased, disused”

 

baṭṭu “the sign BAD”

not in the dictionaries

 

MB ([if the “well-]being”) kīma BAD-ma elîš/šapliš dilű šapliš/elîš gigurű CUSAS 18, 33: 34/35 “is like the sign BAD, with the dilű (the horizontal wedge) above/below and the gigurű (the winkelhaken) below/above”. For syll. spellings ba-aṭ-ṭu, ba-aṭ/baṭ-ṭa in SB lex. texts see Gong 2000, 104.

MPS

 

baṭű I “a platter or container”

 

1. For the meaning of baṭű s. Harrak, AoF 17, 72. He connects baṭű with Arab. bāṭī (pl. bawāṭī) and Syr. bāṭūtā, which both denote a cup, more wide than deep, used for curdling of milk and drinking wine. There are, however, also big and flat bawāṭī, also “platters”.

NR

 

2. Early OB in lists of various objects : 1 ru-um-u-um 1 ba?-ṭí-ú-tum ú -na-an PN KTT 53: 1–4 “one lance, b.s and a pair of shoes for PN”. See also bá-ṭí-ú-tum ib. 13 and 1 ba-ṭí-ʾŕ-an? 1 u-BU-šu-um a-na PN ” ib. 54: 13 “ a pair of b.s, one u. and one marḫašum-container. Note that M. Krebernik, KTT p. 55 and 240, tentatively analyses the word as pātiḥum.

            OB fem. pl. 4 ba!-ṭa-tum AbB 7, 116: 23 (in list of items robbed). AbB 7 p. 96 reads ma-DA-tum. 2 ba-ṭi-a-tum UD.KA.BAR JCS 25, p. 211: 14 “2 bronze vessels”.

MPS

           

3. NB: Note the spelling ba-aṭ-ṭu-u UD.KA.BAR Nbn. 761: 3. Cf. M. Roth, AfO 36/37, 23, with further ref.

NR

 

baṭű “to trust”; EA, WSem. lw.

only CAD: baṭītu “I am confident”

 

Sivan 1984, 141 and 212 interprets ba-ṭě-i-ti from EA 147: 56, which is marked with the gloss mark as a foreign word, as 1 c. sg. /baṭiḥtī/ from the Northwest Semitic root bṭḥ “to trust”. Note the pattern qatil-, which is opposed to Hebrew qatal- (see for explanation Sivan 1984, 141). Sivan 1984, 212 connects with this root also the personal names ia-ab-ṭě-iḫ-dIŠKUR (EA 288: 45), ia-ab-ṭě-ḫa-da (EA 335: 9) and tentatively ia-ab-ṭŕ-ḫu (AT WO 5, 77), which all he understands as yqtl 3 m.s.

NR

 

*bâṭu “to show contempt (?)”

only CDA

 

Fot this word see Salonen 1959-1960, 158. Most probably misreading. Read probably i-kaš-da-ni-ma from the verb kašādu (CAD K 274a; CAD S 126b; AHw 460a): “(Why should PN) arrive here (in Uruk and bother me)?” Note, however, the unusual writing: one would expect i-kaš-ša-da-ni.

NR

 

baʾu (or baʾű)(?) (a bird).

not in the dictionaries

 

OB ba?(ma?)-ú-um Edubba’a 7, 100: 65 (in list of birds). Cf. also ib. 29.

MPS

 

baʾű? I “to seek, desire”, Aram. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

G NB a-ba-ʾ-i SAA 18, 153: 19 in broken context. Acc. to Parpola, ib. p. 125 possibly a loan from Aram. Bʿʾ pe. Akk. elsewhere only has D buʾʾű.

MPS

 

baʾű II “to bark”; NB; SB

not in the dictionaries

 

i-ba-ʾ-i-ma-a še-el-bi kīma imḫullum u šurānu lā ta-ri-x [xxx] x-iš šá-al-lu?-tim Iraq 60, 204: 3 (proverb) “Does the fox yowl like a tempest? and is not the wild cat …. captivity(?)?”. S. also George/Al-Rawi, id. 206 ad 3.

NR

 

bâʾu I “to go along, to come”

 

1. AHw. 117b and 1547b proposed two words bâʾu in Akkadian, bâʾu I with ā-vowel and bâʾu II with ū-vowel, the latter a loan from “Canaanite”. However, there is no definitive argument  to separate the two verbs from each other, and bâʾu II is hardly a loan from Amorite, see Streck 2000, 85: Semantically, the alleged bâʾu II “to come” well fits bâʾu I, and the ū-variant is probably archaic and genuine Akkadian, primarily attested in OB Mari (i-bu-ma ARM 26/1, 6: 18; li-bu-a-am-ma ARM 26/1, 224: 15) and Shemshara (bu-ma Shemshara 1, 2: 27–29), but also in EA (CAD B bâʾu 3c) and perhaps also in OAkk. (ib-tu ZA 87, 23 ii 19, cf. C. Wilcke, ZA 87 [1997] 29). The ā-variant is probably influenced by /ʾ/ as third radical.

 

2. G a) OAkk. šumma PN u PN2 la ba-a FAOS 19 p. 185: 7–10 “if PN and PN2 have not come” (stative dual, see B. Kienast/K. Volk ib.). For the meaning “to come” see AHw. 117 b. G 5b, CAD B 181 b. 2a (OA).

 

b) OB i-ba-a-ú-m[a] birqu ša Adad ina ṣērišu ALL 1 i 10f. “the ligthning of Adad swept over it”. ib-ta birqum ša ṣīḫātim elīja ib. 12f. “the lightning of love-making swept over me”. OB itti GN mašmaš ilī ba-ʾ-ma AnSt. 33, 148: 34 “pass by with GN, the excorcist of the gods! (subj. Girra).

OB lit. iṭeḫḫē Enlil ana Apišalîm! // ib!-tu Westenholz 1997, 185; 5 “Approaching, Enlil came to the Apišalian”.

 

c) In OB Mari the particple is well attested: The following passages contain the idiom qāta bāʾīta šakānu/epēšu: matīmā awīlum ša ina ṣūmim imūtu ina nārim iddűšuma iblu ištū qātam ba-i-tam ippešū warkānūm mītum ul iballu ARM 26/1, 171: 14f. (Heimpel 2003, 241) “did ever a man revive who died of thirst (and) was thrown in a river? After (= Even if ) they take action, thereafter a dead man does not revive”. bēlī ušamrianni išpuram qātam ba-i-tam taškunma karpat karānim u šamnim tašām mimma anāku karpat karānim u šamnim ul ašām A.3362 (MARI 6, 79 n. 202; Durand 1998, 22f. no. 859): 5–8 “my lord trouble me (and) wrote me: ‘You took action and bought jars of wine and oil!’I did not buy jars of wine and oil.” ūm kašādiya[ma] [sa]gbam a[na! qātim! b]a-ʾě-tim [ašta]kan u ṣābum [e]niš ul ša mušītim A.1155: 5–8 (Wasserman/Ziegler 1994; restorations given here deviate from their edition) “when I arrived I [mobil]ized the patrol-unit but the troop was [w]eak, not (fit) for the night-watch”. In broken context: [q]ātu ba-i-[t]u ina libbi [... šaknat] ARM 4, 86: 21f. (Wasserman/Ziegler 1994 with coll.; restorations given here deviate from their edition) “action [was taken] concerning [...]”.

            Here also belong the following passage with stative instead of adj., but without šakānu/epēšu: šarrū ša mātim elītim ... kâtama inaṭṭalūka [inūma? t]illātiya attama tudammiqam [an]a dummuqi[m] qātka ba-ʾě-a-at ARM 28, 1: 14’f. “the kings of the upper land look only at you. [When(?)] you have provided generously my auxiliaries, you will be ready to provide generously (troops for them)”.

            J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 350, followed by Wasserman/Ziegler 1994 (not knowing A.3362 and ARM 28, 1), translates “compte” and suggests derivation from baʾʾītu “thing sought” (Wasserman/Ziegler: “check-list”). Heimpel 1997 (only knowing ARM 26/1, 171 and A.3362) translates “to take the initiative” and suggests a derivation from ʾu “to go along, overtake”.

            The mng. “compte”, “check-list” does not fit any of the passages well. Moreover, baʾʾītu is a noun, not an adj., and an Ass. form cannot be expected in Mari. Lastly, ba-ʾě-a-at cannot be derived from buʾʾű/baʾʾű: the correct form would be *buʾʾât < *buʾʾū-at. On the other hand, a derivation from ʾu, indeed the only choice left, poses no formal problems: bāʾītu < * bāʾiʾtu is the fem. participle, bāʾiʾat the stative of the participle. qātu bāʾītu lit. means “hand going along/overtaking”, qāta bāʾīta epēšu/šakānu “to make/put a hand going along/overtaking”, qātka bāʾiʾat “your hand is going along/overtaking”.

            The participle is also attested in other contexts in OB Mari: used as synonym of etēqu: TURmeš-ia e-ti-qú-tim ů ba-ú-tim ARM 28, 68: 15f. “my passing and coming servants”. a-[n]a e-ti-qí-im ů ba-i-[i]m ma-ṣa-r[i-im!] ARM 27, 116:14 “to the guard passing and coming”. See also outside of Mari: ētiqu u ba-a-ú imšuḫma AbB 12, 194: 5f. “a passer-by or someone walking along had stolen (wood)”. The spelling renders the form bājiʾ/ju < *bāʾiʾu.

            See also the stative (of the participle?) (OB Karkemiš) (?): anāku ba-e-ku ARM 28, 24: 9 “I am on the way(?)”. 

 

d) OA imp. ba-am Prag 499: 14 “come!”

 

3. D (not in the dict.): OB lit. mű ú-ba-ú-nim CUSAS 10, 1: 24 “waters pass by”. Cf. A. George, ib. p. 9. With George 2003, 337, two further forms are: [šēnu munaššikat šēp] mu-be-ʾ-i sūqi Gilg. MB Emar2 18’ “[a shoe that bites the foot of] one passing the street”. rebīt āliya ú-ba-ʾ-ú (var. a-ba-ʾ) nēḫiš Oshima 2014, 464: 291 (note that Oshima on p. 166 has, by mistake, a-ba-ʾu-ú) “I used to pass the square of my city quietly”. Both mubeʾʾi and ubaʾʾu look as if derived from buʾʾű “to search”, and the latter form has indeed been translated accordingly in AHw. 775 s. v. nēḫiš.

 

4. Š kī ša ...sūqam⸣ ša nišī ummaka tu-uš-bi-ʾ OECT 11, 2: 8 “instead of ... letting your mother go along the people’s street”.

 

 

5. Štn (? first ref.): OB ištū MU 5kam uš-ta-na-ba-a-ni-a-ši umma šūma AbB 10, 171: 17f. “for five years he has been heaping(?) on us the following words”. Transferred use of AHw. 117 bâʾu 4 “übergießen, überfluten”? Probably not nabű (no Š, text writes elsewhere double consonants) or šubeʾʾű (no e-umlaut).

MPS

 

bâʾu II “to come”

See bâʾu I.

 

baʾūlātu, OAkk buʾūlātu “people, subjects”

 

Note the possible by-form buʾūlātu in OAkk: after Krebernik 1991, 136 the value ba11 introduced in MAD 2, 52 for BŮ is unsure and the spelling bů-ú-la-t is preferable (s. dict. for ref.).

NR

 

baʾūlu “great, important”

 

NA CAD 184a, lex. sec.: ba-ú?-lu = kab-tú STT 371: 13 (Or 34, 464, see also Deller 1966, 312).

NR

 

bayyāru “hunter”

 

First OB (lit.) ref.: ra-ab-bu ba-ia-ru wāṣűšu FM 14 iii 11 “numerous(?) were the hunters going out with him”.

MPS

 

bayyātu

s. bātu

 

bazaḫātu “military post”

 

Disc. of alleged Amor. etymology in Streck 2000, 85f.

 

bazāʾu s. buzzuʾu

 

BaZāru “to divide (?); to distribute (?)”; Carchemish, Ekalte, Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

In the legal texts from Emar the verbal forms Ba-aZ-ra (3 du.) and Ba-aZ-ru  (3 m. pl.) occur always in contexts with zâzu “to divide; get a share” as zi-i-za Ba-aZ-ra and zi-i-zu Ba-aZ-ru (Pentiuc 2001, 34; for the new attestations see also Ikeda 2003, 270b). The same expression is found also in texts from Carchemish (PRU 4, 122: 27) and from Ekalte (WVDOG 102, 20: 22; 90: 9). According to the contexts this verb must denote something which has to do with dividing the property in shares, may be some kind of state or result of dividing the property.

There are several interpretations of this verb. Huehnergard 1983, 33, following Nougayrol (PRU 4, 122: 27), relates ba-as-ru to the Akkadian bussuru “to bring, send a message”, which is otherwise known only in the D stem: “(they) have taken shares (and) announced”. For this interpretation see also Tsukimoto 1991, 297: 9 with almost the same translation “they have taken shares (and) announced this publicly(?)”. Mayer 2001, 26, note 103 supports this interpretation too (hence his translation of basāru “öffentlich bekanntmachen”), but speaks about “kanaanäischen Einfluss beim Lexikon” in this case (Mayer 2001, 38). He translates this formula as a passive sentence: “(Von heute) sind beide geteilt und sie sind öffentlich bekanntgegeben” (WVDOG 102, 20: 22) or “Ihre Aufteilung ist durchgeführt, sie sind öffentlich verkündet” (WVDOG 102, 90: 9). Here must be noted that Hebrew bśr (בשר) occurs only in Piel too (Gesenius 1987, 182f.; see also Jastrow 1996, 199).

Wilcke 1985, 311, note 181 argues for the Akkadian verb baṣāru “to tear off” in this expression, which Huehnergard considers as “a less likely alternative”. Note, however, that this verb appears in G only in the lexical texts. Its normal stem in Akkadian is D. In Hebrew, though, the root bṣr is known also in G as “abschneiden; Trauben lesen” (Gesenius 1987, 167; see also Jastrow 1996, 185).

Arnaud transliterates zi-i-za ba-aṣ-ra (AuOr 5, 238f., 16: 17) and zi-i-zu ba-aṣ-ru (Emar 6, 186: 1-3; 194: 18-19) with the translation “(ils) ont partagé (et) délimité (leurs parts)”. The same transliteration is found in Beckman 1996, 118, 94: 17, who, though, considers <zi>-i-za ba-aṣ-ra as a passive construction: “(the property) has been <di>vided and articulated”. But his his translation implies a reading basāru and not baṣāru.

Finally, Pentiuc 2001, 34f. relates the forms ba-az-ra /bazrā/ and ba-az-ru /bazrū/ to the West Semitic root bḏr, which is realized in Hebrew as bāzar “to scatter”, in Aramaic as bədar G “to scatter”, D “to distribute”, in Syriac as bdar G “to scatter”, D “to distribute”, in Arabic as baḏara “to sow, disseminate, spread”. Pentiuc takes these forms as active statives and translates the whole expression as “(they) divided in shares and distributed (them)”. See also BU-UZ-ru.

NR

 

baZiḫītum “an object”

not in the dictionaries

 

See the following OB Mari reference for this Hapax: [š]a-pí-il-ti ṣa-bi-ia ba-zi-ḫi-tam []-ḫa-za-am an-zu-tam ša giPISANdidli.ḫi.a [iš-š]u-ú ARM 26/1, 18: 24–26 “The rest of my troops carried the b., the [peḫḫazu]-metal and the eagle-emblem(?) in several reed boxes”. J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 130 n. d connects the word with the OB Hapax baziḫtu “claim” and translates “le strict minimum”. Heimpel 2003, 185 does not give any translation, but in his commentary p. 186 speaks of “provisons”. The orthography does not fit the word baziḫtu entirely, and the context might also point to an object as part of merchandise transported from Mari to Ḫalab.

MPS

 

baziḫtu “claim, need”

 

von Soden 1968, 458 doubts the existence of this word (see CAD B 185: ina UD ba-zi-iḫ-tim), since day” in an OB letter should not be written UD without phonetic complement.

NR

 

bazītu (an exotic animal)

 

NA Note the PN in NA: fBa-zi-i-tú VS I 94 = AR 206:5; fBa-zi-tú ADD 741:16 (APN 53b; Deller 1966, 312).

NR

 

baZku “quacking (of ducks)”

not in the dictionaries

 

MB lit. ba-aZ-ki ALL no. 11 r. 5, see paspasu.

MPS

 

bazūšānu? “?”

not in the dict.

 

NA lā ina ba-zu-šá?-nu-u-a ana šarre bēliya ašpura SAA 10, 187 r. 1 “did I not write in my ... to the king, my lord?” Read ba-ṣú-ṣa?- from baṣāṣu “to trickle”?

MPS

 

bedű mng. unkn; phps. “to be slow”

 

1. This verb is uncertain. AHw 117 (under bedű) let it without translation, while AHw 1547 interprets G as “verfügen über” und D as “jmd. in Anspruch nehmen”. CAD B 215 (under beṭű) assumes the meaning “to cheat(?)”, whereas CDA 42 (under bedű) interprets G tentatively as “to be slow” and D as “delay”. CDA supposes also the connection with nabṭű “horizon”.

            From four ref. quoted in AHw 117, ARM 2, 71: 17 remains uncertain, s. budūḫu here. YOS 2, 1: 15 does not belong here after CAD B 215a (under beṭű) and Farber 1989a, 18 (differently von Soden 1968, 458 and AbB 9, 1: 15 with the reading BI-de-eš-ma). Below are the references, which currently are associated with bed/ṭű.

 

2. G a) OB lā te-bé-ed-di iṣṣūrātim šūbilaššu AbB 2, 116: 23 is translated by CAD B 215 as “do not cheat(?), send the birds through him”. Frankena 1966, p. 83 however, interprets lā te-bi-id-di as “ohne Zögern”.

OB Ešnuna: ši-in mātim elītim u šaplītim tapaṭṭar(?) makkūr mātim elītim u šaplītim te-bé-ed-di maḫīr-ka ul imaṭṭi FLP 1674 (MARI 5, p. 258) “you will loosen/ransom the x of the upper and lower country and you will amass/ransom the riches of the upper and lower country. Your economy will not diminish” (transl. by de Jong Ellis 1987, 258). De Jong Ellis 1987, 263 connects te-bé-ed-di here and in AbB 2, 116: 23 (s. above) with padű/pedű “to ransom, redeem”. Moran (s. de Jong Ellis 1987, 263) proposes the meaning “to amass” for both passages.

u lū wēdāta bi-di alkam AbB 1, 89, 31 “ausserdem bist du doch ohne Anhang; fass Mitleid(?), komm!” (transl. by Kraus 1964, 69). AHw 1547b attributes BI-di to bedű “verfügen über”. CAD P 6b, 1b, cites this passage under padű with the translation “you are alone, relent(?) and come to me”.

inūma i-bé-du-né-ši-ma AbB 10, 111: 4 (s. Sommerfeld 1990, 143 ad 111).

After Farber 1989a, 18, the verbal form from bedű “betrügen, ein Schnippchen schlagen” might occur in OB incantation YOS 11, 92: 3: ba-a-DI?-a-at ka-lu ša?-ri-im. The context is, however, unclear (s. Farber 1989a, 18f.).

Note also unpubl. ref. in AHw 1547b under bedű “verfügen über”: (Besitz) ta-bé-ed-di.

 

b) MB [š]i-ḫi ib-TE-e IM 85513 (MBLET no. 42: 14) “… he swindled(?)” (transl. by Gurney 1983, 119f.). Gurney 1983, 120 ad Obv. 14 refers to beṭű “to cheat” for this passage.

 

3. D ú-ba-ad-di-a-ni-ma šę im-ta-ša!-aḫ AbB 6, 220: 17 is interpreted by Frankena 1974, p. 149 as “er hat mich betrogen und mein Gerste weggerafft”. CAD B 215, however, refers to naṭű “to maul” for this passage. It is not included, though, in CAD N under naṭű. But perhaps rather “he put me off, delayed me”, cf. Arabic bṭw “be slow” (Postgate on http://www.soas.ac.uk/cda-archive/lemmata/).

NR

 

beʾēšu “to stir”

 

For OA ref. s. bęšu (Veenhof 2015, 229–232).

 

[b]e-it-ti (mng. uncl.) EA

 

This verbal form occurs in EA 324: 15 and after Moran 1992, 352, note 2, could be explained as a Canaanite perfect 1st sg. either built on Akk. biātu “to spend the night”, “I have [st]ored”, or built on Akk. buʾʾű, “I have searched out”.

NR

 

bēlānu “power, force”

not in the dictionaries

 

J.-M. Durand, MARI 5 p. 180 n. 27 was the first to recognize the adverb ina bēlāni in OB Mari. Previously, part of the references were mentioned in CAD N/2, 333 s. v. nullānū “evil, fraudulent intention”. However, the spelling i-na bé(BI)-la-nu-um ARM 26/2, 410 proves that instead of nu- we have to read be-. Note than none of the altogether four OB references listed in CAD is written nu-ul-.

            Durand, MARI 5 p. 180 n. 27 derived the word from “bîlum” (WBL) “moyen de transporteur” in the transferred meaning “moyen de faire se mouvoir quelqu’un contre sa volonté”. See also Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 436 and Durand 2000, 322 ad ARM 26/1 no. 207 “par astuce”, Durand ARM 26/1 p. 436 n. b ad M.8512  “l’on m’a fait sortir sur une civičre”, ibid. ad ARM 26/2 no. 410 “contre mon gré”, Durand 1998 p. 93 ad ARM 2, 16 “toute ŕ notre avantage”. Durand is followed by F. Joannčs, ARM 26/2 p. 281 “malgré moi” and Heimpel 2003, 257 ad ARM 26/1 no. 207 “She helped them [speak]” with commentary “literally, ‘made them speak with carrying pole’” (but Heimpel 2003, 351 ad ARM 26/2 no. 410 leaves the translation open). Durand, FM 8 p. 157 n. c. derives the word from an unattested word *pęlum and proposes the translation “agir avec astuce”. In the same vol. on p. 40, however, he translates “par échange” (see also the disc. ib. p. 41 n. f).

            The orthography with be- does not favor a word *bīlu. It is also dubious that a noun of the pattern PiRS could have the meaning “means of transport”. Furthermore, the metaphor “means of transport” > “trick, deceit” or “against my will” is unonvincing. Lastly, none of the contradicting translations does seem to fit all the references. Therefore, the etymology and meaning given by Durand have to be rejected.

            The orthography with be- favors a derivation from bēlu “lord”. Whereas the suffix -ān mostly derives concrete nouns, usually designations for persons, from other nouns (Streck 2011, 29 § 65h), bēlānu seems to have an abstract meaning “power, force”. A meaning “by force” for the construction ina bēlāni (genitive) or (ina) bēlānū (locative) fits all the references well. Only in ARM 2, 16 bēlānim is found after a noun in the construct state.

            ḫi-ib-la-ti-ka [š]a i-na bé-la-nu-um ú-ka-al-lu lu-ú-wa-še-ra-kum ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410: 15f. “I will release to you your losses that I am keeping by force”. as-sú-ur-ri be-lí ke-em i[-qa-ab-bi] um-ma-a-mi i-na be-la-ni ú-[ša-ad-ba!-ab!]u-nu-ti mi-im-ma ú-ul ú-š[a]-ad-ba-[ab!-šu-nu-ti] šu-nu-ma i-da-ab-bu-bu ARM 26/1 p. 435 no. 207: 35–38 “I am afraid my lord will s[ay]: ‘She [lets] them [speak] by force.’ I absolutely do no let [them sp]eak. They speak by themselves”. be-lí id-ni-nam-ma i-na be-la-ni ú!-še-ṣú-ni-in-ni5-ma at-ta-al-kam M. 8512 (ARM 26/1 p. 436 n. b) “My lord pressed me and they drove me out by force and I went away”. i-na GN [PN] i-na be-la-nim ik-lu-ú-ma ARM 1, 91 (= MARI 5, 178–180) 3'f. “They kept [PN] in GN by force”. (PN has given land in exchange for a plot) an-nu-ú-um ṭú-bu ú-ul be-la-nu ARM 8, 8: 5 (cf. MARI 5, 180 n. 27) “This was voluntarily, not by force”. sa-lim be-la-nim ú-sa-al-lam-šu-nu-ti ARM 2, 16: 16 (see Durand 1998 p. 93) “I will have them conclude a peace treaty by (lit. of) force”. inanna ina mīnim qišti GN ana PN ittūr bēlī ina be-la-nim qišti GN ana PN ittadin FM 8, 3: 24–29 “now, why has the forest of GN returned to PN? My lord has given the forest of GN to PN by force”. ina be-la-nim FM 9 p. 151 no. 32: 12 (in broken context). Note instead of ina rather ištū ŠŔ-ba: ištu ŠŔ-ba [b]e-la-ni ašaddadš[u] FM 8, 44: 31f. “I will remove i[t] by force”.

            OB apart from Mari: šum-ma i-na be!-la-a-ni gišla ša-at-tam iṣ-ṣa-ba-at Goetze LE § 6 A i 27f. “If a man by force seizes a boat which does not belong to him”. kīma ina be!-la-ni nīš ilim [?] ušazkir[u] ” IM 49238+49543: 13 “that they did [not?] make me take an oath by force”.

MPS

 

bēltu “lady; mistress, proprietress (of)”

 

NA CAD B 188f., 1a2’: ginű ša RN ana Bēlat-Nipḫa GAŠAN rabītu irkusūni Ebeling Parfümrez. 34 r. 22–23 (Deller 1966, 312) “regular offerings which RN established for DN”

CAD B 190, 1c: note bēlet bīti also as the wife of tartānu: PN rab ālānī ša fGAŠAN É ša tar-tan ND 2605: 17–18 (Iraq 23, pl. 19; Deller 1966, 312). Cf., however, Saggs 2001, 273f., who reads ša MUNUS š[a]? É ša tar-tan.

NR

 

belű II, balű “to be extinguished, come to an end”

 

1. For ABL1368 r. 1 in CAD B 73a, 1b see balāṭu II (see also Deller 1966, 309).

NR

 

2. D “to extinguish”: a) OB Mari išātum ... ina danna ú-ba-al-lu ARM 26/1, 244: 4–10 “fire ... they extinguished it with difficulty”.

Object “battle”: OB lit. bu-ul-lu tuqmātim kűmma Ištar CM 8, 22ff. i 20 “extinguishing wars is yours, Ištar”.

MPS

 

b) LB ub-te-lu imatka AMD 1, p. 237, no. 14: 2’ (inc. against a scorpion) “they have nullified your venom!”

 

bēlu “lord; proprietor (of)”

 

1. OAkk. Beydar: ITI.SAR/ZD.SAR dbe-lim “month of Bēlum”, ITI.SAR (d)be-lí GN etc. “month of Bēlum from GN” Subartu 2 p. 180, Subartu 12 p. 124. In PN: Be-la-ma-DINGIR Subartu 2, 5 v 4 “God is lord”. Šu-be-lim ib. p. 190 “He of the lord”.

 

2. OB be-el mar-ṣa-tim ARM 26/2 p. 337 no. 434: 35 “victim” (lit. “lord of painful things”), see F. Joannčs, ARM 26/2 p. 338 n. i and Heimpel 2003, 217 n. 130. Cf. bēl marušti “enemy” CAD M/1, 318b maruštu 1e.

MPS

 

3. MB: bēl awātim (AHw 119b) occurs also in Boğazköy: see KUB 4, 71: 4 (Matouš 1964, 137).

 

4. NA For É ENmeš (CAD B 195a, 1b1’) see also ABL 85: 3; 523: 12; 620: 3’; 1042 r. 4; 1101: 15; K 5478: 6’; K 5581 r. 12’; K 15632 A 2’ (Deller 1966, 312).

CAD B 196f., 2a: In negation A.ŠŔ.GA ša pāḫat GN šumma ramű ša EN-e šū ND 2734+2416+2457: 48f. (Iraq 20, pl. 38;) “wenn ein Feld der Provinz Urzuḫina aufgegeben ist, so ist es herrenlos” (Deller 1966, 312; cf. Saggs 2001, 208–210).

NR

 

4. LB bēl ḫanšę instead of normal rab ḫanšę: EN 50-ú “commander of 50” Bēl-rēmanni p. 252: 9.

bēl sūti instead of normal rab sūti: PN PN2 u PN3 ENmeš gišBŔNmeš šá d[UTU] Bēl-rēmanni p. 221 BM 42646+43612: 3f. “lords of the sūtu-taxes of [Šamaš]”.

MPS

 

5. SB: for lā bēl ili “luckless person” see Borger 1971, 66 and CAD I/J 103b.

NR

 

*bēlu II

(s. AHw. 120b)

 

For bēlu II see now tillu in CAD T 411a (see also von Soden 1968, 458).

NR

 

bęlu “to rule (over); dispose of”

 

bēlūtu “rule, domination”

 

bennu I “epilepsy”

 

NA CAD B 205b, lex. sec.: for dLUGAL.AMAŠ.PA.Č = be-en-nu see also CT 16, 2: 61f. (Borger 1971, 66).

NR

 

bēram “(for) a double hour”; OB, Mari; LB.

See bēru III.

 

berītu I “treaty”; Qatna, WSem. lw.

AHw 1548a (Nachtrag); CDA 43a

 

Qatna: TAR be-ri-ti “to make a pact or contract”. Cf. Heb. kārat bərīt “to cut a covenant”. See also Driver 1967, 107f. for further parallels. For bi-ri-it ARM 2, 37: 6, which Driver also understands as “treaty”, see birītu “space between”.

NR

 

*beriʾu (mng. unkn.)

CAD B 207a; CDA 43a

 

The word beriʾu does not exist. For the single lex. ref. OB lú-ázlag B-C, Seg. 5, 12 (MSL 12, 194, C3, 13) see now J. Taylor , “OB Lu2-azlag2” (2006), Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts: lú na-ĝá-aḫ = nu-ḫu-ú-um “stupid one”.

For the word bi-ri-e-em in ARM 3, 79: 8’ see berű II “to be hungry” (AHw 123a, von Soden 1968, 458 and Durand 1998, 595)

NR

 

berkabtu “charioteer”; NB

not in the dictionaries (only CDA 43)

 

NB lex. list: lú-en-gišgigir = bé-er-kab-tú/tu (< bēl narkabti) OIP 114, no. 119: 12; 121: 12. After Cole 1996, 248 ad 12, due to this equation, the reading of the logogram lú-en-gišgigir in the early NB period and later should be reconsidered as berkabtu instead of bēl narkabti.

NR

 

berű II “to be hungry”

s. also bitrű II.

 

1. G a) OAkk.: For Cop. 10055 (CAD B 119 b. B 1c) see FAOS 19 p. 163: 5.

 

b) OB [k]urummatī ana bé-ri-ki [l]ā ipparras AbB 12, 110: 18f. “May my food provision for yor hunger not be cut off!”.

MPS

OB Mari: add ARM 3, 79: 8’f.: ša mę sulluḫ ayyānumma lā naklim u muškēnim lā bé-re-e-em šipram ša kīnātim ušeppeš. For translation see Von Soden 1968, 458: “wo kann ich eine rechtschaffene Arbeit durchführen lassen, die zum Zurückgehaltenwerden (na-ak-li-im, sc. der Arbeiter) und, daß der Palasthörige nicht hungere (la bé-re-e-em), dient?” and Durand 1998, 595: “Je ferai faire un travail solide en sorte que l’eau d’arrosage ne soit nulle part refusée et que les particuliers ne connaissent point la famine”.

The interpretation of bé-re-e-em by CAD as beriʾu (CAD B 207a; CAD A/1, 227a; CAD N/1, 187f.) has to be abandoned.

 

2. G With inanimate subjects indicating the lack of productivity:

1) OA with silver as subject: after Veenhof 1987, 57, silver gets ‘hungry’ if not used to make profit “by conversion into merchandise and back into more silver”: kaspamma tušēbilānimma umma attunuma la i-ba-re aššumi tęrtikunu annakam batqam ašʾamma u ammakam ib-té-re ūmam annukum 16 GÍN.TA u eliš ibašši TCL 4, 29: 29 “you sent me silver saying: ‘It must not get hungry!’ Following your instruction, I have bought tin, expensive. And now this tin has become hungry over there. But today tin is available at a price of 16 (shekels) for 1 (shekel of silver) and even more!” (Veenhof 1987, 57; see already Landsberger, JNES 24, 294 n. 36: “to lie idle (literally: hungry)”. Cf. CAD B 120a under barű C “to be available”.

abī attā šumma damqakkum eriʾum 10 GUN ša ēpušu annakam aštanammema mātum saḫʾat(!) ammati mātum ana ašriša litūr eriʾum šinišu ib-té-re šumma libbika tęrtaka

lillikamma lu ana kaspim lu ana ḫurāṣim annakamma lutaʾʾiršu ana kaspim 1 MA.NA 2 MA.NA.DIRIG enēka lā tanašši BIN 4, 34: 11 “Please my father, if you approve of it, the 10 talents of copper which I have acquired (“made”) here – I have it by hearsay that there is upheaval in the country; I wish the country would at last go back to normal, (since) the copper has now become ‘hungry’ twice – if you agree let an instruction from you reach me that I may convert it right here into silver or gold, (but) do not look for an additional one or two minas” (Veenhof 1987, 58).

            Veenhof 1987, 58 argues that the meaning “hungry” could be transferred from silver to the records (bonds) “which embody (claims to) silver”: taḫsisātiya [sŕ-ni-q]á-ma tęrtakunu lillikam iṣṣēr paniātim la i-ba-re-a-nim TCL 4, 21: 29 “check my records and let your instruction reach me; they should not become ‘hungry’ in addition to/even more than the previous ones”. Cf. CAD B 120a under barű C “to be available”. S. also Dercksen 1996, 50ff., who supports the proposal of CAD against Veenhof.

 

2) OB said of field (s. also CAD B 119, 1c said of land) ištu ūmī šalāš šanātim eqlum ul be-ri anāku ba!-a[l-ṭa-a-ku] eqlum inanna šeʾam mali AbB 9, 228: 12 “For a full three years the field has not been ‘hungry’; I have recovered (?). The field now really is full of barley!”.

NR

 

2. a) Št2 “to be made hungry”: OB Mari qēmam nu-uš-te-bé-r[e] ARM 26/2 p. 62 no. 306: 10 “we are made to hunger for flour”. This ref. makes it probable that, with AHw, also Št2 “to persevere, continue” indeed belongs to berű “to be hungry” and not to bitrű (CAD, CDA).

 

b) For Št2 (= CAD bitrű Št) “to remain present” s. barű III.

MPS

 

bēru I “distant”

 

1. There is confusion concerning the meaning of bēru I and the distribution of the references. CAD B 207f. has bēru B “remote, distant” (without reference to a verb).

AHw distributes the passages, which are quoted in CAD under bēru B, between bēru II 2d “ausgewählt” (AHw 122b) and bīru I “klar, deutlich” (AHw 130a). The last lexeme AHw derives from bâru III “in Erscheinung treten” (AHw 108b). Note, that AHw lists under bīru I also the passages with bēram (for bēram see Veenhof, JEOL 27, 65ff.).

CDA 43 partly follows both dictionaries, introducing the lexeme bēru I “distant” and deriving it from bâru III “to appear”.

After Borger 1964, 54f. (see also Borger 1971, 66) all references, gathered under bēru II 2d “ausgewählt” (AHw 122b) and bīru I 2 “klar, deutlich” (AHw 130a), belong to an adj. /ēru “hoch”, which he connects with bērūtu I “Anhöhe, Hügel” (CDA 43b “mound”; cf. CAD B 213b berūtu “foundation pit”; AHw 123b /īrūtu “Untergrund”).

Von Soden 1968, 458 notes that the meaning “remote, distant” (CAD B 207b) does not suit all contexts, and suggests the interpretation “felsig, ohne Pflanzen- und Erdreich-Decke” and derives /ēru from bâru III “to appear”.

 

2. Note also Sippar 744, z. 5’: KURmeš bi-ru-[  (Borger 1971, 66).

NR

 

bēru II “selected; choice; elite troup”

 

1. OB Mari A.ŠŔ bé-er-tam ARM 26/2, 462: 17 “choice field-area” (Heimpel 2003, 378). lú.mešbi-ḫi-ir [DUMU]meš um-me-ni ARM 22, 13 iv 15f. “elite of artisans”. 1 túgGUZ.ZA bé-rum ARM 22, 139: 7 “1 choice ...-cloth”.

OB lit. ina bé-eḫ-ri-im wāšibūt aḫ Purantim FM 14 ii 35 “by the elite troup, sitting at the bank of the Euphrates”. Pace Durand 1998, 362, Heimpel 2003, 593f., Charpin/Ziegler 2003, 217 n. 430 and Guichard, FM 14 p. 48 not piḫru “assembly” (note the spelling with be in lex. texts, CAD B 211; correct in CAD P 369).

OB bé-eḫ-ru-t[i]m AbB 13, 170: 13 „elite troops“. ṣi-bi-it ba-aḫ-rum FLP 1829 (JCS 29 p. 148). S. deJ. Ellis ib. p. 138 for comm.

MPS, NR

 

2. OA an official (AHw b. II 1b): bé-ru ša mišittim Ébé-ta-tí-ni iṣbutūma TPAK 26: 5 “the b.-officials of the stock have taken our houses”; PN bé-ru Ébe-sú ukallű ib.: 13 “(concerning) PN, the b.-officials arrested his house”; Ébé-et bé-ru ša mišittim aš-šīmim ukallimūmaana bé-ri ša mišittim nišqulma ib.: 14, 18 “the b.-officials of the stock have put the house for sale … we have payed to the b.-officials of the stock”. S. comm. of Michel/Garelli ib., p. 93 ad L.5.

            ina ZABAR ša PN1 tēzibūni x mana ZABAR bīt kunukki bé-ru ušēṣīʾūnimma ana līmim bé-ru u PN2 išqulū PIHANS 75, p.80 note 272 “the b.-officials took out of the storehouse x minas of bronze from the bronze which PN1 had left behind and the b.-officials and PN2 weighed it out to the līmum-eponym”.

NR

inūmī kaspam ašqulu PN u PN2 be-ru-ú AKT 5, 35: 27 “when I weighed the silver, PN and PN2 were the b. officials”. (figurines of gods have been deposited as pledge) ilū ik-kunuk 3 be-re-e kankū ib. 46: 14 “the gods have been sealed with the seal of 3 b. officials”. inūmī weriʾam ilqēʾūni 3 be-ru-ú ... iš-šaḫātišunu izzīzū ib. 36 “when they received the copper, 3 b. officials stood at their side”. S. also be-ru-ú ib. 17. The ref. show that, pace CAD B 213, there is prob. no bērūtu “a collegium of officials”; rather, the form in -ūt- is an adjectival pl. This means, in turn, that a derivation of the word bēru from the adjective bēru is likely. According to K. R. Veenhof, AKT 5 p. 135, the b. officials act “for and by the order of the Assyrian authorities” and serve “the financial interests of the City, especially in the collection of debts”.

 

3. Emar: Said of flax: gada-i-ri ka-ad-i-ri? = ka?-te bé-re-tum Emar 556: 50, s. DCCLT MB Ura 10 “hatcheled flax = choice flax”. For the process of hatcheling s. Waetzoldt 1980–1983b, 585 § 4c. Cf. CAD B 207 bēru A lex. sect. for bērētum, said of siki “wool”.

 

4. No Amor. etymology, s. Streck 2000, 86.

MPS

 

*bēru C

CAD B 208a

 

After von Soden 1968, 458 the passages collected under bēru C belong to bęru “to choose, select” (see also AHw 122b “ausgesucht = spärlich”). However, von Soden’s interpretation is valid only for the passages about hair, which CAD B 208a and CAD U 270 leave untranslated. For the reference šumma īnāšu bé-e-[ra] (Labat TDP 50 F iii 14) see Fincke 2000, 221, who understands bīru as “Zwischenraum”: “Wenn seine Augen(lider) einen Zwischenraum [(ständig) bilden]”. Note that bērā in the commentaries to this text is equated with bēšu “distant” and petű “open” (Fincke 2000, 221, note 1653). 

NR

 

bēru III “double hour, league”

 

1. MA CAD B 208f., 1a1’: 1 KASKAL.GÍD 20 MAL D[U-ak VAT 9968: 3 “1 double-hour (and) 20 furlongs”; x] KASKAL.GÍD 70 MAL id.: 14 “x double-hour(s) (and) 70 furlongs” (Deller 1966, 306; Bloch 2013, 28).

            CAD B 210, 1c: 1 KASKAL.GÍD A.Š[Ŕ KAV 139: 3’; 2 KASKAL.GÍD A.ŠŔ id. 4 (Deller 1966, 306; Weidner, AfO 21, 45-46).

 

2. NA CAD 208f., 1a1’: [x] KASKAL.GÍD 5 UŠ 20 NINDA TA GN1 adu GN2 ADD 1096 r. 1-2 (SAA 11, 14) “[x] leagues 5 stretches 20 rods from Barzundi as far as N[app]igi”; PAB 12 KASKAL.GÍD 2 UŠ 20 NINDA TA GN1 adu GN2 UD 14 KAM 7-tu mardītu id. r. 4-5 “Total [1]2 leagues 2 stretches 20 rods from Arragdi as [far as] Dur-Aššur. 14th day (of month), 7th stage” (see also Deller 1966, 312).

            CAD B 209f., 1b: [xx] URU.ŠE 1 KASKAL.GÍD qaqquru adi [xx] K.4801 (SAA 15, 242) “[...] one league [from the v]illage as far as [...]” (see also Deller 1966, 312).

 

3. Adverbial acc.: bēram occurs as a separate entry with uncertain meaning in CAD B 245a with the only reference ARM 4, 26. In AHw 130a the same reference is placed under bīru I “klar, deutlich”. CDA 43a has the adverb bēram “(for) a double hour” derived from bēru III “double hour”. For ARM 4, 26 and new references see von Soden, BiOr 24, 335a (with von Soden 1968, 459) and Veenhof 1981–82, 66:

 

a) Mari ina eqlim bé-ra-am šakin ARM 4, 26: 28 “(the city) is situated at a distance of one double hour”; ů A.[ŠŔ] ana GN bé-ra-am ů zu-[uz/za-am(-ma)] ARM 2, 42: 6f. (see already CAD B 208b under bēru) “and the distance to GN is one doble hour and a half”.

 

b) OB pirṣum bé-ra-am irtapiš AbB 3, 52: 29 “the breach is a mile wide” (see also CAD P 414a).

 

c) LB zibbat i7EDIN.NA bé-ra-am A.ŠŔ KI PN 1, PN2 u PN3 gerram ušēṣű CT 8, 8c: 2 “PN 2 and PN 3 rented from PN 1 the road along the rear part of the Edin Canal over a distance of one double hour”.

NR

 

bēru IV “hunger”

 

See bīru IV.

 

bēru V (CUSAS 4, 30: “a wooden object”)

s. birru

 

bęru I, baʾāru “to choose”

 

1. OB aššum fTURmeš šiṭrim ... bé-ri-im ... fTURmeš šiṭram lā i-bé-er-ru ... fTURmeš ana šiṭrim e-bé-er-ra-am-ma ARM 10, 125: 4–20 “about choosing the girls for the š.-song ... they must not choose the girls for the š.-song ... I will choose the girls for the š.-song”. Note two different constructions, one with ana and one with double acc. fTURmeš šiṭrim is not a genitive constr. (thus ARM 10) but reflects the constr. with double acc. with case attraction in the inf. constr. (cf. Streck 2014 § 209a).

MPS

Note the by-form baʾāru in OB Mari (not in the dictionaries): ṣābam yalūtam[l]u-ub-ḫa-ar-[ma A. 3594+: 35’, FM 5, 109, note 276 “I would like to select alliance troops …”.

NR

 

2. OA TÚG ni-be-er-ma AKT 2, 34: 5 (s. also 23) “we chose the cloth”.

 

3. “to examine” also NA: anāku dibbīšu a-bé-á[r] SAA 13, 3: 8 “I will personally examine his matter”.

MPS

 

berűtu “hunger”

 

OB bé-ru-ta-am ša šę u kaspim AbB 12, 66: 16’f. “hunger(?) for barley and silver“.

MPS

 

bērūtu I

s. birűtu

 

bęšu “to go away, withdraw”; LB/SB

 

1. Cf. Veenhof 2015, 229–232, with new OA ref., concluding a mng. “to declare, give information”; however, the semantic connection with the mng. “to go away”, remains unclear.

 

2. G a) OB ṣābam aṭrudma itrűniššunūti aššum la-ni bēlija la i-bi-šu usanniqšunūtima ḫūrassu ēkim ARM 27, 66: 13–16 “I sent troops and they brought them here.  Because they had fled from the ... of my lord I checked them and took the sumach away from them”. la-ni is unclear. M. Birot, ARM 27 p. 131 translates “afin que mon seigneur ne soit pas irrité, je les ai interrogés”, thinking of baʾāšu with subject panū “to look bad, to be angry”. However, baʾāšu is only attested in NB (CAD B 5 baʾāšu A 2) and the supposed pa!-ni would be oblique case. Furthermore, baʾāšu always has a strong aleph. Birot ib. in his commentary also quotes a translation of J.-M. Durand: “je les ai réprimandés de s’ętre montrés sans vergogne envers mon  seigneur”. However, baʾāšu B “to come to shame” is not i- but a-class.

MPS

 

b) SB: ina asīdū šēpīšunu qaqqari i-bi-iš-šú ina sârišunu uḫteppű Sirara u Labananu SB Gilg. V ii 4 “At the heels of their feet the earth divides; as they whirl about Sirara and Lebanon are sundered”. George 1990, 216f, note 19 (s. also George 2003, p. 608f.: 133 and p. 826 ad. 133) interprets i-bi-iš-šú as sg. and ventive from bęšu “to come apart, to become divided” (meaning commonly found in extispicy). -i in qaqqari George explains by LB orthography as a redundant case vowel. -u in i-bi-iš-šú is after him an unusual (but not unique) ventive to ensure the “trochaic” ending. These complementary lines give after George the aetiological explanation for the splitting of two mountains, Sirara and Lebanon.

Note that AHw 1547 introduces for this  passage bâšu II “(Erde) stampfen”, deriving it from the Hbr. pūš “to frisk” (also CDA 41a). For other alternative interpretations s. George 1990, 219.

NR

 

BE-TU-nu (mng. uncl.)

not in the dictionaries

 

BE-TU-nu occurs in the lexical text Emar 6, 537: 268: IGI BE-TU-nu. The meaning and the reading of this word are unclear. Pentiuc 2001, 38 tentatively supposes the reading mit-tu-nu /mittōnu/ “gift”, if IGI is an abbreviation of IGI.SÁ “gift”. He relates mittūnu to the root ntn “to give” and Hebrew mattān < *mantan “gift”, interpreting it as a Northwest Semitic noun of the pattern miqtāl with assimilation of n and Canaanite shift from ā to ō. He himself, however,  thinks this interpretation unlikely, since “there are not other instances of ā > ō in our corpus”.

NR

 

bīʾātu, bīʾādu “to spend the night, to be safe”.

 

1. G a) OA said of silver and goods: šīmam lašʾamma lutaʾʾerakkumma KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN li-bi-it OAA 1, 15: 13 “I shall make purchases and return that to you, and the (rest of the?) silver, (even only?) 1 shekel, may be safe”; šīmam lašʾamma lušēbilakkumma li-bi-ta-am OAA 1, 17: 23 “I shall make purchases and send the (goods) to you, so that they may be safe”; adī saḫrātini libbalkitma KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN li-bi-tám OAA 1, 38 r. 9’ “let it be shipped (even) while you are delayed, and the (rest of the?) silver, (even only?) 1 shekel, may be safe”. Cf. Hecker 1966, 64f.: “‘Übernachten des Silbers’ (ist wohl) seine sichere Aufbewahrung im Hause”. Larsen 2002, 24 ad. 13 interprets bīʾātu as “to be available, active”.

 

b) OB [in]a MUL li-bi-it-ma YOS 11, 29: 6 “(the medication) should spend the night under the stars”. Cf. with the latter ina kakkabi tušbât “you let (the preparation) spend the night under the stars” (CAD B 172b, b). S. also Reiner 1995, 48f. and note 191. [ŠE.GIŠ.Ě k]īma tanappaṣu ina kīdim lā i-bi-tu AbB 10, 93: 12’ “after you have crushed the sesame, it should not stay overnight outside”.

NR

The form with d is also attested in OB Mari: i-bi-du ARM 26/1, 42: 9.

MPS

 

c) MA: lū īdēma lū lā uṣṣāma lū a-bi-it ina ḫurriya FAOS 22, p. 42: 42 (fable)  “had I known, I would not go out, I would stay safe at my burrow”.

 

d) NA CAD B 171b, 1h2’: umā šarru bēlī annaka bé-e-de illakūnu ušallumū ABL 315 r. 9-10 (SAA 15, 223) “Now that the king my lord is staying overnight here, they will come and comp[lete] (their work)”; UD 15-KÁM ina bēt ili ni-bi-ad K.1294 r. 4 (SAA 1, 134) “we shall spend the night in the temple on the 15th”. See also Deller 1966, 312.

NR

 

e) SB said of an animal: irtappud serramu i-bit ina ṣēri Westenholz 1997, 46: 58 (Sg. Birth Legend) “the onager ran about, stayed overnight in the steppe”. Pace Westenholz ib. not i-biṭ “he twitches”.

 

2. Gtn OB Mari ina ekallimma ib-ta-na-ia-at ARM 26/2 p. 433 no. 495: 17 “he kept staying overnight in the palace”.

MPS

 

bibbu, bību “wild sheep”

 

1. Emar: New by-form bi-i-bu in Emar 551: 47 (Ḫḫ XIV 142; MSL 8/2, 17).

 

2. As demon: SB Ug. bi-ib-bu murtappid[u] AuOr. Suppl. 23, 19: 2 “ever running b.” (in list of demons).

 

3. The names listed in AHw and CAD s. v. bibű “baby(?)” may belong here. See the spellings Bi-ib-bu-ú(-a).

MPS

 

bibbulu, bubbulu “flood; day of the disappearnce of the moon; juggling”

 

1. Juggling (with weapons): OB 50 ṣābam damqam ... ana bu-ub-bu-lim ušērib FM 1 p. 138 A.486+M.5319: 37 “I made 50 good soldiers enter for juggling”.

MPS

 

2. Note that Borger 1971, 67 joins the fragment K.9666 (CAD 299b) with K.8112.

NR

 

bibēnu “temple; a hair-dress designating slaves”

 

Also attested OAkk., OA, both instances in the fem. pl., designating a hair-dress given to enemies in order to make them slaves: OAkk. bí-bí-in-na-at-su-nu ugallib RIME 2, 105 ii 4 “I shaved their bibēnu hair-dress(es) (= I shaved their hair to give them a b.-hair-dress)”. OA bi4-be-na-tim qaqqadātīšunu aškun OA Sarg. 52 “I applied b. hair-dress(es) to their heads”. Cf. Gelb/Kienast 1990, 241.

MPS, NR

 

bibiltu “carrying off, deportation”

 

For the OB ref. (AHw 1548) ARM 10, 11: 21 Durand 2000, 328 (see also ib. ARM 26/1 p. 102 n. 43) suggests a meaning “pretext, ulterior motive”.

MPS

 

bibinnu s. bibēnu.

 

biblu “the (action of) bringing; things brought”

 

1. For bibil iti / idi (CAD B 221b, 6; CAD I/J 312b; AHw 125a, 5c) in the inscription of Lipit-Ištar see now RIME 4, 51: 20–23: kannīn bí-bí-il i-dě Enlil u Mulliltim “a pair of pot stands, a gift (for) the hands of the gods Enlil and Ninlil”. šŕ-ge-DU-a dInana-me-en, which often occurs in the Sum. inscriptions of Lipit-Ištar (see now RIME 4), and which Matouš 1961, 132; 1964, 137 compares with the expression bibil idi above, rather corresponds to bibil libbi (see bí-bí-il li-i-ba Eš4-tar RIME 4, 51: 17f.).

 

2. Deller 1966, 312f. doubts the interpretation of Tell Halaf No. 5: 15-16 offered by CAD B 221b, 5 (see also CAD E 205a; AHw 125a has about the same interpretation), since after him the usage of biblu as well as simple IGI for pānu would be unusual for NA.

NR

 

3. Invisibility of the moon: SB Ug. ina pī bi-ib-li ina rēš arḫi AuOr. Suppl. 23, 65: 1 “at the day of the invisibility of the moon, when the month starts”.

MPS

 

*biblu C

CAD B 222b

 

After von Soden 1968, 459 biblu C is to be deleted. All references belong to biblu B (CAD B 221f.; cf. AHw 125a, 4c). Note that AHw has only one lexeme biblu.

NR

 

bibnu? (a bird)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB bi/pí-ib/p-nu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 28 (in list of birds). Black/Al-Rawi 1987, 124 read, with the copy, bi-x-nu-um, but al-Rawi/Dalley 2000, 105 a-ta-nu-um.

MPS

 

bibű “baby” s. bibbu.

 

bidalu, pl. bidalūm/na “substitute, deputy, assistant”; Ug. lw.

CAD: bidaluma “traders”; CDA: bidalu; pl. bidalum/na “merchant”

See also ba(d)da/ālu “representative, vizier”.

 

The traditional meaning “merchant” (CAD B 223; CDA 44; Sivan 1984, 211) is based on the Akkadian list of rations given to persons grouped by occupation, where LÚ.MEŠ.DAM.GŔR.MEŠ seems to be glossed by Ugaritic bi-da-lu-ma (PRU 3, 200 A, ii 12), and on the Arabic cognates badala “to exchange”; baddāl “A seller of eatables of every kind” (Lane 2003, 168, Huehnergard 1987, 112; see also the review of the previous literature in Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 288f. and Tropper 2012, 180).

The normal word for “merchant” in Ugaritic is, however, mkr (Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 544). Moreover, the alphabetic attestations of bidalu argue against the meaning “merchant”, since bidalu is related with various professions there: see bdl mrynmbdlm of the social groop mrynm” (Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 580) and bdl mḏrġlmbdlm of the guards” (Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 529). Since the “gloss mark” could be merely a foreign word indicator to mark the following word as non-Akkadian (for this meaning of the “gloss mark” see Huehnergard 1987, 206), it seems probable that bidalu in the entry LÚ.MEŠ.DAM.GŔR.MEŠ : bi-da-lu-ma  is not an equation for tamkārū, but its qualification (Sanmartín 1988, 172; Schloen 2001, 226-228; Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 290). So Schloen 2001, 227 translates LÚ.MEŠ.DAM.GŔR.MEŠ : bi-da-lu-ma as “the deputies or clients of merchants”. Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 290 understand it as *bdl mkrmbdlm of the merchants” in analogy to the alphabetic attestations of bdl in connection with professions.

A new meaning for bidalu was proposed on the basis of the already mentioned Arabic root bdl (see Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 291): “Reservisten, Ersatzleute” (Sanmartín 1988, 172) or “substitutes; deputies” (Lipiński 1988, 259). See also del Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 217: “bdl n. m. ‘substitute, reserve personnel’”. After Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 295 and 311, bdl were connected with different professional groups, and it is unclear whether they were subordinate, equal or superordinate to the them.

The etymology of bidalu is a matter of debates, too. Most scholars prefer to connect  Ugaritic bdl with Arabic bdl (see above). After Tropper 2012, 180f., two patterns could underly the Ugaritic word: biddāl-/ < *baddāl- (compare Ebla ba-da-lum and Arabic baddāl) and /bidāl-/ (compare Arabic bidāl).

Rowe 1997/1998, 372 (after Kilmer), however, considers bidalu as a Hurrian derivation from the root *p/bid(d) with the suffix =l(i) for professions, which is attested also in Alalaḫ IV as a designation of a groop of person bi-id-dal-le-ni / bi-dal-le-en-ni / dub-ba-le-né-na / dub-ba-le-ni / dě-bal-le-nu (see also Schloen 2001, 227). After Rowe and Schloen the Hurrian origin coud explain the Hurrian-like plural morpheme =na in the LÚ.MEŠ bi-da-lu-na in PRU 3, 205: 14. On the other hand, Huehnergard 1987, 297 explains the morpheme =na as a dialectal, not genuine Ugaritic biform of the pl. masc. Tropper 2012, 294, in turn, considers the rare ‘nunation’ in Ugaritic as “freie phonetische Varianten, die durch Dissimilationsprozesse entstanden sind”.

Finally Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 293 refer to the old proposal of Ch. Virolleaud (Virolleaud 1940, 41), who connected bdl with Hebrew bdl Ni. “sich absondern, trennen”, Hi. “trennen; unterscheiden”.

The  relationship between Ugaritic bdl and the Ebla word ba-da-lum is unclear. See  del Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 217, Schloen 2001, 227f., Dietrich / Loretz 2008, 291-295.

NR

 

bīdiya “with my (own) hand”

CAD bīdija

 

A comparable NWSem. loan of a prep. + noun is, after Driver 1967, 108, la-pāni “before”.

NR

 

BiDru (?) (a garment)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB Mari TÚGḫi.a [...] bi-it-ri damqūtim lišābil[am] ARM 26/2 p. 540 no. 549: 7’f. “may he send [me] cloths (and) good b.-garments”. In ARM 22, 164: 10 and in unpubl. texts spelled túgbi-it-rum (ARM 30, 54 and 99). Since the last vowel is not written plene in ARM 26/2, 549, probably not to be derived from bitrű “outstanding” (pace Durand, ARM 30, 99). Hardly to be connected with bitru CAD B 279 “mng. uncert.”. The first consonant may be b/p, the second d/t/.

MPS

 

BI-IG-GU

 

Pentiuc 2001, 38; see pingu in CAD P 382f.

 

Bigű (small jewelry object) Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

As a small precious object Bigű (the reading of the first consonant is unclear) is known from two Mari texts now (Arkhipov 2012, 74). It is not very clear, whether this Bigű and pigű from CAD P 359f., which denotes a plant, are related.

NR

 

biḫirtu “levy”; SB, NA

 

NA: Note a possible new reference: (enbu bēl arḫim): šumma ina araḫ Šabāṭi šarru lū ana bi-ḫir-t[u l]ū ana dDI.KUD īrub K.7079 r. 1 (Labat 1960, 168).

NR

 

biḫīru(?), pl. cs. biḫīrū “young fellow (?), recruit (?), soldier (?), elite(troop) (?)”; Ug. lw.(?)

not in the dictionaries

 

biḫīru occurs once in the Akkadian list of recruits (?) from Ugarit PRU 6, 71: 5’: [LÚ.]MEŠ b[i]-ḫi-ru uruu-g[a-ri-it] “the ‘elite troops’(?) / recruits (?) of Ugarit”. Huehnergard 1987, 112f. understands it as an Ugaritic foreign word in Akkadian from the root *bḥr, attested in Akkadian als bęru “to select”, in Hebrew as bāḥar, in Syriac as bḥar. He tentatively considers /biḥīru/ as the pattern qatīl > qitīl “with vowel assimilation around the guttural” (see also Sivan 1984, 171 and 211). See also Tropper 2012, 175f., who introduces /biḥīrū/ “Elite(truppen)” as a case of “Vokalharmonie in der Umgebung von Gutturalen”. After Tropper 2012, 168 an alternative reading for b[i]-ḫi-ru could be /biḥrū/. Tropper 2012, 176 supposes that b[i]-ḫi-ru could a loan from Akk. be/iʾrum “ausgewählt” (von Soldaten), AHw 122. However, /ʾ/  should be rendered with Aleph sign and not with Ḫ-sign in Ugarit-Akk.

            The root BḤR was later again loaned from Northwest Semitic (this time Aramaic) into Akk., see NB beḫēru “to select” with derivatives bēḫiru “recruiting officer”; biḫirtu “levy (of soldiers)”.

NR

 

bikītu “weeping, mouning”

 

NA CAD B 224f., 3a: bi-kit!-ti-i dan-nat! STT 360 r. 24 (Deller 1966, 313; s. Or 34, 467 und 476). Cf., however, the reading of this line in SAA 3, 16: DUMU. dum-bi x-ti-i dan-nat GIŠ.TIR ere-ni The daughter of Humbaba, mighty [...] of the cedar forest!”.

NR

 

billatu “mixture”

 

1. OB Mari in transferred mng.: ištūma awātum bi-il-la-at alkā māpalīku<nu> nīš ilim ina GN ūlūma ina GN2 šuzkirāšunūti ARM 27, 116: 41–44 “because the matter is a mess, go (and) make your spokesmen take an oath in GN or GN2!” Pace J.-M. Durand apud M. Birot, ib. p. 203 note n, there is no need to correct the text to bi-il-la-tum.

MPS

 

2. Von Soden 1968, 459 notes that SIG5 (= damiqtu “good”) and SIG (= našiptu “blown away”) as a quality of billatu are not interchangeable as presented by CAD B 227b, 3a2’.

NR

 

billu I “(ad)mixture; alloy”

 

1. Early OB 6 SIMUG.GAL šu bi-lim ARM 19, 342: 3 “6 experienced smiths for (making) an alloy”.

            39 1/2 MA.NA ZABAR bi-il-li 7-ŔM ARM 21, 274: 2 “39 1/2 minas of bronze, an alloy of seven (to one)”. bi-l[i] ib. 276: 2. [b]i-il-l[i] ib. 285: 8. See J.-M. Durand, ib. p. 312f. n. 12.

            bi-il-li 7 GÍN-ŔM ARM 22, 203 ii 8 and passim in this text. See also balālu.

 

2. Unusual spelling: MA [b]i-i-la ana šiltāḫī BATSH 4/1, 16: 18 “(iron), an alloy for arrows”.

MPS

 

bilṣu “bulge”

 

Sec. ref.: SB PN ḫibtu nīku akī 2-ma maḫḫu akī 2-ma bil-ṣu akī 2-ma SAA 3, 30: 1 “PN, robbery, rape, doubly so, dissolved, doubly so, bulge, doubly so”.

MPS

 

biltu, bissu, bīsu “load; talent; yield; rent; tribute”

 

1. OA CAD B 230b, 1b2’: in MVAG 33, 243: 15 read SÍGḫi.a (=šapātum) instead of TÚGḫi.a (Matouš 1970, 132).

 

2. NA CAD B 231a, 2b: ana šēṭišu PN bi-lat lušātera bi-lat lumaṭṭi VAT 14452: 7-10 “seinem Nachlässigen soll PN ein Talent überschüssig machen (oder) ein Talent verringern” (Deller 1966, 313). Cf. SAAB 5, 52, no. 20: 7–10 (see also notes on p. 53): “For his carelessness, PN will make (over) one bundle extra, or reduce one bundle (of his part)”.

NR

            NA by-form bissu: bi-si gišKIRI6 StAT 3, 32: 25 “yield of the orchard”.

MPS

 

bīltu s. bīštu

 

binītu I “creation; shape, appearance, structure”

 

1. CAD B 238b, 4: After von Soden 1968, 459 SAG.DŮ KU6 in BAM 124 i 25 and id. ii 43 might be read binīt nūni “fish roe”.

 

2. According to Beaulieu 2003, 380, binītu as an item of jewelry represents the tiny “fish-roe-shaped beads”, compared to beads called erimmatu, which denotes the “egg-shaped bead”. As a confirmation Beaulieu presents YBC 4174: 24, in which a necklace of binītu is defined as šá ZIZNA: “1 GÚ KŮ.GI šá ZIZNA 65 bi-ni-tú ‘1 gold necklace of fish-roe-shaped beads (comprising) 65 beads’” (Beaulieu 2003, 196f.). This logogram “is equated with binītu and nimšulu ‘fish roe’” as well as with adjectives daqqaqu “small” and duqququ “very small”.

NR

 

3. OB 3(b) bi-ni-a-tum AbB 7, 141: 3’ “3 sea of eggs”. OB bi-ni-a-tim ina a-la-al-li AbB 3, 4: 14 “fish roe in an alallű-container(?)”.

MPS

 

binītu II (a type of crossbeam).

 

The word, already known from other Ur III texts (CAD B 238), is now also attested in Garšana: Ur III 20 ĜURUŠ [bí-n]i-tum GÍD.DČ CUSAS 4 p. 289 “20 workmen to tighten crossbeams (for construction of the brewery-kitchen-mill complex)”. 10 ĜURUŠ bí-ni-tum GÍD.[DČ?] ib. bí-ni-tum IM SUMUR AKA CUSAS 4 p. 249 (5 references) “(workmen) having plastered crossbeams”. Heimpel 2009, 180–182 suggests the reading bi-ě-tum “a container, lit. house”. S. also Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 357, who considers the interpretation “a type of crossbeam” as unsubstantiated.

MPS

 

binna, ibinna “give!” (imper.)

 

1. CAD B 216f. places this Imp. under , whereas AHw 126b interprets this lexeme as bīn. Von Soden 1968, 458f. argues that both approaches are wrong, since this Imp. after him is a conflation of Aramaic Imp. hib and Akk. Imp. inna < idna “give!”.

 

2. CAD B 217b, disc.: in the “word square” CT 14, 50: 71-73 read mit von Soden 1968, 458f. ṣa-bi-tu! instead of ZA-bi-lu. After Von Soden 1968, 458f. the horizontal as well as the perpendicular texts are to be interpreted as “die Gazelle stößt das Kind nieder” (with bi-in-na understood then as bīnu/binnu “son”?). Therefore, this passage probably does not belong here.

NR

 

bintu, bittu “daughter”

 

Note the by-form bittu in MB: a) adverbial expression in absolute state: bi-it-ta-at bu-kůr HS 1893: 4 “daughters (and) son(s)” (courtesy by E. Zomer, s. forthcoming publication TMH 11). Cf. the tentative interpretation of Kilmer 1991, 10 and 18 ad 4, “she spends the night” < biātu “to spend the night”.

 

b) Ugarit (instead of usual DUMU.SAL): salbi-it-ta ra-bi-ti (AnOr 48, 11f. RS 1957.1: 6;10) “daughter of the Great Lady”; salbi-it-ti ra-bi-ti (ibid. 18; 21); salbi-it-[ti ra-bi-ti] (MRS 9, 128 RS 17.348 r. 4). Contra Kühne 1973, 177 and Sivan 1984, 212 bittu is not necessarily a West Semitic cognate of Akkadian bintu. S. also bittu in personal names of Alalaḫ (see the list in Sivan 1984, 212).

NR

 

bīnu I “son”

 

First OB (lit.) ref.: lu-lu bi-in YOS 11, 17: 3 “the primeval man is a son(?)”, s. also bi-ni ib. 1 (incant. childbirth).

MPS

 

bīnu II “tamarisk”

 

1. paššūru ša aḫâ[tušu] ša gišbi-nim FM 8, 6: 6f. “a table whose sides are of tamarisk”. kīma bi-nim šumqutū qarrādū FM 14 ii 14 “the warriors had been stroken down like a tamarisk”.

Unusual spelling OB Mari GIŠḫi.a bi-ia-ni ARM 26/2 p. 533 no. 541: 5, 18 (letter from Karkemiš). Cf. M. P. Streck, UF 44 (2013) 322f.: might be an uncontracted spelling /baynī/. For OB Mari see also Kupper 1992, 164.

MPS

 

2. SB: itti ĝišŠINIG aḫî u kušāri ēdi šēpēki arakkas Lam. ii 47 (Farber 2014, 168f.) “I will bind your feet to a free-standing tamarisk and a lone reed stalk”; itti ĝišŠINIG aḫî u kušāri ēdi rukussima (note the inverse order in some duplicates: itti ĝišŠINIG ēdi u kušāri aḫî) Lam. ii 146 (Farber 2014, 176f.) “Indeed, bind her to a free-standing tamarisk or a lone reed stalk!” See already Borger 1971, 66f., and correct CAD K 598b kušāru a and CAD A/1, 38b abāru III.

NR

 

Bi-nu-um (a type of garment / cloth(?)); early OB Mari (Yaḫdun-līm)

not in the dictionaries

 

Bi-nu-um occurs once in the text from Mari T.158: 8’ along with textiles tapātu, kuššat gizzi, gizzu: ŠU.NIGIN 20 TÚG Bi-nu-um.

NR

 

binűtu, MA bunűtu “creation, creature; product; form”; MA; SB (NA)

 

1. binűt amīlūti “child; human being” (not in the dict.):  a) MA: bu-nu-ut LÚ.U18.LU luṣṣâ līmur IZI.GAR Iraq 31, 31, 49 (inc.) “may the human being come out, may he see the light”.

 

b) SB (NA): āšib ekleti bi-nu-ut amīlū[ti] ammīni lā tabkī ina libbi ummi[ka] LKA 9 r iii 16 (MC 2, § 39, SB inc.) “you (embryo), living in the darkness, humang being, why did you not cry in the womb of your mother?” S. also Farber 1989b, p. 139.

 

2. For 2R 67: 81 (CAD B 244a, 2a) see Borger 1971, 67: read ů instead of x and ki-su(!)-u instead of KI.GAL (see also CAD K 430b under kisű).

NR

 

binzurru s. bunzerru

 

biqlu “sapling”.

not in the dictionaries (but see CDA 44).

 

OB GIŠḫi.a bi-iq-lam ša taskarinnim ARM 26/1, 21: 11’ “trees, sapling(s) of boxtree”. For biqlu instead of piglu s. Zadok 1993, 321: BQL, etym. Syr. bqlʾ“sprout“, Ug. bql “groats”. Also Heimpel 2003, 188 , who connects the word with buqlu “malt”. The lemma biqlētu (AHw. 127 “Malzkeime”, CAD B 244 “malt in one of its stages of gemination”) is the pl. of this word. See also Stol 2008, 353 (with the spelling piglu). Disc. of Amor. etym. Streck 2000, 86f.

MPS

 

birâ “(everywhere) in between”; OA

 

First OA ref.: šumma ayyēma udappir  bi4-ra-a u 1 GÍN.TA tuggaršuma TPAK 156a: 17 “If he goes somewhere else, he can hire one (other employee) everywhere for 1 shekel”. S. comm. in Michel/Garelli, ib., p. 215 ad L. 17.

NR

 

birbirrū “luminosity”

 

Stative sg. fem.: OB lit. bi-ir-bi-re-et UET 6/2, 404: 1 “she is a shining light”.

MPS

 

birḫu (mng. unkn.) NA

 

The meaning of this word (see CAD 246a) still remains unknown (for the only reference ABL 841 see now SAA 1, 132). Pace Deller 1966, 313, hardly to be connected with *prṭ.

NR

 

bīri- “among, between”

 

1. MA CAD B 247, 1e: in KAJ 225: 14 read with Deller 1966, 306 ša be-ru-šu-nu instead of ša *be-ri-šu-nu.

            CAD B 247, 1e: ina bi-ri-šu-nu KIŠIB PN ta-ar-ṣú-ma    : 15f. (in David/ Ebeling, Assyrische Rechtsurkunden Nr. 16 and Deller 1966, 306 under wrong number VAT 8878); [KIŠIB PN] i-na bi-ri-šu-nu tar-ṣú-ma KAJ 39: 14f. (Deller 1966, 306).

NR

 

Biridu (?) (jewelry object) Mari

not in the dictionaries

 

This word with b or p at the beginning is attested twice in the texts from Mari (Arkhipov 2012, 74). A golden Biridu occurs in ARM 22, 237: 5 (BI-ri-di) among other jewelries, which were delivered for the goddess Dērītu. In M.12299: 7’’ Biridu (BI-ri-du) qualifies the garment mudű und stands in this sense in a row with kulīlu, which describes the garment mudű in this text too (for the meaning of kulīlu in Mari see Arkhipov 2012, 84).

NR

 

BI-ri-KI

 

Pentiuc 2001, 41; see pirikku II.

 

bīriš I “over, to the other side”

 

birīt, berte in MA and NA “between, among”

 

1. birīt- u birīt- (CAD B 252 birīt 4) in the adv. acc.: OB Mari salīmim bi-ri-sú ů bi-ri-it PN ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410: 5 “peace between him and PN”.

 

2. LB: See M. Jursa, Bēl-rēmanni p. 89 with n. 361 for ina GN ina bi-rit BŔDki VS 5, 103: 2 “in GN within the city wall” and KI- bi!-[ri]t [BŔD]ki CT 55, 128 obv. 2 “a plot with[in] the city [wall].

MPS

 

3. NA: also ina bi-rit in NA in literary context: ABL 385: 7; ABRT I 6 22; ABRT I 26f r. 8; BBR 60: 9; 24R 61 v 70 (Deller 1966, 313).

            PN [ina pa-n]a-tu-u-a ina bi-[r]i-tu-uš-šú-nu madaktu xx ND 2717: 7’ (Saggs 2001, 22-24) “PN [has set up] camp opposite me in the midst of them”. See also Deller 1966, 313.

            With assimilation of -r- after Deller 1966, 313: šůl-mu a-na bi-ta-šu-<nu> ND 2079: 5 (Iraq 16, 54).

            With connecting vowel -a- instead of -u-: ina ber-ta!-šú-nu MCS 2, 19: 7; ina ber-ta-šú-nu VAT 14438: 9, 12 (SAAB 5, 66) and VAT 14444: 10 (SAAB 5, 16). See already Deller 1966, 313.

            CAD B 250f., 2a (juridical documents; after Deller 1966, 313): dēnu ina ber-tú-šu-nu iptaras VAT 8241: 6-7; [dē]nu ina ber-te-šú-nu iptarsa VAT 8737: 12f. (SAAB 9, 97) “he decided the case between them”; also without dēnu: ina ber-ta-šú-nu iptarsu VAT 14438: 9 (SAAB 5, 66) “(PN) gave a decision between them”; with emendation ber-tu-šu-nu <iptaras> RA 24, 112 II 12; in relative sentence: [dēnu ša PN] [ḫ]a-za-[nu ina] ber-tú-šú-nu [ip]-ru-su-u-ni Ass.Fd.Nr. 9369: 1’-3’.

NR

 

birītu I “space between, distance”

s. also bāru II

 

1. OB: Note the unusual plene spelling in OB bé-e-ri-i-tim AbB 13, 2: 9.

MPS

 

2. OB Mari: ana ḫârim qatālim bi-ri-it Ḫa-nameš ů I-da-ma-ra-aṣ ARM 2, 37: 5f. “I have established peace between . and I.”. For TAR be-ri-ti (Qatna), which Driver 1967, 107f. connects with birītu, see berītu I.

NR

 

2. Emar: Spelled be-ri-tum/ti Emar 542: 219–221 (Ḫḫ I).

MPS

 

3. NA CAD B 253, 1d: bir-ti ÍDmeš Í[D K.3639: 3 (Borger 1971, 67).

 

4. CAD B 254a, 3b1’ birīt aḫī “between my arms (i.e., in my chest)”. Driver 1967, 108 compares  Ugar. bn ydm and Hebr. bēn yādaim “between hands”.

NR

 

birku, barku, burku “knee”

 

1. OA PN Bu-ur-kŕ-num Innāya 152: 37 “The one with knee(?)”. C. Michel, ib. p. 207 Bu-ur-qá-num. Bu-ur-ki-a ib. 273: 11.

 

2. OB lit. urruk bir-ki AMD 1, 215ff. BM 79125: 1 “he is long as to the knees”. urruḫ bi-ir-ki-i ib. 218f. BM 79938: 1 “he is swift as to the knees”.

MPS

 

2. birku also appears in an Emar lexical text as barku: šar DŮG bá-ar-ku (Emar 6, 537: 276; for the wrong Sum. pronunciation šar see M. Civil apud Pentiuc). A similar vowel alternation a/i is also found in talpānu (Emar) / tilpānu (core Akk.). The Semitic cognates are Hebrew bérek, Aramaic birkā and probably Ethiopian bərk with ə < *u, *i (Pentiuc 2001, 37).

NR

 

3. NA a piece of meat as temple offering: 24? u[zu]bu-ur-ki ša 14 alpī SAA 7, 200 r. 6 “24(?) ‘knees’ of 14 oxen”. Cf. also [bu]-ur-ki ib. 202 r. 8.

 

4. SB Ug. (Gilg.) [i]mtanaqqutū ištū bur-ke-šu AuOr. Suppl. 23, 43: 4 “fall constantly from his knees” (unclear).

MPS

 

birku in bēl birki “runner, henchman”

 

Driver 1967, 106 suggests to translate “runners” or “beaters” instead of “henchman”.

 

birmu I “multicoloured cloth”

s. also burmu

 

1. OB kisal bi-ir-mi ARM 23, 494: 14 “courtyard of (the workshop for) multicolored cloth”. bīt bi-ir-mi ib. 574: 6 “house (= workshop) for multicolored cloth”. Cf. CAD b. A a.

MPS

 

2. NA CAD B 258b, h: GŮN ADD 974 r. 3’ (SAA 7, 104); [x ]gbir-me Bi 71: 5’ (JCS 7, 169); 2 túgqa[r]-aru(PA) bir-me VAT 9849: 9 (in Deller 1966, 313 under the wrong number VAT 9848; see now Faist 2007, 12f. ) “2 multicoloured bedspreads”.

NR

 

birqu “lightning”

 

OB bi-ir-qum ša ṣīḫātim ALL 1 i 12f. “lightning of love-making”, see ḫašḫūru.

MPS

 

Bir(r)i/īka/ātu (an epithet of Ištar); Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

An epithet of Ištar, written BI-ri-KA-ti and BI-ri-GA-ti, occurs twice in Emar texts: 2 ḫi-is-sí-pu d8-tar b[i]-ri-KA-ti (Emar 6, 274: 7) “2 vases-ḫissipu: Ištar of …”; a-na] ša d8-tár ša b[i]-ri-GA-ti SISKUR-u (Emar 6, 452: 15’) “[…] They sacrifice [… to] Ištar of …”.

Arnaud 1986 (Emar 6/3), Huehnergard 1988 (unpublished paper) and Zadok 1991, 115 connect these forms with the Common Semitic root brq “to flash (of lightning)”. Hence Arnaud’s translation “Astarté des éclairs” and Huehnergard’s and Zadok’s translation “lightning”. Note, that Huehnergard connects with these forms also the form BI-ri-KI from Emar 6, 446: 49’ (see pirikku) and normalizes this word as /birrīqu/ (via Pentiuc 2001, 40).

Fleming 1992, 89, note 73 also connects BI-ri-KA-ti and BI-ri-GA-ti with BI-ri-KI, which he, after Durand 1989, 179, understands as a sacred place. Oliva 1993, 82, 98 derives all these Emarite forms from Akk. pilakk/qqu “spindle” and explains the epithet pirikātu in Emar texts as a cultic representation of Ištar in Emar. See the discussion under pirikku.

            Pentiuc 2001, 40f. interprets BI-ri-KA-ti and BI-ri-GA-ti as a noun of qittīl(at)- pattern, which is well presented in Emar texts. He connects these forms with the West Semitic root for “pond”, which is represented in Ugaritic as brky, in Hebrew as bərēkā, in Aramaic as bre(y)ktā, in Arabic as birkat-, all meaning “pool”. Hence his normalization birrīkatu, pl. birrīkātu and translation “Ištar of the Pond(s)” (this interpretation was adopted also in Olmo Lete / Sanmartin 2004, 238 under brky “pool, swamp”).

            Another alternative would be to connect BI-ri-KA-ti and BI-ri-GA-ti with the West Semitic root brk “to bless” (Ugaritic brk G passive “to be blessed”, D “to bless”; Hebrew brk Qal “to be blessed”, Pi “to bless”, bərāḵā “blessing”, Arabic barraka, bāraka “to bless”, baraka “blessing” etc.). See also pirikku.

NR

 

birru “lattice, grill”

 

The following reference might belong here: Ur III 4 TÚG bu-ti-um? gišbe-rum SIKI gišGARIĜ AKA CUSAS 3, 807: 2 (CUSAS 4 p. 30) “4 butiʾum-cloths for a lattice(?), made of combed wool”. Note, however, that Sallaberger, CUSAS 6, 359, tentatively assumes the spelling BAD.AŠ = zara6 “a textile” for be-rum here. 

MPS

 

birṣu (a luminous phenomenon)

 

1. NA, Fig. etym. (not in the dict.): šumma ina šubat amēli bir-ṣu ib-ru-uṣ marušta immar ZA 71, p. 114: 23 “if a b. flashes in a man’s house, he will experience trouble”.

NR

 

biršu (a coarse fabric, phps.) “felt; (garment of) felt?”

 

NA CAD B 261a, b: 6 túgna-ṣa-bat [xxx] bir-še NU [xxx] ADD 977 r. ii 2f. (SAA 7, 119) “6 straight garments [...], felted, not [...]”; [x ma]-qa? bir ZAG GI [xxxx] [x túg]ur-nat bir ZAG SA5 x [xxxx] ADD 682: 4f. (SAA 7, 98) “[...] gowns, felted, the front black, [...][...] urnatu-garments, felted, the front red, ...[...]”; [x túgur]-nat bir NÍGIN ADD 683: 2 (SAA 7, 102) “[x u]rnatu-garments, felted, the edging [...]”;[x] túgma-qa bir ZAG GI₆ [x] túgma-qa bir ZAG SA₅ADD 684: 1f. (SAA 7, 95) “[x] gowns, felted, the front black; [x] gowns, felted, the front red”; 1 túgur-nat bir x[ Ki. 1904-10-9, 246 r. 2 (after Deller 1966, 313; cf. SAA 7, 94). See already Deller 1966, 313.

NR

 

birti “between”

 

birtu I “fort, castle”

 

1. OB a) Note the unusual plene spelling in [ER]IM bi-i-i[r]-tim AbB 13, 24: 8 “soldiers of the fort”.

 

b) Note the appositional construction of ṣābum birtum already attested in ARM 2, 39: 62: ṣa-ba-am bi-ir-tam “garrison” Shemshara 1, 12: 10; 21: 15; 30: 13. ṣa-bi-im bi-ir-tim 30: 8.

 

2. OA (first ref.): ina bi4-ir-tim ša GN TPAK 1, 100: 9 “in the fort of GN”.

 

3. MB: The pl. bi/erētu is attested in MB Qaṭna: lú.mešUGULA.10.KUD be-re-ti lú.mešma-ri-ia-an-nu QS 3, 20: 1–2; cf. ib. 26: 1–2 “decurions of the forts of the mariyannū”. lú.mešUGULA.10.KUD be-re-ti lú.mešḫu-up-še-na ib. 25: 1–2 “decurions of the forts of the ḫupše”. See the discussion in QS 3 p. 100, also referring to the pl. bi-re-tim in OB Mari ARM 27, 148: 8–11: ṣa-ba-am ša bi-re-tim ... wa-aš-bu “the troops who occupy the fortresses”.

MPS

 

4. NA: Since birāti/birāte and ḫal-ṣumeš seem to be interchangeable in NA letters, Deller 1966, 313 assumes that ḫalṣu does not exist in NA and (uru)ḫal-ṣu(meš) is a quasi-logogram for birtu or birāte. See e.g. šulmu ana bi-ra-ti ND 2372: 8 (Saggs 2001, 194) and šulmu ana ḫal-ṣumeš ND 2409: 7 (Saggs 2001, 195).

 

5. After Matouš 1964, 137 birtum I “Festung” (AHw 129b) might be derived from the root wbr.

 NR

 

birtu I in rab birti “commander of a fortress”

 

NA CAD B 263b: dibbi kī ša šarru bēlī išpuranni ina pī mār šipri ša GAL bir-te nissakan K.1875 r. 1–4 (SAA 5, 204) “we implanted the very words that the king, my lord, sent us, in the mouth of (this) messenger of the fort commander;”. See also Deller 1966, 313f.

NR

 

birtūtu? s. ḫalṣūtu

 

bīru I “divination”

 

1. LB probably fem. pl.: bi-re-e-tu4 šá UDU.NÍTA Bēl-rēmanni p. 177: 2 “extispicies of a ram”.

MPS

 

2. For STT 49: 6, spelled by Deller 1966, 314 as ina ŠŔ bi-ri! ú[-du-ni], see now SAA 12, 24: ina ŠŔ-bi-ía ú-[…].

 

bīru II “bull calf”

 

Salonen 1959–1960, 158 connects /ēru (AHw 130b) with Ug. bʿr (doesn’t exist with this meaning!), Hbr., Aram. beʿīr “beasts, cattle”, Arab. baʿīr “camel”. See now Militarev/Kogan 2005, 73f.

NR

 

bīru III “ridge”

 

Ad CAD bīru C 2: OB ina bi-ri-i ... mę lirdē AbB 8, 133: 8–10 “let him flow water in the ridges (between the furrows)”.

MPS

 

bīru IV, bēru IV “hunger”

 

MB Ekalte be-ri-im ana šu-zi-bi-im WVDOG 102, 28: 4 “to save (him) from hunger(?)” (construction and form of the infinitive seem to be wrong; for context cf. tišű).

MPS

 

*bīru E in ša bīrišu (designation of an official?)

only CAD

 

bīru E (CAD 267) can be deleted since Ša-bīrēšu (e.g. uruŠá-bi-re-e-šú ADD 160: 3; uruSa-bi-ri-šú ABL 252: 5) is a geogr. name, “(That) of its wells(?)”, and not a designation of an official. See now Radner 2006–2008, 474f.

NR

 

birűtu II “mound” or “commemorative monument”?

AHw 123 /īrūtu “Untergrund”, CAD B 267 birūtu “a rare and poetic synonym for destruction”, AHw 1548 with lit. “ein Hügel”.

 

1. After Borger, JCS 18, 54f., the entries berūtu “foundation pit” (CAD B 213b) and birūtu “a rare and poetic synonym for destruction” (CAD 267f.) represent only one lexeme (see AHw /īrūtu and CDA 43b bērūtu “mound”) with the meaning “Untergrund”. See also Borger 1971, 66 for new references and corrections.

NR

 

2. OAkk ḫirītam iškun u bé-ru-tám ibnī FAOS 7, 341 Ur 5: 13 “he dug (lit. established) a  trench and heaped up (lit. built) a mound”. Logogram KI.GAL išpuk RIME 2, 129 iii 3 “he heaped up a mound”, cf. Kienast/Sommerfeld 1994, 191.

 

3. See the disc. by J.-M. Durand, FM 8 (2005) 191–200. He concludes that the word designates a commemorative stone” and suggests an -ūt-derivation from barű “to see, look at”. However, although a derivation of barű makes sense, the assumption of an -ūt-suffix does not since this never has a concrete meaning. Therefore rather nominal pattern PiRūS (see GAG § 55j: occurs with roots III infirmae instead of PiRiSt, e.g., minűtu, ṣibűtu). For ref. in the dict. see AHw. bērūtu and CAD berūtu and birūtu.

MPS

 

4. AKA 165: 4 (CAD B 213b) is to be corrected after WO 2, 406: 4 to bi-ru la! ta-ba-ri veranstalte keine Opferschau!” (von Soden 1968, 458), and, therefore, does not belong here.

NR

 

birūyum “median”

 

bis “then, afterwards”

 

NA CAD B 268a: PN ša issišu šēbilanni bi-is anāku ilīkunu lušēbilakkunu u sulummű laškun BM 132980 r. 15’-17’ (Waters 2002, 82; see also Deller 1966, 314) “Send to me PN and those with him, and then I myself will send to you your gods and make peace”.

NR

 

bisru, bišru “leek”

 

For further references see Hulin, Iraq 21, 47 Anm. 20 (via Matouš 1964, 137), MSL 9, 109 and CAD S 62b: bi-si-ir saḫ-le-e lā ikkal IM 50964: 5’ (MSL 9, 108f.) “he should not eat bisru-leek”; bi-šir saḫ-le-e K.8068+: 21 (MSL 9, 107); bi-iš-ra ZŔ.ḪI.LIsar KAR 147: 25 (cf. CAD B 268a: biš-ra); bi-iš-ra saḫ-lé-e KAR 177 r. iii 18, 42 (cf. CAD B 268a: biš-ra); GA.RAŠsar saḫ-lé-e id. r. i 24.

NR

 

bisrű, bissű “from the Ǧabal Bišrī”

not in the dictionaries

 

As a qualification of dogs in OB Mari: aš-šum UR.GI7.RA bi-is-sé-e be-lí iš-pu-ra-am UR.GI7.RA bi-is-s[ú-]ú ma-du-tum-m[a] ib-ba-šu-ú ARM 26/1, 271: 5–9 “My lord wrote me about Bissean dogs. There existed quite many Bissean dogs” (cf. Heimpel 2003, 280). DUB-pu-um ša be-lí-[i]a aš-šum UR.GI7.RAḫi.a bi-is-re-e il-li-kam ARM 26/1, 271: 5–7 “A tablet of my lord about Bisrean dogs came to me” (cf. Heimpel 2003, 281). Note that the expected plural would be bisr/sűtu/im instead of bissű and bisr/ (or are these forms of the singular?).

MPS

 

bissu, bīsu s. biltu

 

biṣḫu

 

Pentiuc 2001, 38; see pisḫu.

 

biṣinnu s. buṣinnu

 

biṣṣu “droplet”

 

biṣṣūru, piṣīru “female genitals, vulva”

 

1. OB [b]i-i-ṣú-ru-um [š]a lā i-ka-[l]u AbB 12, 181: 7’f. “a vulva, which (he?) does not use (lit. ‘eat’)” (in broken context, but the text speaks of sexual activities).

            Female pubic hair: OB (if a foetus) šārat bi-iṣ-ṣú-ri-ša īlűnim “the hair of its vulva is sprouting” CUSAS 18 p. 317: 7.

Of animals: OB lit. [b]i-iṣ-ṣú-úr ṣerri AMD 1, 235 FM 22878: 2 “vulva of a snake”. bi-ṣú-ur kalbatim ib. 258ff. H 72: 4 “vulva of a bitch”.

            OB Mari bi-ṣú-ri ilput išaršu ana bi-ṣú-ri-i[a] ul īrub ARM 26/2 p. 423 no. 488: 35–37 “he touched my vagina, (but) his penis did not enter my vagina”. u ašar abu u ummum panīka ittaplasū u ištū bi-iṣ-ṣú-ri-im tamqutamma annânum bi-ṣú-ru-um imḫurka FM 1 p. 117 A.1146: 36f. “and at the (same) place where father and mother used to look at your face and you had fallen out of the vulva, here a vulva has received you”.

MPS

 

2. UM 5, 156 (AHw 131a) is OB (not OA) with Matouš 1964, 137 and CAD B 269a.

 

3. SB om.: CAD B 269a and AHw 131a mention pi-ṣi-ir-šá KAR 466: 7 s. v. biṣṣūru ( uncert.). See now Böck 2000, 164f., ll. 201f.: DIŠ MUNUS pi-ṣi-ir-šá GÍD DIĜIR-na-at DIŠ MUNUS pi-ṣi-ir-šá LÚGUD.DA ina tam-ṭ[a-a-tum GEN.MEŠ] “Wenn … einer Frau lang ist, ist sie eine Gottesfrau. Wenn … einer Frau kurz ist, [wird sie] mit Verlusten [leben].” Cf. ib. p. 165 n. 595 with cross ref. to biṣṣūru.

NR

 

bišru “small child”; OB, OA; jB lex. (s. dict.)

 

1. First OB ref.: rabbűtim išaqqīʾam mę bi-iš-ri YOS 11, 20: 12 (inc. against Lamaštum) “(full of) greatness, she gives them to drink the amniotic fluid”.

 

2. First OA ref.: šībūtim ta-ša-qí-a-me mę bi-iš-ri-im  Or. 66, 60f.: 16 (inc. against Lamaštum) “of old age, she gives them to drink the amniotic fluid”. For the interpretaton mę bišri as “amniotic fluid” s. Michel 1997, 63f. ad l. 16.

NR

 

bīštu, bīltu “evil”

 

SB ana tęlte u bil-te ina pī nišī ittaškin SAA 3, 29: 9 “he was put as proverb and evil in the mouth of the people”. Der. from baʾāšu, other ref. are found in the dict. under the adj. bīšu, but in fact belong here.

MPS

 

bīšu bad; malodorous”

 

1. Emar: [túl a] ur5? = bi-iš-tum Emar 559: 128 (Ḫḫ XXII; for Sum. see DCCLT MB Ura 13) “stinking (restore būrtu ‘well’)”.

MPS

 

bīt “where; when”

 

For alleged bīt < birt see Finkelstein, JNES 21, 90ff. (with Matouš 1964, 137).

 

bitaḫwa “to gore(?)”, Hurr. foreign word?

not in the dictionaries

 

OB (the king’s vassals) kīma! rīmim bi-ta-aḫ-wa CUSAS 18, 19: 24’ “who will gore like an aurochs”, cf. A. R. George, ib. p. 121.

MPS

 

bītānu “in the house, inside”

 

NA CAD B 274b, 1b (spiritual inner part): anāku šī qābītu ēpissu DUMU.SAL ḫuburtu anāku uzāna unarraṭa atta ana yâši naʾidanni dibbē annűti TA ŠŔ uru4.DINGIR ina bit-a-nu-uk-ka esip Langdon Tammuz pl. 2 ii 18-23  “Ich bin die, welche spricht (und) handelt; ich bin die lärmende Tochter; ich mache erbeben das Ohr; du (aber) beachte mich! Diese Worte aus Arbail sammle in deinem Inneren!” (Deller 1966, 314).

            CAD B 275a, 3: For É bit-a?-ni (bīt bītāni), supposed by Deller 1966, 314 in the NA letter K.978: 9, see now SAA 16, 89: (É GAL.A.BA) É qa-lál(The house of the chief scribe) is a tiny house.

NR

 

bītānu in ša muḫḫi bītāni (official in charge of the inner quarters of a palace or temple)

 

NA CAD B 275b/276a: [IGI PN] ša UGU bit-a-ni BT 101b: 14 (Iraq 25, pl. 19; Deller 1966, 314f.).

NR

 

bītānű “inner, interior”

 

Ebeling Parfümrez. 33 ( = Ebeling Stiftungen 13): 38 (CAD 276a, b) read with Deller 1966, 315 uzubit-a-ni-ameš.

NR

 

bitiqtu “damage, loss; deficit”

 

1. OB Mari ina bi-it-qa-ti-im išaggum ARM 26/1, 192: 5, cf. Heimpel 2003, 248 “he shouts because of(?) the losses” (unclear context).

 

2. OA bi-it-qá-at AN.NA AKT 2, 55: 16 “outstanding amount of tin”. kaspim bi-it-qá-tim ša naruqqišu AKT 7a, 52: 6 “silver, deficit of his investment capital”. iṣṣēr bi-tí-iq-tí-ni šakin ib. 276: 10 “it is added (lit. put on) to our loss”. bi-it-qá-tim ib. 259: 24.  Cf. batqu.

MPS

 

3. NA (not in the dict.): bi-tiq-tú x[ ND 2386 + r. i 24’ (Iraq 23, pl. 11; Deller 1966, 315); bi-ti-[i]q-tú [ša?] Ú.ME [?] taddana CTN 2, 182, no. 181 r. 18 “[but do not(?)] give the loss on plants(?)”.

Note that contrary to CAD 277a, disc. sec., these Assyrian ref. use the singular of this word.

NR

 

bitqu “break(age; cutting)”

 

1. OB: Add with Stol 2008, 354 IGI 6 GÁL UKU.UŠ ša aššum bi-it-qí-im (cf. CAD P 441b pí-it-qí-im) illikam UET 6, 481: 31 “one-sixth (barley ration for) the soldier who came here on account of the breakage”.

 

2. NA CAD 277, 1a: ídḫi-ri-ti ]x bit-qu[ ADD 1250: 8’ (AJSL 42, 266); PN ina bit-qi ētanabbir ABL 830: 7-9 (SAA 15, 186) “PN überschreitet (den Kanal) fortwährend am Schleusentor” (Deller 1966, 315). Note the translation of bit-qi in SAA 15, 186 as a GN: “PN is crossing over at Bab-bitqi”. See also GN uruKÁ-bit-qi in ABL 89: 9; r. 4, 12 (SAA 1, 94). See also Deller 1966, 315.

NR

 

bitru “cutting, sluice; section, half”; Emar. Wsem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

bitru occurs twice in the singular in a lexical and a legal text: AN.KUD bi-it-ru ša šá-[me-e] (Emar 6, 567: 5’) “the section of the sky”; qar-nu ZÚ.AM.SI / AN bi-it-ru erasure / ša fdUTU-te (HANEM 2, 37: 19-21) “(a silver garment pin of 5 shekels and) a horn of ivory is the (inheritance) portion of (my wife) Šamaš-te”. In the liturgical text Emar 6, 448: 19’ bitru appears in the plural as bi-ta-ri: ] i-na ITI.KÁM dEN bi-ta-ri x [    u]b-ba-lu-šu-nu!-ti “They bring them in the month of the lord of the sections (?)”.

The translation of Pentiuc 2001, 39f., which is followed here, is primarily based on the equation with the Sumerogram KUD “to cut” etc. in Emar 6, 567: 5’. He considers bitru as a noun of the qitl-pattern derived from the West Semitic root btr, which is realized in Hebrew as bātar “to cut in two”, béter “part, piece; cutting”; Aramaic beter, bətar “piece, allotment”, Arabic batara “to cut off, sever”, batr- “cutting off, separation”, Ethiopian batara “to cut, hit”, batr pl. ʾabtār “branch, scepter”.

            Pentiuc 2001, 40 understands bi-ta-ri as a Northwest Semitic plural form in the oblique case /bitarī/, doubly marked by an inserted vowel -a- between R2 and R3 and by the external plural marker (Pentiuc 2001, 243f.). Note, that the sign AN in HANEM 2, 37: 19–21 remains inexplicable.

            For alternative possibilities see Pentiuc 2001, 39. Note also, that CAD P 449 quotes the lexical entry Emar 6, 567: 5’ under piṭru “release”. Neither the meaning of piṭru nor its logogram (piṭru = DUḪ), however, seem to fit the given contexts.

NR

 

*bitrű II “to be continuous, endure”

 

Note that the references are differently distributed in AHw and CAD. AHw lists the references under Gt and Dt of barű “sehen” and Št of berű “hungern”, whereas CAD B 279 postulates a verb bitrű “to be continuous”. But see von Soden 1968, 459. In fact, this verb belongs to barű III.

NR

 

bittu I “daughter” s. bintu

 

bittu II “weft (?)” or “warp (?)”; OB, Mari

CAD: “(wool) left (outdoors) overnight”; AHw 1548: “eine Wolle”

 

1. OB lit., said of the treatement of clothes: a-na bi-it-tim ta-z[a-] x ki-[m]a šu-tu-um [x x] x bi? “To the weft yarns you will [brush?] so that the warp yarns. . .” UET 6/2, 414: 11f. (“At the Cleaners”). For this interpretation see Wassermann 2013, 265 and 274. CAD P 443 quotes this passage under pittu A “side”.

 

2. bittu occurs also in a letter from Mari Iraq 39, 152f.: 40 and 47 (cf. Durand 2009, 30; Wasserman 2013, 265): 39TÚG šu-ú ki-ma TÚG tu-ut-tu-bé-e-im šu-ta-a-am 40 ů bi-it-ta-am dam-qí-iš lu-ú na-sí-ik 41 ů lu-<ú> ka-ṣí-ir <…> 45 <…> as-su-ur-re 46 a-na TÚG ša-a-tu [ša]-te-e-im 47 ů bi-it-tam uš!-ta-ba-at-tu-ma! 48 ů i-na zu-na-tim ša-ka-ki-im 49 zu-na-tum i-ka-ab-bi-ta-ma 50 ů TÚG uš-ta-ar-ra-aṭ  “this garment should be well woven and knotted of warp and weft (yarns), like a Tuttubian garment <…> Under no circumstances, in order to weave that garment – they will  interweave the weft and then, when attaching the ornaments, (under no circumstances) should the ornaments become heavy and the garment become unraveled”.

The editor of this text Rouault 1977, 149, note 6, understands bittu as “une décoration ou un accessoire fixé au vętement” and connects it with Akkadian betātu pl. tant. “a decoration used on garments and leather objects” (CAD B 214f.).

After Durand 2009, 30f., bittu and šutű are both terms for yarns which are used to make cloth. Since the Sumerian equation for bittu is SÍG.NÁ.ŔM “(under)lying wool (?)” (Ḫḫ. 19: 22), Durand interprets bittu as “(le fil de) laine dormant”, that is “le fil de chaîne”, or “warp”, whereas šutű should denote “le fil de trame”, or “weft”. However, Wassermann 2013, 265, note 71, considers the interpretation based on a Sumerian expression with uncertain meaning as unreasonable. With Durand 1997, 274, he argues for the meaning “weft” for bittu and “warp” for šutű, refering to the Semitic etymology: after all, Akkadian šutű corresponds to Hebrew šətī “warp, the set of threads drawn lengthwise in loom, through which the shuttle bearing the woof (ʿēreḇ) is thrown crosswise” (Brown / Driver / Briggs 1999, 1059f.) and should then denote “warp” (see also CAD Š/3, 408: “šutű A ‘warp’”). bittu consequently should then mean “weft” or “woof”.

Durand compares bittu with the Hebrew conjectural lemma *battîm “gewobenes Kleid” (Köhler / Baumgartner 1967/1, 159b; Gesenius 1987/1, 186a, see also bad „Stück Tuch, Leinen“ in ibid. 125a) and Arabian batt “vętement bédouin de poil ou de lin carré” (Durand 2009, 31, note 28). See also Ugaritic btt “to cut” (Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 251). For the same etymological approach see also Wassermann 2013, 265, note 71.

bi-it-tam uš-ta-ba-at-tu-ma is with Durand a figura etymologica, built on a denominative verb šutabuttu “to interweave (?); to warp (after Durand)”. There is, however, no reason to assume an Amorite derivation because the Št-stem is pace Durand well used for denominations in Akkadian (see Streck 1994, 179–181; Kouwenberg 2010, 397–411).

Note, that Durand 1997, 275 had considered uš-ta-ba-at-tu-ma as a Št-stem from a hitherto unattested verb batű. Worthy to mention is also the fact that Rouault 1977, 150 as well as CAD S 389b and CAD Š/2, 217b read (erroneously?) ša ta-ba-at-tu-tu, which is translated in CAD Š/2, 217b as “(bittu) which you are fashioning (?)”.

NR

 

bītu “house”

 

1. Ur III: Spelled bi-ě-tum in Ur III Garšana (Heimpel 2009, 180–182)? See binītum B.

 

2. OA É-tum ana lā bé-tim itūʾar AKT 6c, 647: 7 “the house is disappearing (lit. becoming a not-house)”.

 

3. OB: The expression bīt eqlētim probably belongs to the references CAD b. 5 “place, lot, area, region”: ana É eqlētim ... šūšibšu “settle him in a region with fields!” Shemshara 1, 50: 22–24. Eidem/Lćssře 2001, 120 translate “farm”.

            Shelter of animals: OB bi-it imērī AbB 13, 58: 14 “house of donkeys”.

 

4. LB bīt rēdűti: d30 É re-du-ú-tu Bēl-rēmanni p. 177: 4 “Sîn of the residence of the crown prince”.

MPS

 

5. NA CAD B 286a, 1b11’: É epšu adi gušūrēšu adi dalātešu É dannu É ZAG ina libbi 3 É NÁ-šat meš x[    ] É šanie É šaḫūru UŠ É NÁ É šid-d[i? ] É kisalli É rēdűte NIM? É ubsāte É KUR-ru ina libbi 2 SIG4 ina libbi SIG4 šá É abi igārātešu gammurūnišu Ameš ša tarbaṣi ina É ešši Ass.Fd.Nr. 13955: 6–11 (Assur Photo 4127 gl; house sale contract; reading uncertain) “A built house with its beams and doors, main building, the building of the front side with 3 sleeping rooms in it; servants’ quarters, a subsidiari building near the house of the bed, house of the long side, a building in the courtyard, upper(?) succession house, storehouse, a ... house with two walls in it, one of which belongs to the paternal house, its walls encompass it, (and) water is in (lit. of) the yard in the new house”. See Deller 1966, 315.

            CAD B 287, 1c1’f’: for the right interpretation of ABL 65 r. 8–9 see Deller 1966, 315 and now also SAA 13, 78: “(Of the apprentice priests, whoever has a sacrifice to make will do so, and) whoever brings even one seah of food may eat it in the temple of Nabű”. For further NA references see Deller 1966, 315.

            CAD B 290a, 1d5’: É DUMU LUGAL É re-du-u-ti Ebeling Parfümrez. 32: 6; ina É DUMU LUGAL id. 12 (Deller 1966, 315).

            CAD B 291 b/292 a, 3a2’: For K.5997+ left edge, where Deller 1966, 315 reads anāku dullu ša uruḪAL.ṢU eppaš [É] ša TU[15] 4 (bītu ša sār erbetti; cf. BRM 2, 41: 4 in CAD) araṣṣibi, see now SAA 15, 113: anāku dullu ša uruḪAL.ṢU eppaš šá-al-ḫi-i araṣṣibi As for me, I am working on the fort and constructing the outer wall”.

 

6. bītu ḫiṭṭātu “plot covered with pits” s. ḫiṭṭatu.

            ša bīti šanî “lackey”: NA PAP 10 ša É 2-e ND 2498: 17 (Iraq 23, pl. 18); ša! É 2-e (beside ka-ṣirmeš, MUmeš) ND 2803 r. i 20 (Iraq 23, pl. 30). See Deller 1966, 316.

            ša muḫḫi bīti “palace supervisor”: NA IGI PN šá UGU É ND 5448: 20 (Iraq 19, pl. 28); VAT 8270: 1; IGI PN šá UGU É VAT 8232 r. 10; IGI PN šá UGU É A LUGAL ADD 640 r. 7 (SAA 12, 92) “overseer of the household of the crown prince”; rāṭāti šanmuri šá UGU É pūtuḫu naši Ebeling Parfümrez. 37 ii 18-19 “the palace supervisor is responsible for the polishing of the runnels” (see also CAD R 220a, c); šá UGU É AN.ŠÁR id. 38 iii 17. See Deller 1966, 316.

NR

 

bi-TU-ru-um (a building?)

not in the dictionaries

 

Early OB bi-tu-ru-um ARM 19, 258: 4, see 10. The text lists flour for different buildings (store-house(?), workshop, temple, palace, prison, kitchen), hence the suggestion of a composed noun with bīt “house” as first element. Note that in ARM 6, 12: 11f. a bīt (É) TU-ur-ri is attested, read in CAD R 96 rakāsu 2e as bīt turri, but in CAD 165 ṭurru B “an architectural feature, perhaps a courtyard or enclosure” as bīt ṭurri. This word designates a construction made of reed used in irrigation, probably the cladding of a canal (see also Durand 1998, 635: “coffrage”), a mng. which hardly fits the ref. in ARM 19.

MPS

 

bīʾu, bību “opening, outlet”

 

1. NA CAD B 297a, b: Note the pl. bībī in NA (beside bībānu): bi-bi [šá k]i?-sa-[l]i ku-up-ru ka-ap-ru ND 2666: 11f. “die Abflussöffnungen des Vorhofs sind mit Asphalt ausgegossen” (Deller 1966, 316). Cf. the reading and translation of Saggs 2001, 215f.: bi-bi [k]a?-sa-[l]u? ku-up-ru ka-ap-ru The drainage openings of the baulk-wall are smeared with bitumen”.

 

2. Driver 1967, 108 compares the different forms bīʾu and bību with Hebr. ביאה and ביבא on the Copper Scroll.

NR

 

BiZḫu

Pentiuc 2001, 38; see pisḫu.

 

(bird) s. III

 

buʾāru “happiness, health, prosperity”

 

1. OB lit. bu-a-ar maštaki kűmma Ištar CM 8, 22ff. i 44 “the happiness of the chamber is yours, Ištar”.

 

2. SB Ug. qīt bu-ḫa-ri-šu AuOr. Suppl. 23, 29: 10 “the end of his happiness”.

MPS

 

būʾāʾu(?) “to intimidate, trump, defeat”

not in the dictionaries

 

Cf. Veenhof 2015, 234f. with OA ref. Also the first two ref. in CAD P 472 puāgu a belong here. However, the etymology of the verb remains unclear.

MPS

 

bubű (a topog. feature; field design.); OB

 

Sec. ref.: (a field of the) bu-bi-im CT 48, 90: 4; (a field of the) bu-bi-im qá-ab-li-im id.: 6 (via Stol 1988, 175) “lower b.”.

NR

 

bubūtu I “hunger, starvation” of individuals, “famine” of land; also “sustenance”

 

OB lit. bu-bu-ti-iš nišī Atr. I 339//CUSAS 10, 2: 4 “for the sustenance of the people”.

MPS

 

bubūtu II (main beams on both sides of the chariot); OB, EA

 

1. For the meaning of bubūtu as “main beams on both sides of the chariot body” (not the axle, so AHw) see Civil 1968, 10.

NR

 

2. Now also attested OB: a-na ... bu-bu-a-tim šu-pu-ur TLB 4 ( = AbB 3), 73: 7 (Edzard 1970a, 160). [n] bu-ba-at narkabtim FM 7, 30: 17 “[n] axles of a chariot”. giš[b]u-ba-tim ša jašibim ARM 27, 7: 6f., see 13 “axles of a battering-ram”. OB lit. ana ereq šamę bu-ba-a-tim talâṭ CUSAS 10, 15: 48 “You shackle the axles for the wagon of the sky”. Cf. A. George, ib. p. 116f. in favor of the mng. “axle”.

MPS

 

3. EA: The passage EA 22 iv 37: 10 GAR mašaddu narkabti 10 GAR bu-bu-[tu]m narkabti “120 cubits (of wood) for chariot poles, 120 cubits (of wood) for b.-s” (CAD B 302), should be corrected to 10 NÍG.GÍD.DA narkabti 10 [gi]šbu-bu-[t]u4 narkabti “10 chariot-poles, 10 chariot-frames” (Moran 1992, 57 and 60, note 53; see also CAD M/1, 351). For [gi]šbu-bu-[t]u4 compare the Akkadogram in Hitt. gišBU-BU-TŮ/TI (CAD B 302b).

NR

 

bubu(ʾ)tu “boil, pustule”

See also ref. under  būšānu.

 

buddudu “to waste, dissipate”

 

1. Salonen 1959-1960, 158 compares badādu (AHw 95b) with Hebr. bādad “be separate” and Aram. bdd “separate”. See also Landsberger 1965, 57, note 108 (with Deller 1966, 316).

NR

 

2. NA É ENmeš-ni pāḫutū ub-ta-di-du SAA 16, 42: 9 “the governors have squandered the household of our lord”. tu-ub-ta-di-id SAA 15, 62: 13 “you have squandered (the barley)”. lā ú-ba-du-du ib. 55 r. 7 “they should not squander”.

MPS

 

Budű (a cake? a kind of drink); LB

 

1. Reading uncertain. Cf. CAD G 65: giddę; AHw 287b: giddę or Budę; CDA 47: Budű.

 

2. LB šikar]u duššupu Bu-du-ú šumšu Nippur Compendium vi 11 (OLA 40, p. 160) “sweet [bee]r which is called B.”.

NR

 

būdu II “shoulder”

1. Lex.: murg[u]-sa-ĝu10 = bu-da-a CUSAS 12 p. 150: 36 (Ugumu) “my shoulders”.

 

2. OB 1 ṣubātam u naḫlaptam ša ēpušu bēlī ana bu-di-šu liškun ARM 10, 17: 10–13 “may my lord put the cloth and the coat which I made on his shoulders”.

OB lit. šadî bu-di-ni PRAK 1 B 472 i 10 “the hills of our shoulders”; ina bu-di-ia ēmidam šadīʾam CUSAS 10, 5: 5 (Gilg.) “with my shoulder I leaned against a mountain”. Of snake: rapšā bu-da-šu CUSAS 32, 48: 1 “broad are ist shoulders”. Cf. George ib. p. 107 n. 1: cobra? Of scorpion: bu-da-šu libittum ib. 49: 7 “ist shoulders are brick”.

MPS

 

būdu III, budű, pūdu (a tax?); OB, LB

AHw. p/būdu II “?”, CAD būdu B “mng. uncert.”, CDA būdu III “a festival?” and pūdu “design. of sheep”.

 

1. Lex.: lú-bala = bēl bu-di-im “man on duty = lord of the b.” MSL 12, 170: 407 (P. Talon, ARM 24 p. 215). Note also PSD B 72 bala C “shoulder”, which might indicate that būdu III is in fact identical with būdu “shoulder”.

 

2. OB: inūma šarrum bu-da-a-am ša PN ša U4 30-kam imḫuru ARM 24, 65: 12–14 “when the king received the b. of PN on the 30th day”. dItūr-Mer bēl bu-di-im <…> ŠU.NIGIN 14 DUMUmeš bu-di-im ša ana puluḫti Itūr-mer kaṣrū ARM 23, 436: 1f., 31–33 “Itūr-Mer, the patron of b. <…> Altogether 14 members of b., assembled to venerate Itūr-Mer”. 25 DUG GEŠTIN ša DUMUmeš bu-di-im ARM 23, 494: 6 “25 wine pots of members of b.”. 5 GUR ana bu-di-im ša dItūr-Mer ARM 23, 462: 12f. “5 gur of grain for b. of Itūr-Mer”. 1 1/2 GUR ana bu-[d]i-im ša É dItūr-Mer ARM 24, 19: 1’f. “1 1/2 gur of grain for b. of the house of Itūr-Mer”. 1 GÚ.Č.A kitītum ana PN inūma bu-di-im ša PN ina bīt mayyāli ARM 25, 17 “1 linen coat for PN in the time of b. of PN in the bedroom”. 1/2 SĚLA ḫazannu ana bu-di-im ša šarrim ina bīt Annunītum ARM 24, p. 214 “1/2 sila garlic for b. of the king in the temple of Annunītum”.

            See also the disc. by P. Talon, ib. p. 213–215, where the foll. unpubl. ref. are quoted: inūma bu-di-im ša PN and inūma bu-di (2x) “at the time of the (delivery) of b. (of PN)”, 1/2 SĚLA ḫazannu ana bu-di-im ša šarrim “1/2 liter of ḫazannu-onions as the b. of the king”.

OB Tell Leilan: 1 GÚ SA.X-[ ] a-na LÚ.TUR PN ša šarrum ana bu-di uterra[m] Vincente 1992, 77: 1–5 “1 garment for the boy PN, whom the king returned to the b.”.

 

3. NB udę erî ša ana bu-du OIP 114, 111: 17 “copper utensils, which are for the b.”.

 

4. LB 19 UDU bu-ud ina pānīšu AUWE 5, 9 ed. 1; see also AUWE 5, 11 r. 3 “19 būdu-sheep to his disposal (?)”.

 

5. Many references quoted above seem to show that the meaning of b. is “tax”. Note, that būdu in Mari is only associated with Itūr-Mer and Ninḫursaga: “bread for the b. of Ninḫursaga” (TH 84.50, see Ziegler 1999, 18, note 106). Also connected to būdu are kings and commoners. The latter, denoted in some texts as mārū būdi, seem to be responsible for the b. (see ARM 23, 436 and Sasson 2001, 416f.). After Sasson 2001, 417 Būdu, which he undestands as a ceremony, could be derived from pdʾ (see padű in CAD P 6f.) and have something to do with “releasing”. Cf. Jacquet, FM 12 p. 57f. See also budūḫu.

MPS, NR

 

būdu B in bēl būdi

(CAD B 305)

 

See būdu III.

 

budūḫu (mng. unkn.) Mari

 

Durand 2002, 34, note 103, connects budūḫu, which he transcribes as p/bud(d)uḫum, with pudu/ű “festival (?)” (see būdu) attested in religious context. After Durand, both terms are derived from PDH/PDī “racheter” (CAD P 6f. “to spare, to release”). However, given the spelling bu-du-ḫi-im with , neither this etymology nor the connection with būdu is possible.

            Note that the only reference of budūḫu ARM 2, 71: 17 tentatively occurs in AHw 117b under bedű D (von Soden 1968, 459).

NR

 

budulḫu, bidurḫu and var. “(resin from) bdellium”; NB, SB

 

The following spellings can be added to the entries in CAD B 305f. and AHw 136a: šimbi-du-ur-ḫu (BM 64588), šimbi-du-ḫu (Iraq 59, 123 Nr. 40), bid-lu-ḫu (BM 65030), šimbi-du-uḫ-ḫu (YBC 4173), gišbi-du-ur-ḫu (NCBT 853).

For the identification of budulḫu with the gum of Commiphora mukul see Jursa 2009, 158, note 51 with previous literature. Note that Potts et al. 1996, 291-305 consider Akkadian guḫlu as bdellium. A critique of this assumption see in Jursa 2009, 158, note 51. See also guḫlu.

NR

 

BU-GA-ra-tu (mng. unkn.); Emar

 

BU-GA-ra-tu occurs in the text Emar 6, 446: 85’, which describes the liturgical order for six months, as an event which falls on 14th day of the month marzaḫānu: itimar-za-ḫa-ni i-na U4 14 BU-GA-ra-tu. The reading and the meaning of this term is unclear. Arnaud (Emar 6/3, 422 and 424: 85’) reads this word as bu-qá-ra-tu and translates it as “bovins”, apparently connecting it with OB Mari bu-qá-ru /buqāru/ “cattle” (CAD B 323), which is written as ba-qa-ra and bu-qŕ-ri in Emar texts. Zadok 1991, 116 follows him in viewing this form as a plural of buqāru (see also Belmonte 1997, 82-83, 87 with the translation “Rinder”). There is, however, no definite evidence, that the sign GA has the reading -- in Emar (see Fleming 2000, 165, note 111 and Pentiuc 2001, 141).

Pentiuc 2001, 141 argues, that BU-GA-ra-tu must denote a ritual rather than offering (beefs), because rituals are prescribed for both months, adama and ḫalma, which occur in this text before and after marzaḫānu resprectively. He, therefore, connects BU-GA-ra-tu with the root pgr, which is known in Akkadian as pagru “body; corpse” and in Hebrew as pāgar (Piel) “to be exhausted” and péger “corpse”, and translates pugarātu tentatively as “funerary rites”. This interpretation would fit well the context, if the speculation about the possible connection of marzaḫū and marzaḫānu with the cult of the dead turns out to be correct (Fleming 2000, 166f. with previous literature; see also Pentiuc 2001, 124f.). Compare also ITI pa-ag-ri in Akkadian and yrḫ pgr in Ugaritic (CAD P 17; Pentiuc 2001, 141).

Worthy to mention is also the passage BU-UK-KU-ra-tu4 ša f.mešmu-na-bi-ia-ti from Emar 6, 406: 5, which Arnaud (Emar 6/3, 403) translates as “… des prophétesses”. He understands BU-UK-KU-ra-tu4 as a “piece de viande”, apparently connecting it with the bugurru “a cut of meat” (see CAD B 307). But Fleming 2000, 165, note 111 comments on it that “the item cannot be a meat portion, which we would expect to be listed after the recipient, not before”. The relation between BU-UK-KU-ra-tu4 and BU-GA-ra-tu is not provable, but not excluded. 

NR

 

buggu? (a bird)

not in the dictionaries

 

OB b/pu-ug?-gu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 52 (in list of birds). Not *buqqum, since the next line of the text has qa-qú-um with .

MPS

 

buginnu, bukinnu “bucket, trough”

 

1. OB lit. bu-ki-na-am CUSAS 32, 31 iii 4.

MPS

 

2. After Moran 1992, 59, note 32, buginnu could occur also in EA 22 iii 12 as 1 gišBUGIN.TUR “1 small trough”. Compare CAD S 417, 4’, which has quoted the passages from EA 22 with gišBÚGIN.TUR as well as with gišBUGIN.TUR under sussullu.

NR

 

3. NA 9 giš[b]u!-kín(ḪAR)-ni SAA 7, 126 r. 2.

MPS

 

bugurru (a cut of meat); MA, NA

 

1. Salonen 1959–1960, 158 compares bugurru (AHw 136b) with Arab. baǧira “to be big bellied” and buǧratun “navel”.

 

2. MA: KAR 154 r. 11 (CAD 307a) is MA (not NA) with Deller 1966, 306 and AHw 136a. 

NR

 

b/puḫdinnu (part of a chariot), Hurr. word?

not in the dictionaries

(see, however, CDA 277b: puḫdinu mng. unkn. Mari, of gold)

 

OB 1 BU-uḫ-di-in-nu ša šinni pīri bābušu ḫurāṣam šaknu ARM 21, 254: 7f. “1 b. of ivory, its ‘gate’ is laid with gold”. J.-M. Durand, ib. p. 285f., compares b/putinnu (AHw. 144 “Knopf des Schuhs”, CAD B 356 “button of a sandal”) and puḫtu (AHw. 877 “ein Kupfergerät”, CAD P 493 “a tool”) and translates “shaft” (“timon”).

MPS

 

buḫḫuru “to heat”

 

Salonen 1959–1960, 158 connects baḫāru (AHw 96a) with Arab. baḫḫara “steam, evaporate” and buḫārun “steam, fume, haze”.

NR

 

buḫlalű “apprentice priest”

See puḫlalű.

 

buḫratum “an offering of warm dishes”

not in the dictionaries

 

aš-šum bu-uḫ-ra-tim a-na DN n[a-qé-em] be-lí iš-pu-ra-am [i]-na pa-ni-tim-ma aš-šum bu-uḫ-ra-t[im] šu-ut-tum i-na-me-er-ma ... bu-uḫ-ra-tam a-na DN ů ... DN2 li-iq-q[ú] ... a-di e-bu-ri-im 3-šu-[ma?] bu-uḫ-ra-tum ARM 26/1, 231: 5–23 “My lord wrote me about [offering] warm dishes to DN. Already previously a dream about an offering of warm dishes had been seen ... They must offer a warm dish to DN and ... DN2 ... 3 times a offering of warm dishes until the harvest”. See the discussion of J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 471 n. a. See also buḫru. Similarly Heimpel 2003, 265. Durand, QuadSem 16, 35, n. 26 (s. also Durand, Amurru 3, [2004] 189, n. 424; Stol 2008, 354), on the base of the idiom  puḫram nadānum “to hold an assembly” (s. puḫru here), reads pu-uḫ-ra-tim ... n[a-da-nim]. This is, however, unconvincing, because a) The same word in the same text is used with liqq[ű], b) the mng. “to make an assembly for a god “ would remain unclear, c) there is no other occurence of a fem. (pl.) *puḫra/ātum (note, however, a single ref. for puḫurtu in CAD P 502 in broken context). Disc. of etym. (not Amor.!) Streck 2000, 87.

MPS, NR

 

buḫru “cooked state, cooked food”

 

1. Lex.: li-im : NE : bu-úḫ-rum CUSAS 12 p. 9: 35 (Ea).

 

2. OB Mari (first OB ref.) “an offering of warm dishes” (see also buḫratu): bu-uḫ-ri-im ša dDa-[g]an FM 8, 23: 8.

MPS

 

bukānu “(wooden) pestle”

 

1. OB lit. [zi]bbatāšu kī bu-ka-nim Fs. Wilcke 61f. Sb 12360: 5 “(the snake’s) two tails are like a pestle”.

MPS

 

2. After Edzard 1970b, 8–53 the expression bukānam šūtuq (CAD 308f.) means “man hat ihn/es am b. vorbeigehen lassen”. According to Edzard, the corresponding Sumerian expression ĝeš-gan bala has the slightly different meaning “to pass someone or something over the pestle”, and the Akkadian expression implies that a bukānu was set up and the person passed it (and did not stride over) to conclude a sale.

            bukānu occurs as a loanword in Syr. būḵānā and in Middle Hebr. būḵnā (st. c. pl. būḵānī). However, the root BKN is otherwise unknown in Akk. as well as in the other Sem. languages, and the etymology of bukānu remains unknown.

NR

 

BuKKu (mng. uncl.); Emar

not in the dictionaries

 

BuKKU occurs in the  ritual text Emar 6, 369: 39 as a designation of the house of the entu-priestess: 5 ĝešBANŠUR i-na É Bu-uK-Ki ša NIN.DINGIR GAR-nu “They place five tables in the house of the ... of the entu-priestess”.

There are several interpretations of BuKKu. Dietrich 1989, 82, note 76 connects it with Akkadian puqqu “to pay attention to” and translates bīt puqqi as “der Klause”, literally “Haus der Verwahrung”. Fleming 1992, 111, note 125, following him, tentatively suggests the translation “devotion(??)”. He also takes into account the reading pukku “(a wooden ring or ball?)” and bukkű “mourning”, derived from Akk. bakű “to weep”, which he considers as “the best guess” (Fleming 1992, 111). bīt bukkî “the house of the mourning” would be then a Emarite parallel to the Akkadian expression bīt dimāti. The verb bakű does not know, however, a D-stem. Moreover, BuKKu is written with a short final vowel (see, though, Fleming 111, note 127, who notices that long vowels are not always marked in Emar).

Pentiuc 2001, 42f. considers BuKKu as a pattern qutl- from a root b/p-n-g/k/q with assimilation of /n/. His second suggestion is the West Semitic root bqq “to be luxuriant”.

NR

 

buk(k)u? (a bird)

only CDA 48: bukum

 

OB b/pu-ku/qú-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 64 (in list of birds). For l. 18 s. būṣu.

[u5]-bimušen = b/pu-ku/qú-[ ]  Emar 6/4, 555: 118’ (Ḫḫ XVIII).

MPS

 

BU-UK-KU-ra-tu4

 

see BU-GA-ra-tu4.

 

bukru “son, child”

 

SB bu-kúr AOAT 2 no. 115; SpTU 2, 28 “son of” (in colophons, s. Oelsner, 1996, 443 note 32).

NR

 

bukum (a bird)

 

See buk(k)u.

 

bukurtu “first-born daughter”

 

NA lit. ištartu bu-kur-! SAA 3, 8: 21 “(Irnina), first born goddes”.

MPS

 

bulīli (a species of crested bird)

 

Salonen 1959–1960, 158 connects bulīli  (AHw 137a) with Amhar. bullal “pigeon”.

 

bullu I “to throw down, cast away”

 

SB: The form ubtīl derives from bullu (AHw 137a, Soden 1966, 358, von Soden 1968, 459,  and Reschid/Wilcke 1975, 60f.) and not from abālu (CAD A/1, 17b and 29a).

            [ṣeḫru] u rabű ú-ba-al-lu dulla STC 1, 220: 6, 8 “klein und gross werfen die Arbeit hin” (Reschid/Wilcke 1975, 61).

NR

 

bulṭu “life; cure, healing”

 

1. Pl. (cf. AHw. b. 5) also OB, mng. “life”: bu-ul-ṭú ana māt bēliya iššaknū MARI 8 p. 327: 9 “life was established for the land of my lord”.

MPS

 

2. NA CAD B 312a, 3: correct ABL 391: 8–10 after Deller 1966, 316 and SAA 10, 315: mā atta šikin murṣiya anniu lā tammar bul-ṭi-e-šú lā teppašWhy do you not diagnose the nature of this illness of mine and bring about its cure?

            CAD B 312b, 4: ina bu-ul-ṭi gabbu akī an-ni-ie-e qabi in the whole medical literature it is said as follows” K.1090: 3’–5’ (SAA 10, 326). See also Deller 1966, 316.

NR

 

bulṭūtu “life, health”

not in the dictionaries

 

MB Ekalte PN ina bu-ul-ṭú-ti-šu aḫḫē ušēšibma šīmti bītišu ... išīm WVDOG 102, 19: 2; 54: 2; 65: 2; 92: 2 “PN, in full command of his mental faculties, let the brothers enter and drew up a will of his estate”.

MPS

 

bulű “dry wood, dry reed”

 

bulű “dry wood”

 

1. OB lit. MUŠ bu-li-a-tim CUSAS 32, 27: 20 “snake of the dry wood”. Note bulī- instead of bulā-.

 

2. First NA ref. (pl.): ša dullu annę gabbi bu-le-e memēni lā iddinannâ[še] SAA 16, 40: 12 “for all that work, nobody has given u[s] dry wood”.

MPS

 

būlu “animals, livestock”

 

NA: For ADD 1109 (CAD B 314a, 1a) see now SAA 7, 66 r. 4’ and 8’ with the reading 136 / 400 bu-ṭ[u-xxx].

            CAD B 315b, 2b: GIM bu-l[i ṣēru lirpudū] AfO 8, 24 i 8 (Deller 1966, 316; cf. id. 25 iv 6 and Wiseman Treaties 421 in CAD R 148a).

NR

 

bunbullu (a plant); “cone(?)” NA, LB

CAD: “mng. unkn.”; AHw: “wohl ein Gegenstand”

 

1. Kwasman 1999, 59, 60 attempts to find out the meaning of the word bunbullu on the basis of AMT 4, 1: 3f. and comes to the conclusion that bunbullu is one of the five plants which are listed there: 3 ZÉ.GU4.GI6  ZÉ.GÍR.TAB ZÉ.PEŠ bu-un-bu-ul-[li] 4 úsu-a-di : ZÉ.MUŠ tur-ár SÚD 5 Ú.ḪI.A ŠEŠ.MEŠ DIRI-ma “you desiccate and crush ‘excrement of a black ox’, ‘excrement of a scorpion’, ‘excrement of a mouse’, bunbullu-plant (and) suādu-plant, (which is) ‘excrement of a snake’; you soak these five plants”. bunbullu is here the only plant which does not have a code name (for the secret names of plants see Köcher 1995,  203-217). Kwasman connects bunbullu with the Neo-Aramaic word bunbūla “cone” and hence translates also the Akkadian word as “cone”. This seems, however, doubtful.

Note, that Jursa 2009, 164, note 82 considers bu-un-bu-ul-[li] 4 úsu-a-di as a genitive construction. He criticizes the translation “cone” and notes, that Cyperus esculentus, with which suādu is indentified, does not have “cones” (“Zapfen”) and that bunbullu as a part of suādu should rather mean “tuber” (“Knolle”). However, according to the quoted passage above, which summarizes five plants, bunbullu can not be a part of suādu but must be a separate plant. The identification of bunbullu as a plant also appears to fit  the other contexts (CAD B 317a; AHw 138a).

NR

 

2. NA ina muḫḫi bu-un-bu-ul-li [...] idēšu issakan SAA 16, 63: 22 “he laid his hands on the cone(?) [of ...]”. For the mng. “cone” cf. Cherry apud Luukko/van Buylaere, ib. p. 61, citing Neo-Aram. banbūl gelīdi “icicle”.

MPS

 

bunna “thanks to”?

 

Driver 1967, 106 tentatively considers bunna as the Imp. from banű D “to treat kindly” used as an auxiliary verb.

NR

 

bunna(n)nű  pl. tant. “physiognomy, (facial) features”

 

After von Soden 1968, 459 4R 24 no. 1: 34 (CAD B 317b) should be read bu[-ni! š]u-un-na-ta “im Aussehen bist du gewandelt” and belongs to būnu A (CAD B 320a).

NR

 

bunnu B “favor (?)”

CAD B 319b

 

1. The word bunnu “favor” is missing in AHw. For some of the references under bunnu B in CAD B 319b see AHw bunnű “schön gemacht” (YOS 3, 147: 11) and banű II D “gut machen” (BIN 1, 26: 27; ABL 1342: 22). Note, however, that de Vaan 1995, 318–322 interprets ABL 1342: 22 after CAD B as “dieser Gunst fünf Tage [”.

 

2. For ABL 1051 r. 7–11 (Deller 1966, 316) see būnu II.

NR

 

bunnű “beautiful; a bird”

 

1. OB bu-nu-ummušen Edubba’a 7, 100: 61 (in list of birds). First attestation for bunnű as name of a bird.

MPS

 

buntu “daughter”

 

First OB (lit.) ref.: a-bu-un-ti luštuḫma CUSAS 10, 12: 8 “let me grow long for the daughter”.

MPS

 

būnu II, bunnu “goodness; features”; pl. “face”

 

1. OB bu-né ša GN ARM 26/2 p. 23 no. 293: 5 “face of GN”.

OB ṣubātam ana bu-ni-ka ul ēpuš AbB 13, 103: 7’f. “I did not make the garment for your good appearance”.

New idiom: OB ša ... ša bu-ni-ni ippušu u pānīni ana ṣalāmi lā inaddinu AbB 10, 147: 10–13 “who does that of our favor (lit. countenance) and does not let our face become black”.

MPS

            The same expression occurs in King, BMS 19: 26: [bēlu] u rubű ša bu-ni-ya li-pu-uš as a variant to KAR 68 obv. 26ff. ša qa-bé-e-a li-pu-uš (Walker, AfO 24, 124f.). After Kraus (apud Walker, AfO 24, 124f.) the idiom ša būni epēšu could be translated as “to read every wish from somebody’s face” (s. already AHw 138: “was in meinen Mienen liegt”).

            bu-nu namrūtum ša DN ili ālika limḫurūka AbB 13, 140 r. 4’ “may the shining countenance of DN, the god of your city, welcome you”.

NR

 

3. NA: anāku TA pani lā ammagguru lā eppaš ina UGU bu-un-ni ina UGU memmēni aqabbâššunu lā išamműni ABL 1051 r. 7–11 (SAA 13, 34) “I myself do not agree with this and I will not fashion (it so). I could speak with them about featuresabout anything whatever but they wouldn’t listen to me.

           

4. NB ina bunnī “before” as a synonym to ina pānī: LÚ.GÚ.EN.NAmeš maḫrūte ša ina bu-un-ni-ka SAA 18, 3: 5’ (s. also comm.) “The former šandabakkus who were there before you”.

 

5. SB, ša būnīšu as a synonym to ša pāni + suffix: ša bu-ni-šú ippalis CTMMA 2, no. 5: 15’ “He looked at that which was in his sight”. S. also Maul id. 53 sub 15’.

NR

 

bunzerru, b/pinzurru “web, enclosure, trap”

 

1. New by-form b/pinzurru: SB lex. bi/pi-in-zur-ru = ṣulūlu AOAT 50, 347: 194 (Malku) “web = shelter”. Cf. also CAD pizzir “cobweb” = AHw pizzer “a plant” and penzu(r)ru AHw “ein Funktionär”/ CAD “mng. unkn.”. A connection with biṣṣūru “vulva” (CAD P 452f. s. v. pizzir; Civil, CM 31, 60; I. Hrůša, AOAT 50, 219 ad II 194), is questionable.

MPS

 

2. Note also i-zi = be5-en-zu-rum Proto-Izi 1: 369 (MSL 13, 29) and i-iz = be5-en-z[u]r-r[u] Izi 5: 82 (MSL 13, 163), which are quoted in CAD P 326 under penzurru “mng. unkn.”.  Since Sum. i-zi might have the meaning “wall” here (Civil, CM 31, 60), these lex. instances might belong to b. “enclosure”, too.

 

3. kuškin-tur = bu-un-zi!-ir!-ri! Ḫḫ 11: 144 (Civil, CM 31, 59).

NR

 

buppānum “face”

not in the dictionaries.

 

The first OB (Mari) reference and the first in the adverbial accusative (the SB references all have the form buppāni/ī-suffix or buppāniš): te-re-tum ... bu-up-pa-na-am ab-ka ARM 26/1, 171: 8’–10’ “ The extispicies ... are turned on their face (= are perplexing)” (cf. Heimpel 2003, 241).

MPS

 

buqāmu “lamb ready for plucking”

 

OB kupram bu-qa-ma n šamaššammī idnāniššu! AbB 13, 118: 25–27 “Give him bitumen, a b. lamb(?), (and) n sesame!”.

MPS

 

buqāru, baqaru “(young) cow”; Amor./NWSem. lw.; Mari, Emar

 

buqāru, known from Mari (CAD B 323), occurs also in Emar as ba-qa-ra (Emar 6, 327: 9) and bu-qŕ-ri (always in the expression EN bu-qŕ-ri “the lord of bovines”, see Pentiuc 2001, 36f.). The writing ba-qa-ra, which, standing after ina, could be an example of a diptotic case-system (Pentiuc 2001, 36 and 244f.), relates particularly well to Hebrew bāqār “herd, flock”, Arabic baqar- “bovines, cattle”, Aramaic baqrā “herd of oxen”, Syriac baqrā “herd”, Phoenician bqr2 “cattle”, Sabaic bqr I “bovines” (Pentiuc 2001, 37). The form bu-qŕ(KA)-ri corresponds with  the Mari form bu-qá(GA)-ru. bu-qŕ-ri is either noun pattern PuRāS or  pattern *PaRaS  > PuRaS with vowel alternation a/u well known in Emar (Pentiuc 2001, 234).

According to Arnaud, the form BU-GA-ra-tu in Emar 6, 446: 85’, which he reads as bu-qá-ra-tu4, is the plural form of buqāru. There is, however, no definite evidence, that the sign GA has the reading -- in Emar (see Fleming 2000, 165, note 111 and Pentiuc 2001, 141).

            It is also to mention that Fleming 1992, 269 reads bu-KA-ri in all places as bu-ka-ri “firstborn” (cf. also Feliu 1999/2000, 197 ff. with EN bu-ka-ri “the lord of the offspring”). Indeed, both readings, ka and , are possible in Emar (Pentiuc 2001, 37 with reference to Ikeda and 206). Note also, that Durand 1990b, 84 reads ša ina ba-qa-ra in Emar 6, 327: 9 as ša mma-qa-ra “(the sheep) of Maqara”. The personal name Maqara is known also from Emar 6, 336: 65. Disc. of etym. and noun pattern Streck 2000, 87.

NR

 

buqlu I “malt; vegetables”

 

1. “malt” a) OB ŠE ša a-na MŮNU ru-ub-bé-e MŮNUmeš im-ḫu-rů CUSAS 9, 188: 1–2; see also 200: 1–2 “barley, which the maltsters received for risen malt”. S. Dalley, ib. p. 124 comments on the meaning of rubbű: “Might it refer to stimulating fermentation with a new batch of malting barley?” However, rubbű is the terminus technicus for making the soaked malt rise, see M. Stol, RlA 7 (1987–1990) 324 s. v. Malz § 4. rubbę is probably the verbal adjective rather than the infinitive.

 

b) OA bu-uq-lam AKT 2, 26: 17, s. bappiru. ištū ša bu-uq-[]-tím ana ša bu-uq-lá-tím!(ed.: tim) išaqqal AKT 7a, 149: 4f. “he will pay from the (time of) malt until the (time of) malt(?)”.

            ana bu-uq-lá-tim išaqqulū Prag 500: 6 “they shall pay at (the time of) the malt”

MPS

 

b) NA: Add with Borger, Or. 56, 145f. pagrī nuballišu u Aḫlamę … kīma MUNU5(ŠE.BŮLUG) áš-ṭe-e-ma Iraq 16, 186 vi 49 (Sar.) “I spread out the corpses of his vanguard and of the Arameans … like malt” (s. already CAD Š/2, 343b under šęṭu). Note the incorrect reading kīma pu-ṣu-di-e-ma in CAD P 541. S. also puṣuddu.

 

c) In CT 17, 25, 27 (CAD B 323a, lex. sec.) read at the beginning [LU]-ÚB with Borger 1971, 67 after MSL 9, 37, 59.

 

2. “vegetables” (not in the dictionaries) a) After Stol, RlA 7, 323 (s. also BSA 3, 65) there is b. II in Ebla, OAkk and NB texts, which denotes “vegetables”.

 

b) OAkk: NUMUN bu-uq-lu Civil, RA 55, 94, 407: 2f. (s. also Ebl. ḪI.SAR = bů-ga-lu VE 1073 “salad”).

 

c) NB bu-qul usḫānu CT 22, 79: 22 (CAD B 324b, a7’) “pull up the vegetables” (for the verbal form s. von Soden 1968, 459: imp. from nasāḫu G). Pace Stol, RlA 7, 323, there is no reason to assume an Aram. lw. here.

NR

 

buqqumattu, buqqumātu “plucked”, (a plant?) LB

not in the dictionaries

 

1/2 GÍN bu-qu-ma-tu4(// bu-qu-mat-tu4) FS W. G. Lambert 149ff., 1: 2 (skin infection recipe) “1/2 shekel of b.-plant”; 2 gír-e bu-qu-ma-tu4 BM 132097 r. 4: 2 (eye recipe). S. Finkel id. 151 sub 2.

NR

 

buqūmu, buqūnu “wool plucking; wool yield”

 

1. First OA ref.: 6 GÍN KŮ.GI ana paḫār bu-qú-nim išaqqal AKT 7a, 190: 14 “he will weigh 6 shekels of gold at (the time of) collecting wool”.

 

2. OB bu-qú-um GN libbaqimma MARI 8 p. 387 r. 3 “may the plucking of GN be carried out”.

MPS

 

bur “son?” Aram.

 

See bar.

 

BU-ra-i

 

Pentiuc 2001, 41f.; see pūru II “lot”.

 

burāšu “juniper”

 

1. OB: inanna 5 qa bu-ra-ša PN uštābilakku “Now, I have had PN bring to you 5 liters of juniper (berries)” AbB 12, 94: 17 (s. also RA 87, 88); 5 qa karšum 5 qa bu-ra-šum BM 97079: 15 and passim (Veenhof, Fs. P. Garelli 289).

NR

 

1. MB 1 SĚLA NUMUN LI bīt G[N] MBLET 78: 6 “1 liter of juniper seeds, house of G[N]”.

 

2. Emar: kur a-u5! = MIN (= šadū) bu-ra-ši Emar 559: 15 (Ḫḫ XXII) “juniper mountain”.

 

3. For OB Mari see Kupper 1992, 164.

MPS

 

burbānu “foal (?)”

only AHw 1549 and CDA 49a

 

issēniš sissę ga-mu-zu lipšuḫū bur-ba-a-ni SAA 5, 64 r. 6 “All the same, the horses have been heavily pressed; the foals(?) should rest out”; bu-ur-ba-ni SAA 10, 239 r. 9’ in broken context. Lanfranchi/Parpola, SAA 5 p. 56 n. 64 consider ga-mu-zu and bur-ba-a-ni as Aram. lw. (cf. Aram. bar bānā “calf”, ib.).

NR

 

burbillatu (an insect); NB

 

Sec. ref. of b.: NB qaqqassu ša [bur]-bi-il-lat BM 55551: 5’ (BabA 1, p. 219f.; describing of a god) “his head is a b.-insect’s”. S. also Reynolds 2002, 220, comm. ad 5’.

NR

 

burbuʾtu “bubble”

 

burbuʾātum occurs also on a liver model from Boghazköy KUB 37, 218, 1 (Matouš 1964, 137).

NR

 

burḫiš s. burṭiš

 

burmāmu “piglet; a striped or speckled mouse (lit. ‘speckled, multicolored’)”

 

Weszeli 2011–2013, 49f.: not the porcupine (AHw, CAD) but the piglet with striped back and speckled legs and shoulders. This identification is proven by the equation with šaḫű “pig” in Malku V 48, because there is no reason to assume that the porcupine was considered a pig as in Europe. Also lit. texts rather point to the pig instead of the porcupine. péš-giš-gi-a = burmāmu Ḫḫ XIV 190a is a striped or speckled mouse.

MPS

 

burmu “coloured decoration”

s. also birmu

 

31. OA: bīt bu-ur-mi ARRIM 9, 1991, 13-16: 9. S. Charpin, NABU 1991/78.

NR

 

2. OB lit. <ina> bu-ur-mi-ni-ia dīmatum izannun CM 8, 110: 18 “a tear rains out of the iris of my eyes”.

OB Mari: See already CAD B 257 birmu A a for OB Mari É bi-ir-mi and bu-ur-mi. The expression refers to the Ištar temple in the palace of Mari (J.-M. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 608). The variant burmu is also attested in ARM 26/1 p. 214 no. 74: 25: ki-sa-al É bu-ur-m[i] “courtyard of the house with coloured decoration” (or plural burmī “decorations”).

MPS

 

burrātu (mng. unkn.)

 

Read with Borger 1971, 67 in LKU 33: 41 (CAD B 330b) KAŠ4-um = ilassum (var. in K.8092 ]-su-um) instead of “x x (var. SUḪUŠ.UM)

NR

 

burru I (a cereal)

 

OB bu-ra-am iš-tu GN ub-lu-nim KTT 142: 4–7 “(who) brought b. from GN”. See also bu-rum, bu-ri ib. index p. 234.

            OB Mari bu-rum ARM 21, 189: 1; 190: 1; 192: 1. 6 1/2 GUR bu-ur-rum ARM 12, 17: 2 (between ZÍZ “emmer” and ḫallūru “peas”) and bu-rum passim in ARM 12. See bu-rum also passim in ARM 23, 586.

Women in the harem of Mari, summarized as lāqitāt bu-ri FM 4 p. 137 vi 5’ “gleaners of b.”. See the disc. by N. Ziegler, ib. p. 104f., with corr. of CAD B 339 burű A a 1’. Ib. p. 105 n. 625 ref. for this expression in the OB Chagar Bazar texts, among them lāqitāt bu-rum Akk. Supp. 10, 86: 34.

MPS

            OB Alalaḫ: 50 gišparīsī bu-rum CHANE 75, AlT 56: 15 “50 p. of b.-cereal”.

NR

 

burru(?) II (a bright metal?), “tin(?)”; Ug. WSem. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

burru occurs in an Akkadian list of various items from Ugarit PRU 6, 158: 14: 1 GÚN bu-ri GAL “1 large talent of b.” (Huehnergard 1987, 115). Huehnergard understands burru as an abstract form of the pattern qutl- from the root brr “to be pure” and connects it with the alphabetic Ugaritic br(r) “tin” (see also Olmo Lete / Sanmartín 2004, 240). Etymologically, burru could be compared with Akkadian barru I “pure(?) (of metals)”; Hebrew bārűr “pure” (or, alternatively, bōr “lye”) and Ethiopic berur “silver”. The use of the genitive after a unit of measure is normative for Ugarit Akkadian (Huehnergard 1987, 115).

NR

 

burrű (a temple servant)?

 

See also MUNUSmeš bur-ru-tim KUB 10, 91 ii 7 (von Soden 1968, 459).

NR

 

*burrű v. “to announce, to usher in”

only CAD

 

After AHw 109b and von Soden 1968, 459 burrű “to announce” in CAD B 331a is D-stem of barű “sehen”.

NR

 

burrumu, barrumu, burramu “multicoloured, pied, speckled”

 

1. First OAkk. ref. with new by-form burramu: bu-ra-ma-ti ēnēki MAD 5, 8: 13f. “your multicolored eyes”.

 

2. Of cloths: OB naḫlaptu bu-ur-ru-um-tum FM 1 p. 140 A.486+M.5319: 41 “multicolored coat”, cf. ib. 60, 63, 69.

MPS

 

3. EA: The logograms in EA 22 iv 14 and EA 25 iv 50 should be read GŮN+A = burrumu, not U+GŮN = iḫzētu (so CAD I 46 and AHw 367). See Adler 1976, 166 and 202; Moran 1992, 60, note 45 and CAD S 390a.

NR

 

4. Emar: “Ass.” by-form barrumu also in Emar: nēbeḫu bar-ru-mu Emar 556: 60 (Ḫḫ XIX) “multi-colored belt”.

MPS

 

5. Nuzi: šumma karṣu ša [alpi] bur-ru-mu JEN 551: 9 “si le morceau de boeuf est tacheté” (Labat 1960, 168).

NR

 

5. On ABL 1077 (CAD b. e) s. SAA 7, 89 r. 2 kur-kur-ru! URUDU bar-ru-mu “2 k. containers of copper, speckled“.

MPS

 

burrušu “with hair growing in patches”

 

Lex.: [x z]é--a-ĝu10 = [bu-ú]r-ru-šu-ti CUSAS 12 p. 154 ii 24 “my patches of hair”.

MPS

 

buršānu “servant”; Sum. lw.

not in the dictionaries

 

bur-saĝ = bur-šá-nu Secondary Proto-Lu Fragment II 11 (MSL 12, p. 83; s. also PSD B 188 ad bur-saĝ).

NR

 

būršašillu (or pūršašillu) (a bowl); OB

 

1. The new ref.s (s. below) show that pace MSL 10 p. 25 ad l. 277 the entry in CAD B 333 is correct. b. is prob. a substantivation of the genitive construction b/pūru ša š/sīli.

MPS

NR

 

2. OB: bu-ur-ša-ši-lu! (ed.: -ku) ARM 22, 206 ii 7 in broken context. The text deals with metal, hence the bowl is probably made of metal and not of stone (see CAD B 333 buršušallu “a stone bowl”). 1 na4bu-ur-ša-ši-lum ARM 24, 84: 6. 2 bu-ur-ša-ši-lu ib. 95: 1. [n] bu-ur-ša-ši-il-lum KŮ.BABBAR ib. 97: 30.

MPS

Full description: 1 GAL bu-ur-ša-ši-lum KŮ.BABBAR bābušu u išissu KŮ.GI MUL na4ZA.GĚN ina išdišu 1/2 mana 7-su KI.LÁ.BI ARM 31, 34: 11’ “1 b.-bowl (made of) silver, its opening and base are (covered with) gold, on the base (is fixed) a lapis lazuli star, its weight is 1/2 mina”. For further ref.s s. Guichard, ARM 31, 188f. and 366.

NR

 

 

būrtu I “cistern, well; fish pond; source (of river); hole, pit”

 

1. Depth: OB Mari 8 GIḫi.a bu-ur-t[a]-am ept[ēma] mę ušēlīma ARM 26/2 p. 307 no. 419: 11’f. “I opened a well 8 reeds (= 24 m) (deep) [and] brought up water”.

OB Mari Sūtű bu-ra-ti-ni ... ṣabtū FM 8, 31: 24–26 “the Sutians have seized our wells”.

OB lit. bu-ur-ti elletum munassiat muri CUSAS 32, 54: 3 “pure well that uproots the disease”.

 

2. Emar: túl ků-ga = bu-ur-tum ellatum Emar 559: 121 (Ḫḫ XXII) “clear well”. túl dEN.ZU = bu-ur-ti Sîn ib. 122 “well of Sîn”. túl [lugal-gi]-na = bu-ur-ti Šarrukī ib. 123 “well of Sargon”. túl GIŠ.TUK.MAŠ = [b]u-ur-ti Gilgameš ib. 124 (cf. DCCLT MB Ura 13) “well of Gilgameš”. túl a kům-ma = bu-[ur-]ti mę emmūti ib. 125 “well with hot water”. túl a šed10 = bu-ur-ti mę ki!-ṣú-u ib. 126 “well with cold(!) water”. túl a du10-ga = bu-ur-ti mę ṭābūti ib. 127 “well with sweet water”.

MPS

 

3. MA: [PÚ ša ] x-ab-di i-qa-bi-ú-ši Ameš e-ṣu la-a iš-qi[ VAT 9968: 10’ (NABU 2013, 28) “[well …]-abdi they call it. Water was scarce and he did not give (them) to drink”; iq-ṭí-]rib PÚ 1 LÚ šap-lat il-ta-aḫ-lu Ameš ma-a-d[u id. 13’ “… has approached a well. (As) one person they filtered (water) at the bottom. The water (was) much…”. See already Deller 1966, 306.

NR

 

4. SB ina rēš [eql]ika [b]u-u-ur-tá// lā teḫerrī Šūpę-amēli 92 (s. a. 93) “do not dig a well at the head of your [fiel]d!”

MPS

 

būrtu II “cow, she-calf”

 

1. OB “suckling she-calf” (Stol, BSA 8, 179): itti ÁB.GA šināti AbB 9, 89: 17 “with those suckling she-calves”; 1 amarbu-ur-ti ši(?)-iz-bi <…> paqdat YOS 12, 447: 1 “One burtum suckling calf <…> has been entrusted”. For amar as a determinative here to distinguish between burtu “she-calf” and būrtu “cow” s. Stol, BSA 8, 179 and 203, note 42. 2 ábbu-ra-tum 1 gu4bu-ru-um BiMes 3, 38:1f. “2 she-calves and 1 he-calf”.

            After Stol, BSA 8, 179, ábbu-ur-tum CT 2, 48 = AbB 2, 86, which refers to a full-grown cow after CAD B 334b, c1’, means rather a “she-calf”, since the price 5 shekels (AbB 2, 86: 12) “better fits a calf than a cow”.

 

2. NB/LB: 1-it gu4bu-ur-ti CT 55, 691: 2; bu-ur!-tum šá-ad-di-tum BM 74482; bu-ra-tum BM 50028; gu4bu-uš-ti BE-tum CT 55, 673: 1 “a dead cow”; gu4bu-uš-tum CT 55, 665: 11.

Note GUD.ÁB equated with gu4bu-uš-tum in CT 55, 686, which was placed in É ú-ru-ú for fattening (van Driel, BSA 8, 235, note 14).

NR

 

burṭiš (a foreign wild ox, possibly the yak)

CAD B 329: burḫiš; AHw 139: burḫiš

 

NA: 6 bur-ṭiš TA ŠU.2 PN StAT 2, 10: 4 “yaks, delivered by PN”. This spelling demonstrates that bur-ḪI- has to be read bur-ṭí-iš and not bur-ḫi-iš (Donbaz/Parpola, StAT 2, 10, note 4).

NR

 

buru “son”, Aram. lw.

not in the dict.

 

NA PN bur! PN2 SAA 6, 173: 6 “PN, son of PN2”.

MPS

 

burű I, OA burāʾu “(reed) mat; mattress (stuffed with reeds); mattress pad; garment”

CAD B 328; 329: burāʾu and burű A

 

1. OA adī bu-ra-im ša litabšika ša tašpuranni bu-ra-am lā našʾakkum AKT 6c, 543: 25, 28 “concerning the b. for your dress that you have written about, he will not bring you a b.”. bu-ra-am ša Akkedē ib. 537: 14 “a b. from Akkad”. 4 TÚG-té ša Akkadē ŠŔ.BA 1 bu-ra-u[m] AKT 2, 44: 5 “4 Akkadian garments, among them 1 b.”. 1 túgbu-ra-ú-um ša Akkadē Prag 709: 24 “1 b. garment from Akkad”.

MPS

 

2. OB 2 túgsaq bu-ri-im!? ARM 21, 257: 18 “2 saqqu-cloths for reed mats” (for the correct reading see ib. p. 411). 5 túgNA.MA.ḪUŠ.A bu-ri-im SUN ib. 22 “5 ... cloths for reed mats, old”. [saq] bu-re-e ib. 382: 2’. See J.-M. Durand, ib. p. 411f. sa-aq- bu-re-e/bu-re-em  ARM 24 index p. 236.

            As the attestations show, burű only appears in genitive constructions. Thus TÚG(ṣubāt) bu-re-em (ARMT 22, 325: 1) means a “mattress pad”. For the mattress pads common fabrics such as ḫarruru as well as fine, expensive fabrics such as uṭba and lamaḫuššű were used (after Durand 2009, 31): túgḫu-ru-ur bu-re-e-em (ARMT 9, 97: 1); túgna-ma-ḫu-úš bu-re-e-em (ARM 30, M.12479: 5’); GÚ(naḫlapti) na-ma-ḫu-úš bu-re-em “a mattress pad of n.-fabric” (ARM 30, M.8769: 1’); túguṭ-ba ḪUŠ.A bu-re-[ (ARM 30, M.5199: 2). See also GÚ(naḫlapti) ú-ṭub-li bu-re-e “a mattress pad of u.-fabric” (ARM 30, M.5681 I 7) and túgsa-ak bu-re-em “(tightly) woven fabric for a mattress (pad)” (passim, see Durand 2009, 92).

For lāqitāt bu-ri (CAD B 339 b. A a 1’) see burru. After Durand 2009, 31 burű in Mari denotes not only a reed mat but also a mattress stuffed with reeds, and, more specifically, the mattress pad. Note the terminological difference between burű and šēʾu / šēʾtu, which denotes a mattress per se including stuffing (?), french “sommier” (Durand 2009, 116). Note that, pace Durand, the Mari form is normal contracted OB burű and not uncontracted *burēʾu.

 

3. NB: bu-ra-né-e CT 56, 744: 6; 294: 24.

NR

 

būru I “cistern, well; pool; pit”

 

1. OB bu-ri eperī tumallā CUSAS 18, 25: 9’ “you will fill the wells with earth”.

OB lit. in transf. mng.: ali bu-ur sīḫiki CUSAS 10, 10: 26 “where is the source of your trouble-making?”

 

2. Emar: [túl gí]d-da = bu-ru ar[ku] Emar 559: 130 (Ḫḫ XXII) “lo[ng] cistern”, [túl lu]gud-[da] = bu-ru [kurű] ib. 131 “[short] cistern” (var.: [bu-u]r!-ti arku and [bu-ur]-ti kurű ib. 130f. with wrong gender of adj.).

MPS

 

3. NA: All references in CAD B 343a, 2b belong to pūru “lot” CAD P 528 1b4’ (already Deller 1966, 316; see also Radner, SAAS 6, 257). After Deller 1966, 316f., for “well, pond” in NA letters and administrative texts būrtu was used. Note, however, that according to PVA, = bu-u-rum in all NA texts (Radner, SAAS 6, 262).

            b. in NA was a cistern or well constructed in the yard of the house (Radner, SAAS 6, 262): PÚ ina ŠŔ.BI ADD 325: 5; id. 349: 7; PÚ ina tar-ba-ṣu id. 404: 4 (s. also CAD B 337, 1c4’ under būrtu).

 

4. The suggestion of Woods, ZA 95, 37, note 139, that b., as a lw. from Akk., could be part of the geogr. name BURA(būrā)-NUN-A(K) “Euphrates” = “preeminent water source” (cf. b. in other geogr. names, CAD B 343 and Woods, ib.) is uncertain.

NR

 

būru II “calf”

 

1. Epithet of scorpion: OB lit. bu-ru-um ekdum munakkipu šamru RA 88, 155ff. M. 15289: 2 “furious calf, goring, raging”.

MPS

 

2. NB Sippar: GUD bu-ra-a-ni CT 55, 662. Here b. refers to full-grown, three- and two-year old male and female animals and therefore seems to denote “cattle” in general (van Driel, BSA 8, 222).

NR

 

burubalű I “ruin, unimproved land”

 

1. The identity of b. and turbalű “bare ground”, proposed by CAD B 343b, is proved by duplicates CT 8, pl. 44a: 1 (KI.BUR.BALA) and CT 48, 31: 1 (KISLAḪ). S. Kraus 1984, 43, note 111.

 

2. b. is not a regional variant (Dilbat, Sippar, Mari) of kislaḫ or ki-gál (so CAD B 343), since all three words occur in Sippar and Dilbat together (Edzard, ZA 60, 22, note 41).

Edzard, ib., translates A.ŠŔ burubalű as “Ödland(?)” and É burubalű as “unbebautes Hausgrundstück (?)”.

NR

 

burubalű II, parbalű (desig. of a snake)

CAD B 344: burubalű B

 

1. After Geller (via Finkel, AMD 1, 225) b. prob. derives from Sum. bůru-bal “hole-digger”.

 

2. OB: amḫaṣ pa-ar-ba-la u pa-ra-ku-ul-la AMD 1, 224: 10 (snake inc.; s. also photo in CDLI, P262058) “I smote the b.-snake and p.-snake”. For Sumer 13: 95 and 93 = TIM 9, 65 and 66 (CAD B 334) s. now also AMD 1, 226. Cf. also Pientka, RlA 12, 205.

NR