B


 

baʾālu “to be exceptionally big, bright; to be in force, forceful”

G OB mādiš ib-il AbB 13, 15: 11 “he was very forceful(?)”. ibissű ... mādiš ib-ta-il AbB 10, 32: 36 “the loss has be­come very great”.

D OB “to make important, exaggerate, enlarge” (s. AHw 1546 for other D- and Dtn-stem forms): apītam ub-ta-aḫ-i-il AbB 13, 85: 18 “I have enlarged the fal­low land”.

 

baʾāšu “to smell bad, be of bad quality”; + OB

G 1. OB karānu bé-iš ana lęmim ul naṭū FM 7, 48 no. 19: 16. “the wine smells bad. It is not fit for consump­tion”.

2. li-ib-ši Wiseman Treaties 605 (CAD B 4b, baʾāšu 1a and CAD B 151b, bašű n1’) is with Deller 1966, 306 and SAA 2, 6: 605 a form of baʾāšu “to stink”: s. the duplicates lib-ʾ-iš, lib-ʾ-ši, lib-iš etc. Cf. also D, below.

Gtn ib-ta-na-šu (AfO 11, 224: 75, s. CAD under baʾāšu A 1a) is interpreted by von Soden 1968, 458 (s. also AHw 846; CDA 270) as ip-ta-na-šu (from pašű). Cf. also the disc. CAD P 267a **pašű.

D Deller 1966, 306: The duplicate X 21 (Iraq 20 pl. 46) of Wiseman Treaties 605 has nipiškunu [l]u-ba-i-šu “may they (the gods) make your breath stink­ing”. Cf. also G 2, above.

MPS (G), NR (G, Gtn, D)

 

babbanű, + banbanű “good”

The postulated original form banbanű is attested for the first time: NA lit. ana kirî ba-an-ba-nat SAA 3, 14: 18, 24 “beautiful garden”. SB ba-an!⌉-ba-nu-u ib. 7 r. 1 in broken context.

 

+ bab(b)iltu “tribute”; OB

GN ša ba-bi-il5-ta-šu-nu ušātiqa ḫursāni Idiqlat u Puraāāttum CUSAS 18, 2: 5 “water of GN, whose tribute the Tigris and Euphrates caused to pass the moun­tains”.

 

babbilu “bearer”

1. Unparalleled plene spelling OB ba-ab-bi-i-li AbB 8, 78: 26 “bearers”. Mis­take for -li-i? Probably not noun pattern PaRRīS.

2. Kraus 1984b, 236f.:

a) aššum ba-ab-bi-limeš PN ana šar-ri iqbīma AbB 10, 81: 16’ “because of the bearers PN has spoken with the king”.

b) ba-bi-lam AbB 1, 42: 7.

3. ba-ab-bi-li YOS 13, 77: 2; CT 47, 80: 37 (as ration recipients, s. von Soden 1980, 271).         

MPS (1), NR (2–3)

 

babbilūtu “transportation”

OB ba-ab-bi-lu-tim ša šamaššammī AbB 13, 156: 10 “transportation of ses­a­me”.

 

bābtu I “city quarter, district”

“Residential unit” (Dombradi 1996, 245 with further lit.): awīltum ša ina bīt abīka ušbu aššūssa ba-ab-ta-ka! īdű kīʾamma ittallak CT 45, 86: 32 “the wom­an who has been living in your father’s house and of whose married status your b. knew – shall she go out thus?” (s. RA 70, 153ff.; AfO Beih. 23, 120).

NR

 

bābtu II “commercial goods; remain­der(?)”

“Remainder(?)” in NB astron. diaries in river level statements (Hunger/Sachs 1988, 35): itu-bi illu ta 10 en 13 5 si gin 32 na <ta> 23 en 25 8 si ba-ab-tú 5/6kůš gin Astronomical Diaries 2, no. -203: 7 (= LBAT 304) “that month, the river level from the 10th to the 13th rose 5 fin­gers, 32 was the na (gauge); <from> the 23 until the 25th, – remain­der(?) 5/6 cu­bit – it rose 8 fingers”.

NR

 

bābu “gate, door; city quarter”

1. OA apputtum iʾidma ba-bi4-iš TÚGḫá u AN.NA re-e-šu-nu na-áš-ú-ni CTMMA 1, 79: 26 “please take care at the gate of the textiles and tin, which are being checked!”

2. OB lit. ba-ba-am ša wālittim ... pārikat YOS 11, 19: 6 “(Lamaštu) is blocking the gate of the woman giving birth”.

3. OB lit. ba-ab laʾî ibāma … ba-ab wāli[d]ātim ibāma ZA 71, 61–63: 4, 6 “she passed the gate of the babies … she passed the gate of the women in labor”.

4. OB i[n]a šībūt GN u IGI ba-bi-im CT 2, 9: 5 “in (the council of) the elders of GN and in front of the gate”.

5. SB akī iṣi damqi elâku ina mālakāni STT 360 r. 16 “I stand up like a healthy tree at the gate of the pro­cessions” (Deller 1966, 307; CAD M/1, 159a s. v. mālaku A).

6. “city quarter”:

a) OA KŮ.BABBAR iqqaqqad šalmišunu u kēnišunu ibbītīšunu u ba-a-bi4-šu-nu rakis FAOS Beih. 3, 25 no. 10: 21 “(the obligation to pay back) the silver is guaranteed by whoever among them is (financially) sound and (le­gally) responsible, by their houses and by their city quarter”.

b) OB kīma ba-ab dūrija lā ibarrīʾū AbB 12, 166: 36 “that (oxen and sheep) do not starve at the ‘gate of my wall’”. Van Soldt, ib. p. 133 “in my city quar­ter” with comm. “probably re­fers to (a sec­tor) of the city wall”.

c) NA ana lappanī šēʾī -ia-a [t]arruṣā qātāya STT 65: 16 “my hands are stretched out to (even) my poor neigh­bors” (Deller 1966, 307; s. also CAD Š/2, 363b and CAD T 213a).

7. ina buqūmi 5 immerī luterrakkum AbB 12, 163: 15’ “at the beginning of the plucking I will bring you 5 rams in return”, s. van Soldt, ib. p. 129.

8. OB said of seals (unclear): kunukkātim ša taknuku ba-ab qātīšina šuṭramma AbB 13, 56: 6’–9’ “the seal­ed documents which you sealed, write for me ‘the gate of their hands’”. Van Soldt, ib. p. 51: “in the gate of their ...” or “the beginning of their list”. Stol apud van Soldt, ib.: perhaps “a part of the seal”.

MPS (2–3), NR (1, 4–8)

 

badādu s. buddudu

 

+ badāqu “to repair”; NA, Aram. lw.

1. NA a-a-i dullu ša šarru bēlī e-pu-su-su-nu u ba-di-qu-nu mar dul-lu!-nu ša šarru bēlī ep-pa-su-nu gabbišu dammuq SAA 16, 126 r. 22’ “which work (ex­ists), that the king my lord has per­form­ed and (later) was repaired?”

2. For the Aram. etymon cf., e. g., Sokoloff 2009, 120, who distinguishes two roots BDQ, the one mng. “to dis­perse” (corresponding to Akk. batāqu), the other mng.“to repair”; other schol­ars assume only a single root BDQ. The form BDQ instead of BTQ (but there exists an OB by-form bi-du-uq-tum of butuqtu “sluice channel”, CAD B 223 = AHw 144 butuqtu 1a) and the mng. “to repair”, only attested in NA and LB (cf. badqu), suggest a loan from Aram.

 

baddu?, baṭṭu? “reconnoiterer(?)”; Amor. lw.?

Durand 1991b rejects (as already pre­viously Edzard 1964, 144) the mng. “diviner”, proposed by Driver 1967, 108 (s. also WO 2, 19f.), connects the word with hebr. BDD “alone” and trans­lates “homme isolé” for ARM 2, 30. Heim­pel 2003, 479: “recon­noi­terer”. Cf. also Akk. buddudu “to waste, dis­si­pate” (SB, NA). For FM 9, 100 no. 13 s. baddű.

 

+ baddű “a musical instrument(?)”; OB

PN nârum [ša] ba-ad-de-e kullâm [l]ā ileʾʾű ana nargallūtim ina GN taškunšuma FM 9, 100 no. 13: 6 “you appointed the musi­cian PN, [who] is not able to hold b.s, to the office of chief musician in GN”. Durand 1991b sees here the word baddu and translates “gens islólés”; Zieg­ler FM 9, 100 “solistes”. The con­text rather speaks for a musical in­stru­ment. More­over, the spelling -de-e points to a word baddű instead of baddu.

 

+ badqu “repair work”; NA and LB, Aram. lw.

1. Cf. the ref. collected in CAD B 167f. batqu 2d and disc. sect., supported by the new lemma badāqu (s. above). AHw B 115 batqu 6: “ellipsis” is unlikely to be correct.

2. Deller 1966, 311: NA bēt rab tupšarrē qalal ... bad-qu maʾda ina libbi SAA 16, 89: 14 “the house of the chief scribe is tiny ... much repair (must be done) there”.

3. Deller 1966, 311: NA GAL bad-qi Iraq 23, pl. 12 ND 2374: 11 “super­visor of repairs”.

4. Deller 1966, 311: A.BA ša GAL bad-qí VAT 10430: 11’ “scribe of the su­pervisor of repairs”.  

MPS (1), NR (2–4)

 

bāʾertu “huntress, fisherman”; + OB

Women in the harem of Mari, summa­rized as fŠU.ḪA FM 4, 183 no. 13 viii 12.

 

bāʾeru “hunter, fisherman”

1. MB u ŠU.ḪAmeš tâmti ša ana GN1 u GN2 ginâ izabbilū DUMU PN kī itbalušunūti ginű KU6meš batiq JCS 19, 97: 22 “and (concerning) the fishermen of the sea, who have been delivering a regular offering to GN1 and GN2, – when the son of PN has taken them away, the regular offering of fish was cut off”. S. Sassmannshausen 2001, 115f.

2. SB ba-i-ri-ma Šūpę-amēli 29, cf. pariktu.

3. LB adī 2 MU.AN.NAmeš PN1ina IGI PN2 ba-ʾi-i-ri šummē ša šarri ba-ʾi-ru-tu ša šummē ulammassu WZKM 83, 31: 3 “for two years PN1 is at the disposal of PN2, the dormouse hunter of the king. He will teach him dormouse hunting”.

4. S. also bayyāru.     

MPS (2), NR (1, 3)

 

bāʾerūtu “craft of hunter”

LB ba-ʾ-ru-tuša šummē ulammassu WZKM 83, 31: 4 “he will teach him dormouse hunting”.           

NR

 

bagani “call”

S. the new ed. AOAT 414/1, 176 no. 61: 25; ib. 268 no. 152 r. 4 with comm.

 

+ baḫiltu, pl. baḫ(i)lātu “a vessel”; OB

1. 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il5-tum ARM 31, 187: 17’.

2. 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il-tum KŮ.BABBAR ARM 31, 78: 1 (of silver).

3. 1 ba-ḫi-il-tum ša GÚ- ṣipirtim KŮ.SIG17 ARM 31, 85: 17 “1 b.-vessel whose neck (is decorated) with a gold ornament”.

4. [1] libbu ša ba-ḫi-il-tim KŮ.SIG17 SŮ.A 2 1/3 GÍN KI.LÁ.BI 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il-tum GAL KŮ.SIG17 1/3 mana 5 GÍN KI.LÁ.BI 1 GAL ba-ḫi-il-tum TUR KŮ.SIG17 qadum libbiša 4 GÍN KI.LÁ.BI ARM 31, 186: 5’ “[1] libbu for a b.-vessel of fine gold, its weight (is) 2 1/3 shekels; 1 big golden b.-vessel, its weight (is) 1/3 mina 5 shekels; 1 small golden b.-vessel together with its libbu, its weight (is) 4 shekels”.

5. 1 ⌈GAL⌉ ba-ḫi-[il-tum KŮ.SIG17] tamlī na4ZA.GĚ[N] u na4ṣí-[ir-pí-im] kawārum u ta[rbāṣum] ṣibbit ARM 31, 203: 7 “1 [golden] b.-vessel, inlay of lapis lazuli and fired (clay), ‘wall’ and ‘enclosure’ (decorative elements) (are) golden ”.

6. Fem. pl.:

a) 2 GAL ba-aḫ-la-tum ZABAR ARM 31, 109: 6 (of bronze).

b) 2 GAL ba-aḫ-la-tim ARM 25, 2: 3 “(1 mina of gold, the weight of) 2 b.-vessels”.

c) 2 ba-ḫi-la-tim ARM 31, 149: 3.

d) 12 ba-ḫi-la-tum ARM 31, 225: 9.

e) 2 GAL ba-ḫi-la-tim ARM 31, 287: 7.

7. Cf. biʾiltu “an alabastron”: the same word? (after CAD B 223 and AHw 125, however, from baʾāšu “to smell bad”). For disc. and further ref. s. Guichard, ARM 31, 183ff.         

NR

 

baḫrű “a stone”

OB 60 ba-aḫ-ru-úurudu KI.LÁ.BI 1 GÚN 10 MA.NA YOS 5, 227: 3 (Ed­zard 1970a, 160) “60 copper b. with a total weight of 1 talent and 10 minas”.

NR

 

baḫű II “to be(come) thin, scarce”; + OB

ul i-ba-aḫ-ḫi AbB 10, 177: 34 “does not be­­come scarce”(?, context uncl.).

 

bāʾiru “hunter” s. bāʾeru

 

**bakīram s. šurrâ, makkāru

Instead of bakīram (AHw 97 and 1548, CAD B 34) read šurrâm ARM 1, 70: 5 and makkāram VOM 181: 18. Cf. lit. Streck 2000, 85.        

NR

 

bākītu s. bakkītu

 

**bakta s. maqta

 

bakkītu, bākītu “wailing woman”; + Bo.

bá-ki-ti-ia KBo. 36, 27: 18f. The many spellings with a single k point to a by-form bākītu.

 

bakkű “squalling, crying”; + NA

1. NA lit. bak-ka-ni-i ṣar-piš ana NU. gišKIRI6-ni ni-ib-ki SAA 3, 16: 20 “we are crying bitterly. We have cried for our gardener”. Cf. Deller 1966, 307.

2. ZA 30, 220 (AHw 97a; CAD B 35a): Read with Farber 1989b, 52: 137 and comm. ib. p. 55 [b]a-ʾ-ki-i // ba-ki-i. Participle bākî?          

MPS, NR

 

bakű “to weep”

Gtn OB anāku annīkī ūmiša ina bi-ta-ki īnāya ittaḫmaṭā AbB 13, 175: 13 “as for me here, my eyes were burning fever­ishly every day because of (my) con­stant crying”.

+ D(?) (they place five tables) ina bīt bu-uk-ki ša ēntu “in the house of weep­ing(?) of the ēntu-priestess”. Disc. Pen­tiuc 2001, 42f.      

MPS (D), NR (Gtn)

 

+ bakűtu “weeping, mourning ceremo­ny”; OB

1. OB (oil) ana 4 ba-ku-ut šarrim FM 3, 229 no. 60: 2 “for the 4 weeping cere­monies for the king”.

2. S. also FM 3, 233: inūma ba-ku-tim ša šarrim “at the occasion of the weep­ing ceremony for the king”. Cf. Jacquet 2011, 37.

 

balālu “to mix (up), alloy”

G 1. Beer:

a) OB inūma laḫtanam ib-lu!?(ed.: li)-lu ARM 21, 130: 7f. “when they mixed (beer in) the l. vat”.

b) MA ú-ra-ṭu-bu i-ba-lu-lu Chuera 12: 33f. “they will soak and brew”. S. [lu]-ub-lu-ul in destroyed context ib. 30: 7’.

2. Blood: OB lit. ba-al-la-at qerbetum ina damīšunu FM 14, 19 iii 6 “The mead­owland was smeared with their blood”.

3. Alloy:

a) OB 3 MA.NA annakum ana ba-la-al 24 MA.NA URUDU billi 8-ŔM ARM 22, 205 ii 9’ (cf. also ib. 17’, iii 8’) “3 minas of tin for making an alloy of 24 minas of copper, alloy of 8 (to one)”.

b) OB 2 1/3 MA.NA URUDU LUḪ. ḪA <…> 1 MA.NA AN.NA ina 8-su TA.ŔM ba-li-il RA 64, 21 no. 1: 4 “2 1/3 minas of copper … 1 mina of tin at the rate of 8 shekels (of tin) pro (mina) are mixed”. S. also Arkhipov 2012, 23f.

c) OB (metals) ša PN ina kiškattî[m] ša PN2 ib-lu-lu ARM 21, 285: 12 “which made PN to an alloy in the kiln of PN2”.

4. People (cf. CAD b. 1f, 2 and 7):

a) OB mārī Si-im-a-al it-ti-šu-nu ab-lu-ul-ma a-[la]m i-n[a]-aṣ-ṣa-ru ARM 26/1 p. 308 no. 144: 20’ “I mixed sons of Simʾal with them and they guard the city (together)”.

b) OB u mārī GN1 ša ištū GN1 tassuḫam ana adaššim ša GN2 šūribšunūti [i]tt[ī mārī] ālim bu-lu-ul-šu-nu-ti CRRAI 38, 105 n. 63 “and the citizens of GN1, which you have removed from GN1, let them enter the enclosure wall of GN2 and mix them with the citizens of the city”.

5. Extispicy:

a) OB tęrtam ē[pušma] ba-a[l]-la-a ARM 26/1 p. 300 no. 136: 4’f. “I m[ade] an extispicy [and] the (signs) were con­fused”.

b) OB ṭēmam ina nadānim ba-la-lum i-ba-al-la-lu ARM 27, 162: 34f. “when they deliver the report, they cause much con­fusion”.

Gtn OB ana bi-ta-al-lu-[li-im] ana bīt sābītim ana mēlulim “for constantly mix­ing, for alehouse, for play” ARM 1, 28: 16. Reading after Durand 1984, 135 n. 42 (s. copy on p. 147). He under­stands b. here sexually (s. also id. 1997, 66). Or mixing beer?

Št2 OB kakkī uš-ta-ba[-al-la-lu] ARM 26/2 p. 268 no. 405: 18 “they con­stantly mix[ed] the weapons (in the battle)”.

N 1. OB ina šittīn lā ab-ba-al-la-al ARM 26/2 p. 224 no. 392: 37 “I will not be mixed up in two-thirds” (Heim­pel 2003, 338f. with n. 3).

2. OB lit. ilū mātim … ⌈ib⌉-ba-lu in-epri UET 6/2, 395: 11 “the gods of the land were spread with dust”.

+ Ntn OB lit. i-ta-ab-la-al elī inbī u dādī YOS 11, 24 i 23 “constantly min­gle on top of (my) fruits and de­sires!”

MPS (G, N, Ntn), NR (G, Gtn, Št2)

 

balangu, + bulukku, + bulungu, + pilaggu “lyre”

1. MB Emar bu-lu-uk-ki Emar 6/4, 545: 103 and gišbalag = bu-lu-un-g[u5(KU)] ib. 380.

2. NA arim pi-lag⌉-gi SAA 3, 8 r. 13’ “the lyre is tuned(?) (lit. cover­ed)”. Diff. CAD P 372b pilakku a “spindle”, but s. CAD P 359b pigű A.         

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

balāṣu I “to stare”

G OB lit. ina pīka u šīnātika ib-ta-li-iṣ-ka TIM 9, 53: 6 “it stared at you in your mouth and your urine”. S. Streck/Was­ser­­man 2011, 123.

D For CH § 159 UB-ta-al-li-IS-ma s. AHw 814a and CAD P 54a s. v. palāsu. Diff. Borger 1971, 66; id. 2008, 439.

MPS (G), NR (D)

 

balāt “without”

1. OA ba-lá-at (in broken context) AKT 5, 18: 49. OA occurences show that the word cannot, pace AHw 101, be a fem. pl. of balűtu, because a con­traction *balū-at is impossible.

2. NA ba-lat DN SAA 12, 96: 21 “without the permission of DN”.

3. With prep. ana + loc. + suffix: NA a-bal-la-tuk-ka memēni lā eppušū šumma mār šipri ettiq a-ba-la-duk-ka lā ettiqū SAA 15, 241: 6, 9 “without you they should do nothing! If a mes­sen­ger pass­es by, they must not pass by with­out you!”

4. Instead of ba-lat Gilg. SB VII 40, read ba-šat, s. bašű.

MPS (1, 3, 4), NR (2)

 

balāṭu I “life”

1. Note the spelling bala-ṭí in OB šu-lum bala-ṭí ů da-ri-i lu-uš-me CUSAS 9, 6: 22 “may I hear greetings of long life and being eternal”.

2. EA [i-n]a TI-ma EA 17: 30 = ina balāṭ “next year”. S. Moran 1992, 42 n. 5.

3. SB ba-la-ṭa/ṭu/ṭů ša lā namāri ina muḫḫi mūti minâ utter Ballad of Early Rulers 19 “a life without light, what has it more than death?”      

MPS (1, 3), NR (2)

 

balāṭu II “to live”

G 1. OB lit. [u]l ib-lu-ṭú šunu imtūtū FM 14, 23 iv 5 “they did not stay alive but died”.

2. OB šeʾamšūbilamma bītī lū ba-li-iṭ-ṭě AbB 10, 4: 36 “send me grain … may my household stay alive” (pace CAD B 301b b. 1a: lu-ba-li-iṭ-ṭě “so that I may keep alive”). For comm. s. Kraus, ib. p. 6 n. 4g.

3. SB alka Adapa ammīni lā tākul lā taltīma lā ba-al-ṭa-ta MesCiv. 10, 20: 68’ “come, Adapa, why did you not eat nor drink? Hence you shall not live!”.

4. Deller 1966, 305: MA bal-ṭa-ku ma-ṭi-ma ša balāṭiya mētāku ma-ṭi-[ma ša mu-a-ti-ja] “ich bin am Leben, aber ich habe zu wenig, um am Leben zu blei­ben; ich bin tot, aber ich habe zu wenig, [um tot zu sein]” Bo. 845: 10’. Wrong von Soden 1988, 345: bal-ṭa-ku-ma ṭé-ma ša balāṭiya mētāku ma-?[...].

5. NA libbinni ib-ta-a[l-ṭa] SAA 10, 185: 15 “our hearts were delighted”; cf. ŠŔ-bi lib-l[a-ṭa] ib. e. 2 “may my heart be delighted!” (Deller 1966, 308).

6. NA adi UDmeš ša PN bal-ṭu-u-ni ipalluḫū-šú SAA 14, 208: 4’ “as long as PN lives they shall serve him” (Del­ler 1966, 308).

7. PN šarru māt Aššur i-bal-la-ṭá SAA 4, 322 r. 1 “will Assurbanipal, king of Assyria, survive and escape this insur­rection?” Incorrect in CAD B 73a balű 1b (ABL 1368, s. Deller 1966, 308).

D 1. OA/OB “to assess the value of, con­­sider an asset or credit, render the account” (Prag p. 20 with lit.; cf. CAD B 62 b. 9):

a) OA luqūtam ... ba-lí-ṭá-am Prag 431: 6 “estimate the goods!” Stative ba-lu-uṭ-ma ib. 16 “is estimated”.

b) OB “now take your tablets (records)and come here and bu-ul-li-iṭ the accounts/accounting of your barley” OBTR 311: 11.

c) bu-ul-lu-uṭ kaspim AWTL 103: 49.

d) bu-ul-lu-uṭ ZI.GA ŠE.Ě.GIŠ ARM 22, 276 iv 40 “drawing the balance of expenditures of sesame”.

e) bu-lu-uṭ ZI.GA UD.KA.BAR ARM 22, 203 r. iv 8 “drawing the balance of the expenditures of bronze”.

f) ana bu-ul-lu-uṭ našpakim šakin MARI 3, 262 M.11500: 9 “(this document) is established to render the account of the accumulation (of grain)”.

g) For further ref. in Mari s. Durand 1984, 260ff. S. also Veenhof 1987, 49f.

2. MB Emar ḫubbulāku u ana bubūti nuppuḫ u PN ub-tal-li-ṭá-ni-mi AulaOr. Suppl. 1, 25: 7 “I am in debt and bloat­ed(?) with hunger from famine and PN main­tains me”. For bulluṭu “main­tain­ing alive (during time of dis­tress)” s. disc. in Adamthwaite 2001, 148ff.

Dt 1. OB mu-úš-ke-num DUMUmeš GN aš-šum bu-ta-al-lu-ṭě-im a-na-na-ba-al-ka-at-ti ša-di-im it-ta-al-ku ARM 28, 51: 11 “The poor people from GN went to cross the mountain in order to pro­vide themselves”. S. also Kupper 1988 and Borger 2008, 439.

2. OB UD 5kam li-ib-ta-li-iṭ AbB 12, 37: 8 “may he be kept alive for 5 days”.

MPS (G, Dt), NR (G, D)

 

balittu s. balītu

 

balītu, balittu “backwater”

1. OB eqel ba-li-tim FM 2, 38 no. 11: 19, 25 “field at the backwater”.

2. OB ba-li-tum šī (in broken context) FM 2, 71 no. 36: 5.

3. OB ḫarrānum ša ba-li-tim ARM 22, 328 ii 20, 31 (-tum! correct?) “road (lead­ing to) the pond” (in description of field).

4. There is prob. only one word balītu instead of two, balittu (CAD B 63 “reservoir, pond”, and balītu (ib. “desert land”); AHw 99 only has balittu “Re­servoir; Fischteich”. t is nev­er doubl­ed, hence the form appears to be balītu, de­rived from the prep. balū. After Durand 2000, 545, the word has, at least in Mari, the mng. “back­­water”.

 

baliu “a synonym for lord, master”

For ba-li-u[m] CAD B 63b s. now AOAT 50, 430: 14. Prob. /baʿlīyu/ “lord­ly”.

 

ballu “mixed”

Said of evil in NA EDIN ḪUL! bal-li! SAA 9, 2 ii 24 “steppe of mixed evil” (i. e., evil of all kind?), s. comm. of Par­pola, ib. p. 16.

 

ballukku, balluggu “a tree; an aromatic substance”

1. OB 4 GÍN KŮ.BABBAR šīm 2 GÚ ba-al-lu-gi ARM 22, 261: 10 “2 shek­els of silver, the price of 2 talents of b.” (in list of aromatic trees).

2. OB ba-lu-gu-um (besides kikkirēnu) FM 2, 25 no. 4: 14.

3. OB [n] MA.NA ba-lu-ku ... [a-n]a diziptuḫḫim ARM 21, 106: 1 “3 minas of b. (and sweet cane) for making sweet beer”.

4. OB 5 MA.NA šurmēnum 5 MA.NA asum 5 MA.NA ba-lu-ku ana kisamim ARM 21, 106: 12 “5 minas of cypress, 5 minas of myrtle, 5 minas of b. for kisamu-drink(?)”.

5. OB 20 MA.NA ba-l[u-ku] ARM 21, 119: 3 (besides other aromatics).

6. For OB Mari s. ref. in MARI 7, 266 (also pa-lu-gu ARM 9, 277).

7. Moran 1992, 59 n. 35 ad CAD B 64b. 1a: EA 22 iii 33 read ŠIM.BÚLUG, EA 25 iv 51 read ŠIM.GIG = kanaktu.

8. SB erēnu giš.šimMUG-ma nērebi ul īši JCS 66, 76: 11 (Gilg.) “(entangled) were cedar and b. tree so that (the forest) had no ways in”.                    

MPS (1–6, 8), NR (7)

 

ballūṣītu “a bird; a lizard”

SB (if a falcon hunts for prey and) bal-lu⌉-ṣi-timušen iššī CUSAS 18, 36 ii 18 “picks up a b.-bird”.

 

+ baltām(mu) “balsam”; LB, WSem. lw.

1. Jursa 2009, 156f. with etym.: šimba-al-ta⌉-am BM 77429: 22. šimba-al-tam-[(mu)] BM 73126. šimba-al-tam-mu BM 75774.

2. As PNf: fBal-ta-am-mu Wunsch 1995/96, 57 no. 7: 7, 11. ib. 63 no. 12:4.

3. These LB ref. of baltām(mu) are the earliest found in non-biblical texts.

NR

 

baltu, baštu “thornbush”; + OB

1. OB 1 majjālu ba-áš-tum! ARM 22, 322: 46 “1 bed of b. wood”. Whereas Kup­per, ib. p. 499 translates “lit d’ap­parat”, Kupper 1992, 164, correctly re­cognizes the tree baltu here; for further ref. from Mari texts s. ib.

2. OB lit. assuḫ ba-aš-ta-am ALL no. 23: 8 “I have torn the thorn”.

3. OB lit. aruḫ ša ba-aš-tim CUSAS 32, 49: 4 “it is hurrying among the thorn­bush”. Cf. George, ib. p. 113f. for fur­ther instances of OB baštu.

4. OB lit. waruq ina ba-aš-tim RA 66, 141ff. AO 7682: 7 “(the scorpion) is green in the thornbush”.

 

balṭu “living, alive”

1. OA in PN: Ba-al-ṭů-šar AKT 7a, 249: 27 “The alive one is king/is just”.

2. OB ana ba-al-ṭě-im DN mimma ul ikallā AbB 7, 80: 14 “DN withholds noth­ing from the (person) in good health”.

3. OB 6 lú.mešpagrī iddű u kalűšu ba-al-ṭŕ-am iṣbat ARM 26/2 p. 132 no. 357: 26’ (Heimpel 2003, 315) “they aban­don­ed 6 corpses; and all of them seized one (prisoner) alive”.

4. SB In the sense of “magnetic” in šadânu balṭu (Ḫḫ XVI), s. DCCLT MB Ura 10.

5. “solvent”, cf. Zaccagnini 1994, 32ff.: kaspam ba-al-ṭum-ma umallā AT 18: 16 “he who is solvent shall pay the silver in full”. 60 GÍN(“SU”)ḫi-a bal-ṭů-ma ippalšina AT 47: 15 “he who is sol­vent shall pay 60 shekels”.

6. For ina balṭū u šalmū as state of financial well-being s. Charpin 2005, 26f.; Veenhof 1987, 58ff.

MPS (1, 4), NR (2–3, 5-6)

 

balṭūtu “state of being alive”

1. OB ba-al-ṭú-us-sú ul īdē kīma mītim kispam aktassipšum AbB 13, 21: 7 “I did not know whether he (my son) was still alive and I kept making funerary offerings for him as if he were dead”.

2. OB u ṣābum b[a-a]l-ṭů-us-sú tūr ARM 26/2 p. 132 no. 357: 27’ “and the troop (of Mari) has returned safe and sound”.

3. For Wiseman Treaties 570 (CAD B 69b b. a1’) s. SAA 2, 6: 570: kī ša šá-aṣ-bu?-tu?⌉ tul-tu takkuluni.         

NR

 

baʾlu “(exceptionally) big”

SB šumma erű ina ūri bīt amēli iṣṣūra lū 1 2 ikkal bēl bīti šuʾāti zitta ba-il-tam [GU7] Gs. Sachs p. 282 YBC 16934 i 8 “if an eagle eats a bird, either one or two, on the roof of a person’s house, the owner of that house [will con­­­sume] an (exeptionally) large share”.           

NR

 

balū “without”

1. With suffix (es. CAD B 71 b. c end):OB kaspam ana mamman ba-lu-ia lā tušeṣṣē AbB 12, 53: 17f. “do not issue the silver to anyone without my per­mission!”

2. Deller 1966, 305: MA ana namāše ba-lu bēliya palḫāku JCS 7, 167 no. 63: 21 “I am afraid to move on without my lord”.

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

balű I s. belű II

 

+ balű II “spare donkey”; SB, Sum. lw.

[MIN (= anše)-]⌈bal⌉- = ba-lu-u Emar 6/4, 550: 233 (Ḫḫ XIII). Parallel to anše-á-bal = tēnű MSL 8/1, 51: 365 (AHw 1347 tēnű 3, CAD T 344 tēnű lex. sect.).

 

baluḫḫu, paluḫḫu, buluḫḫu “an aromatic plant”

1. OB aššum ḫīl ba-lu-ḫi u kukrim AbB 3, 32: 4, 6 “as to the resin of b. and kukrum”. kukru ba-lu-ḫu ib. 8.

2. OB 5 MA.NA gišba-lu-ḫu-um FM 7, 94 M.12595: 9’. For OB Mari s. ref. in MARI 7, 265 (also pa-lu-ḫu-um).

 

balultu? “mixture”

von Soden 1968, 458 ad CAD B 75 denies the existence of balultu and refers to balűtu (AHw 101a) “in state of being empty”.

NR

 

balūt “without”

SB Ugar. ba-lut šaḫḫi AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 51: 23 “without š.-cloth”.

 

balűtu s. balāt

 

bāmtu “half; chest; open country, plain”

1. OB šę šibši u šę ba-ma-[tim] Joannes 2006, 54 n. 11 fragm B: 5’ (Haradum) “the barley of the š.-tax and the barley of the metayage agreements”. S. also ib. 55 n. c.

2. OB ba-ma-sú-nu lū wašbū ba-ma-sú-nu [l]illikū AbB 13, 104: 5’f. “let half of them stay, half of them go”.

3. OB ba-ma-at riksim u ša ibaššű ma-ḫa-aṣ AbB 12, 54: 16 “divide (lit. hit) half of the package and what (else) is there” (i. e., divide into two halves, s. van Soldt, ib. p. 45).

4. 4 pelî ša lurmim ina ba-ma-tim ilqűnimma ARM 27, 9: 32 “they gath­er­­­ed 4 ostrich eggs in the plains”.

5. OB GIŠ.NI-e-ĝu10 = ba-am-ti ṣe-ḫ[e-er-]tum, ⌈x⌉-sa-ad-ĝu10 = ba-am-ti ra-b[i-tu]m CUSAS 12 p. 150: 12f. (Ugumu) “my small/big paunch”.

6. In the dual: OB ba-am-ti-šu ikūṣ ARM 26/2 p. 337 no. 434: 39 “he skinned his chest (on both sides)”. The dual is also attested in STT 87: 11, wrongly ana­lysed as pl. in CAD B bamtu B a 3’.

7. For the question of a single bāmtu (as in AHw) against two (in CAD, + pl. bamâtu) s. Militarev/Kogan 2000, 190.

MPS (2–7), NR (1)

 

bandillu, + baddillu “belly”; + NA

In lists of temple offerings: 10 ban-dil! SAA 7, 202 r. 3 “10 stomachs(?)” (after 3 uzulipšāt “3 scrotums”). 10 ba-dilmeš ib. 189 r. 7. [ba]n!-dil! ib. 208: 15.

 

banduddű, + banduttű “bucket”; + NA

1. OB 1 GAL ba-an-du-du-ú KŮ. BABBAR ARM 31, 235: 3; 1 ba-an-du-ud-ú KŮ.BABBAR ša GN ib. 241: 1 “1 silver b.-bucket from GN”. For further ref. and disc. s. Guichard ib. 187f.

2. MB Emar: New by-form banduttű: [gú]r-ba-an-du8-du8 = MIN (= kippat) ba-an-du-ut-te-e Emar 6/4, 545: 102 (Ḫḫ VI).

3. Rare syllabic spelling: NA lit. [m]ullâ mullâ ban-(du)-de-šu-un SAA 3, 10: 11 “fill, fill their buckets!”

MPS (2–3), NR (1)

 

bannu, bānu “ewer”

SB lex. ba-anšipr-rum = nemsű AOAT 50, 405: 204 (Malku) “ewer for a ritual = washing basin”. With AHw 102 and CDA 37, against CAD B 95 bānű A 2, Sum. lw. < bán (cf. also pānu II), not deriving from Akk. banű “to create”.

 

+ bantű “bucket”; MB Emar

Lex. gúr-ba-an-du8 = MIN (= kippat) ba-an-te-e Emar 6/4, 545: 101 (Ḫḫ VI) “handle of the b.-bucket”.

 

banű I “well-formed, well-made, fine”

1. OB, said of musicians destined to be blinded:

a) TURmeš la ba-nu-tim ARM 26/2 p. 25 no. 297: 15 “boys not good”. Heim­pel 2003, 287 translates “untrained”, but perhaps their physical state of still having their eyes is meant.

b) OB TURmeš lā ba-nu-tim FM 9, 220 no. 53: 9 “boys not beautiful”.

2. Referring to an abstract in OB ana ilūtika ba-ni-tim AbB 12, 99: 21 “to your splendid divine power”.

3. OB aššum ana lā ba-ni-a-t[im pānīk]a taškunu AbB 13, 103: 2’ “be­cause you have set [your mind] on im­­proper matters”.

4. MB 32 NA4meš ba-nu-tu4 MBLET 20: 4 “32 fine stones”.

MPS (1–4), NR (5)

 

banű II “to be(come) good, beautiful”

G Mayer 2016, 193: ref. in CAD B 91 banű B 1 “to grow” belong to banű IV “to create, build”, except bini arkāniš Ee V 20 “become beautiful back­wards!” (with D. O. Edzard apud Streck 1994, 168 n. 37). Pace Mayer, also banī buʾāru RA 22, 170: 15 be­longs to banű IV: “at her glance, pros­perity is creat­ed”.

D 1. “to make good”: OB tuppaka ana awīlim bu-un-ni-a-am-ma šūbilam AbB 12, 113: 19 “Send a well-done letter of yours to the lord!”.

2. Matouš 1964, 137: KAR 4 r. 20 (CAD B 91a banű B “to be beautiful”) with DÍM = ana bu-ni-[i] belongs to banű A “to build”.

3. Mayer 2016, 193f.: ref. CAD B 93 banű 6 “to grow” translate in fact “was decorated with”, “was formed well”.

MPS, NR

 

banűtu s. rab-banűtu

 

bappiru, pappiru “beer bread”

1. OA šeʾam lū tašʾamma bu-uq-lam ů ba-pi-ra-am-ma tēpuš AKT 2, 26: 18 “may she buy grain and make malt and beer bread”.

2. Stol 2008, 350: Syllabic spellings for pappiru:

a) OB pa-pí-ri TIM 9, 51: 9.

b) buqlum u pa-ap-pí-ru-um Iraq 42, 69 no. 10 i 12.

c) MA UDUN pa-pi-ri Deller 1987, 65.

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

baqāmu, baqānu “to pluck”

G 1. OB ṣēnū kīma šaddaqdim tabqumu šalmā AbB 5, 230: 10 “the livestock, that(?) (lit. as) you plucked last year, are well”.

2. MB Ekalte 18 immerū MU 2 ša šinīšu ba-aq-nu WVDOG 102, 32: 2 “18 sheep, two years old, which were pluck­ed twice”.

3. MA (small cattle) ba-aq-na BATSH9/3, 21: 19; 28: 13 “has been plucked”.

4. Deller 1966, 305f.: KAJ 88: 15–18 (CAD B 98 b. 1a5’) read ú-la!-da!⌉ instead of ú-la⌉.

N 1. Lex. [z]é-ba = na-ab-qí-im CUSAS 12 p. 248: 25 (gramm. text) “be pluck­ed!”.

2. OB li-ib-ba-qí-im-ma MARI 8, 387 A.2459 r. 4, cf. buqūmu.

3. MA ina muḫḫišu errīʾā ulladā i-ba-qa-an-na irabbīʾā BATSH 9/3, 48: 26 “incumbent on him, (small cattle) will become pregnant, give birth, be pluck­ed (and) grow”.         

MPS (G, N), NR (G)

 

bāqilu “maltster”

1. MB É MUNU4meš BagF 21, 48: 32’; 50: 16; PBS 2/2, 77; 106: 7’ “house of malt­ster” (always in connection with city gates).

2. MB 200 qa MUNU4.SAR ina qāt PN úMUNU4.SAR CT 51, 29: 5 “200 litre of malt from PN, maltster (for brewer)”. S. Sassmannshausen 2001, 80 for fur­ther ref.      

NR

 

+ baq(a)ru “cow”; OB; MB Emar; NWSem. lw.

1. OB 1! AMAR! GA! ša! ba-aq-ri-im ARM 24, 42: 2’ “1 milk calf of a cow”. Cf. Durand 1987, 210 n. 36, followed by Streck 2000, 85.

2. OB ba-iq-ru-um ša ina ša-la-ta-im ša GN KTT 55a: 6 “cows from the booty of GN”. Cf. disc. of Krebernik, ib. p. 57 (baqru “to be claimed” or “cow”) and Du­rand/Marti 2003, 170.

3. MB Emar (sheep) ša ina ba-qa-ra Emar 6/3, 327: 9 “which are in the flock”. Cf. Pentiuc 2001, 36f.

4. Cf. buqāru. MPS (1, 3), NR (2–3)

 

bar s. buru

 

barakku “outbuilding”

Lex. é-gal bar-ra = ba-rak-ku CUSAS 12, 39: 5 (Kagal).

 

barāmu I “to be variegated, multi­col­or­ed”

D OB lit. libissunu bu-ur-ru-um CunMon. 8, 22ff. ii 19 “their cloth is mul­ti­­col­ored”.

 

barāqu “to lighten, shine”

Š OB tattakkipma kīma lîm tu-ša-ab-ra-aq-šu Gilg. OB Nippur 5 you will lock horns and strike him down like a bull”. Cf. George 2003, 244; or parāku Š?

+ N SB būlu ib-ba-riq SpTU 4, 264: 15 “the animals are flashed down(?)”.

Ntn KAH 2, 74: 5 (CAD B 105b b. 3) read mut-tap-ri-š[u-ti] (s. also CAD M/2, 308b, a1’).       

MPS (Š, N), NR (Ntn)

 

barārī “at dusk, evening”; + OB

1. OB ba-ra-ri i-na gišMÁ.TUR [a-ra]-ak-ka-bu-ma ARM 26/1 p. 197 no. 54: 42 “(so that) I can [em]bark at evening on a small boat”.

2. OB ba-ra-ri bitqam šâtu esekker! FM 1, 94 A.250: 28 “at dusk I will block up that breach”.

3. OB ba-ra-ri AbB 7, 2: 7.

4. MA ina mūše ba-ra-ri-ma BATSH 4/1, 2: 22 “in the night, at dusk”.

5. Lit.: Streck 2017, 597.

 

barārītu, barārtu, + barīrītu, + barīru? “dusk, evening watch”

1. OB (sheep and tables for DN) ni-iq ba-ra-ar⌉-tim i-na qa-ab⌉-li-tim KTT 345: 4 “sacrifice of the evening watch, at midnight”.

2. OB 4 dipārī ana ba-ra-ar-tim qabśitim u nawā[rtim] anaššī RATL 156: 30 “I will lift four torches at the 1., 2. and 3. watch of the night”.

3. Fem. pl. barārīʾātam (for these frozen pl. forms s. Streck 2007, 597 § 11): OB ba-ra-ri-a-t[a-am] AbB 3, 66: 7 “at dusk”. Diff. GAG § 113l*: ad­verb in -attam.

4. OB šuttī annītum ša ba-ra-ar-tim ARM 10, 50: 13 “this dream was (seen) during the evening watch”.

5. New by-form barīrītu (cf. barīrītu “a female demon” CAD B 111): OB šuttum šī ba-ri-ri-tum-ma ARM 26/1 p. 306 no. 142: 22 “that dream was during the evening watch”.

6. New by-form perhaps barīru (cf. barīru A “rays” CAD B 111f.): mūšu mašil ... ba-ri-ri-im ARM 26/2 p. 132 no. 357: 34f. “midnight ... evening watch(?)” (in broken context).

7. Lit.: Streck 2017, 597.

 

barāru I “to flicker” or “be dim”?

SB ib-ru-ur SpTU 4, 262 r. 6.

 

barāru II? “to speak blasphemously”

Cf. Durand 1997, 101: “proférer des in­jures”. Pace Durand not related to Hebr. brr “purify, select”. For iB-ru-ur-ma TDP 190: 26 s. parāru.         

NR

 

barbartu, + barbaratu “she-wolf”; + OB, + OA

1. OB šī ba-ar-ba-ra-tum YOS 11, 20: 3 “she (Lamaštu) is a she-wolf”.

2. SB bar-ba-rat // OA ba-ar-ba-ra-tum Lamaštu i 37 (Farber 2014, 74).

MPS, NR

 

barbaru “wolf”

1. OB lit. libbaka kīma U[R.B]AR.RA bāštum [kīma] nēšim šalummatum liklāka⌉ ZA 75, 202: 82 “may dignity, [like] a wolf, (restrain) your heart, may radiance, like a lion, restrain you”.

2. OB lit. kīma ba-ar-ba-ri-⌈im⌉ [b]āštam⌉ [] nē⌈šimšalummat[am lūṭ]erka ZA 75, 180: 4 vigor like (that of) a wolf, splendor like (that of) a lion, I will take away from you”.

3. OB lit. kīma ba-ar-ba-ri-im lakāta mādmi UET 6/2, 399: 6 “like a wolf (the anger) is quick-running”.

4. OB lit. našāk ba-ar-ba-ri-im inaššak YOS 11, 14 r. 3 “(the maškadu sickness) bites a wolf-bite”.

5. OB lit. ul iḫaddī ba-ar-ba-ru YOS 11, 29 r. 25 // bar-ba-ra 15: 5 “the wolf shall not rejoice”.

6. SB ba-ra-ba-ra OIP 114, 115: 2 (in list of Akk. words between nēšu “lion” and imēru “donkey”).

 

+ bardītu “girl(?)”; OA

1. OA (silver) ana TÚG ša ba-ar-dí-tí Prag 429: 34 “for a garment of a girl(?)”.

2. bar-dí-tí OIP 27, 55: 63. Cf. comm. Prag p. 14.

3. Perhaps a by-form of wardatu.

MPS (1–2), NJCK (3)

 

bardű “crosspiece”

SB bar-da-a ana bar-di-i uštanār // MB ba-ar-da-a ana ba-ar-de-e Lamaštu ii 166 (Farber 2014, 122) “cross­bar after crossbar, she keeps leaning (into the window)”.

 

+ barḫu “fugitive, rustic(?)”; Ugar. word

For ba-ar-ḫu and munusba-ri-iḫ-tu4 (AHw 1547a barḫu “shining”) s. Hueh­nergard 1987, 114f. and 323f.; del Olmo Lete/Sanmartín 2004, 236f.   

NR

 

barī- “between, among”

ana barī-: išarū a-na ba-ri-šu-nu-ma AKT 1, 21: 10 “they are even”.

 

barīrītu “the glittering one, (name of a female demon)”

Lex. [b]a-ri-ri-tum = [kabittu] AOAT 50, 431: 53 (exp. Malku) “the glittering one = [the important one]”.

 

+ barīru III (mng. unkn.); OB

ba-ri-ri-ka nakru ile[qqē] CUSAS 18, 26: 15’ “the enemy will ta[ke] your b.” ba-ri-ri ib. 17’. In spite of the divergent orthography, George, ib. p. 182, con­nects the word with parīru.

 

+ barkarrű, pl. f. barkarrętum “a coarse textile”; OB

1. ŠU.NIGIN 16 túgba-ar-ka-ru-ú ŠŔ.BA 1 TÚG SI.SÁ ÚS 3 túgGÚ.Č. Aḫá iškar É GN1 6 túgba-ar-ka-ru iškar bīt GN2 ŠU.NIGIN 25 túgba-ar-ka-ru-ú 11 túgGÚ.Č.Aḫá ba-ar-ka-re-tum iškar 3 bītātim ḫalaṣ⌉ GN2 maḫrum ARM 30 p. 552 M.5888 “total: 16 b., among them 1 fabric of second quality, 3 naḫlaptu garments, the work assign­ment of the house of GN1. 6 b., the work assignment of the house of GN2. Total: 25 b., 11 naḫlaptu garments (made) of b., the work assignments of 3 houses from the district of GN2 re­ceived(?)”.

2. 4 túgbar-ka-ru-ú pirsu ARM 30 p. 428 M.8599: 1 “4 b., a piece (for re­pair­­ing them?).

3. 4 túgBAR.KAR.RA ÚS ana TÚG.BA kullizi ARM 7, 147: 1 “4 b. of second quality, clothing allocation of the ox-driver”.

4. 1 túgBAR.KAR ana riksi ša ANŠE gišGIGIR ARM 24, 181: 7 “1 b. for the harness of the donkey chariot”.

5. 2 gizzu BAR.KAR.RA ARM 22, 119: 1 “2 g. cloths (made) of b.”.

6. DAL.ÚŠ BAR.KAR.RA AWTL 88: 1; ib. 98: 2 “catapult of b.

7. Lit. with further ref.: Durand 2009, 97–99.          

NR

 

barku s. birku

 

barmu “multicolored

1. OB lit., said of cloths: aprū ba-ar-mu-ti-im-ma CunMon. 8, 22ff. ii 20 “their (head) is covered with multi­colored (cloths)”.

2. NA, said of animals: erbiʾu NUMUN! bar!-mu kal-mu-tú SAA 2, 6: 599 “locusts, the multicolored seed(?),

bugs”. Cf. SAA 2 p. 85: barmu “a pest”.

 

barru III s. bāru II

 

barsillu “a garment”

Edzard 1970a, 160: hybrid from *bardullu (< BAR.DUL5) and kusītu? Veenhof 1972, 162 n. 276: b. based on a misunderstanding?     

NR

 

+ baršu II “a cereal”; OB

OB (še)bar-šum ARM 19 p. 164 (in­dex). Limet, ib. p. 24 suggests a loan from Sum. bar-si, for which s. Milano 1993–1997, 27 (emmer flour).

 

bārtu “revolt, rebellion”

1. OB ina ba-ar-tim ilattakūka ARM 10, 7: 9 “they will put you to a test by a rebellion”.

2. Amarna ḪI.G[A.R]I K[I]-ia EA 138: 20 “revolt against me(?)” (Moran 1992, 223 n. 4). Note ḪI.GA.RI instead of nor­mal ḪI.GAR.       

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

barű I “to see, look at”

Gt 1. OB awātam ana bi-it-r[i]-i-[im] AbB 13, 110: 19 “in order to consider thoroughly(?) the matter”.

2. SB urḫī bi-it-ri AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 33: 29 “watch my path!”

D 1. “to announce, to disclose, to re­veal” (CAD B 331 has a separate lemma burrű): NA kētu anāku lā ú-bar-ri lā a-qa-ba-áš-šú-nu bēt šarru bēlī išapparšanuni SAA 15, 4: 14 “truly, I have not disclosed nor told them where the king, my lord, is send­ing them”.

2. ú-bar-r[a…] in broken context in ib. 61 r. 3’.

Dt “to be announced”: OB šumma šāpirī iqabbī li-ib-te-er-ri-šu-nu-ši-im-ma ṣibit ṭēmim liršű AbB 13, 37: 32 “if my superior gives the order, it should be announced to them, so that they will take action”.    

MPS (Dt), NR (Gt, D)

 

+ barű III “to spend time, be stuck, be forced to stay”

G Disc. and OA ref. in Veenhof 2015a, 253–259, e. g.: lā ta-ba-ri tibʾamma atalkam AKT 3, 66: 15 “don’t spend time in GN! Get ready and come!” De­lete CAD barű C “to be available, to be on the market”.

Gtn?: ikrib ili u šarri lib-tar-ru-ú ina šaptīya dameqti Marduk bēliya lū kayyān ina pīya Or. 59, 450: 9’ “may a blessing for the god and the king con­stantly(?) endure on my lips, may a good (word) for my lord Marduk be al­ways in my mouth”. Mayer 1990, 454 ad 9’: Gt libtarű.

Gt 1. Veenhof 2015a, 258: ref. in CAD bitrű (= AHw barű Gt) belong here. Also OA attested.

2. SB ina īnēja bi-it-ra-at dili[ptu] AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 33: 26 “anxiety lasts in my eyes”.

Š “to let wait”. Veenhof 2015a, 258f. for OA ref., e. g.: aṣṣēr ša GN ú-ša-áb-ra-ki-im Kt h/k 73: 18 “I will let you wait longer than in GN”.

Št Ref. in AHw under berű “to be hungry”, in CAD under bitrű belong here. But s. berű II.

MPS (G, Gt, Š, Št), NR (Gtn)

 

bāru II, barru, pl. ba/errātu “open country; undeveloped land”; + OB, + LB

1. OB (field) ša ba-a-ri ARM 23, 590: 5 “situated in the open country”. Pace Villard, ib. p. 557 unlikely to be būru “cistern” or bārű “diviner”.

2. LB pl.(?) ba/errātu, s. von Soden 1977, 185:

a) ŠE.NUMUN zaqpi u ber-ra-t[um] Iraq 54, 132 BM 50021: 1 “arable land, planted and undeveloped land”.

b) ŠE.NUMUNmeš ā zaqpi u bar-rat-tummeš makkūr šarri BM 116622: 7 (Iraq 54, 132 ad. 1) “those fields, plant­ed and undeveloped land, royal prop­erty”.

c) zaqpi adi bé-rat CunMon. 20B, 19 no. 11 r. 1, 5 “(land) planted, including undeveloped land”.

d) ina libbi n zēru ša ina libbi n2 zēru bé?!-rat zittu ša PN CunMon. 20B, 164 no. 130: 10’, s. also ib. 16’.

e) [zēr]a imaššaḫū ber-ra-tu4 isann[iqū] CunMon. 20B, 214 no. 181: 28 “they will measure the arable land and check the undeveloped land”.

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

bārű, MA bāʾeru “diviner; supervisor”

1. “supervisor” in OAkk. texts from Beydar: ba-rí UDU (NITA) “(male) supervisor of sheep”, UGULA ba-rí UDU “overseer of supervisor(s) of sheep” Subartu 2 p. 176. Cf. disc. Salla­berger 2004, 18.

2. Said of Šamaš: ilum namrum ba!-ru-ú (// a-zu) ebbu CT 58, 28 r. 8 “bright god, the shining diviner”.

 

bâru I “to catch, trap (with a net etc.)”

G 1. OB TU.TÚLmušen.ḫi.a li-ba-ru ARM 14, 41: 8 “let them catch sukannīnu-doves”.

2. Said of persons:

a) OB lā ta-ba-ra-né-ti lā tadukkanęti u ana mātim šanîm lā tanassaḫnęti ARM 26/2 p. 277 no. 409: 28 “do not catch us, do not kill us, and do not move us toanother land!” (Heimpel 2003, 350).

b) šaknī ša aškunakkunūšim lā ta-ba-ra-šu lā tadukkaššuma ib. 32 “my governor whom I have installed over you, do not catch him, do not kill him!”.

3. OB lit. bāʾirum i-ba-ar nūnam Fs. De Meyer 82ff. IM 95317: 19 “the fisher­man is catching a fish”.

4. OB lit. ḫāwirī lu-ub-qú-ma-am (// ga-an-zé-e-še) UET 6/2, 386: 10 “let me pluck my darling”.

D 1. OB tu-ba-aḫ-ḫi-ir! (text: RI)-ma FM 2, 266 no. 128: 14, the first finite D-stem form.

2. OB lit. mu-bi-ra-at mātāti CUSAS 32, 59 i 8 (goddess) “who catches the countries”.

3. SB šumma surdű ina bīt amīli bu-ʾ-u-ra īpuš SAA 8, 237: 4 “if a falcon hunts in a man’s house”. bu-ʾ-u-ra ib. 6.

+ N 1. OB [rīm]am i-ba-ar-ru-ma ina bītišu ikallű [...] ib-ba-ar-ru-ma KUŠ! ana ekal[lim] ubbalū inanna mimma rīma[m] ul i-ba-ru ... serramī i-[b]a-ar-r[u] ... maškī serramī ša kīma ib-ba-ru ana ṣēr bēlija ušabbalam ARM 27, 51 r. 1’–10’ “they will catch an [aur]ochs and hold (it) captive in his house [... (which)] will be caught, (its) hide they will bring to the palac[e]. Now they have not caught any aurochs ... They will catch onagers ... the hides of the onagers that will have been caught I will bring to my lord”.

2. SB (if a falcon and a raven fall tangled together on to the king’s char­iot) [l]a ib-ba-ʾ-ir CUSAS 18, 36 r. iii 23 “but are(!) not caught”. S. also sta­tive G (or mistake for pret. N?) ⌈ba⌉-ʾ-ir ib. 19.         

MPS (G, D, N), NR (G)

 

bâru II, OA baʾāru “to stir up a revolt, to fight”

G a-ba-a-ri-kŕ KTS 1, 1a: 24, for context s. CAD P 210 pâru, prob. belongs here.

Gt Cf. Veenhof 2015b:

1. merʾū mētim nēnu lá ni-ib-ta-ar AKT 6a, 229: 4 “we are inheritors (lit. sons of a dead person). Let us not quar­rel with each other”.

2. anāku mera mētim u attunu merʾū mētim lá ni-ib-ta-ar AKT 7a, 34: 17 “I am an inheritor and you are inheritors. Let us not quarrel with each other”. Cf. also ib. 30: 13; 58: 15; 59: 15; KKS 499: 4.

D 1. merʾū mētim nēnu lá tů-ba-ar-ni-a-tí? AKT 6a, 217: 22 “We are in­her­itors. Don’t fight us!”

2. [l]á tů-ba-a-ra-ni AKT 6a, 85: 14 “don’t fight against me!”

MPS (G, Gt, D), NJCK (Gt)

 

bâru III “to appear, turn up; be durable; to stay firm, stable, in good health”

G 1. OB ma-a-tum ka-lu-[ša a-na] be-lí-ia bu-ur be-lí i-ta-ás-si ARM 26/2 p. 96 no. 327: 3’ “the entire land will be calling out, ‘Stay in good health, my lord!’” (Heimpel 2003, 304).

2. OB ma-at GN ka-lu-ša a-na PN bu-ur be-lí iš-ta-si ARM 26/2 p. 197 no. 383: 8 “the entire land of GN called to PN, ‘Stay in good health, my lord!’” (Heimpel 2003, 331).

3. Deller 1966, 309: PN TA IGI DN [i]b-tu-ar AfO Beih. 6, 54 no. 106: 11 “PN has established (it) before Adad”.

4. On PN with element li-bur, lil-bur/bir s. AHw 108, 522 and 1547a (bâru III and labāru) and CAD B 126 b. 2a1’, b 1’ (reading LIL lix,). Borger 2010b, 360 no. 544: delete lix.

D 1. ina bīt Šamaš li-bé-er-ru-šu-n[u-ti] AbB 13, 41: 21 “they should estab­lish the truth about them in the Šamaš tem­ple”.

2. a) OB inanna bēlī ana bu-r[e-e] PN u mārī ālim dannātim lišpuram FM 8, 84 no. 25: 15 “now may my lord, in order to notify PN and the inhabitants of the town, give firm orders”.

b) šu-tam bu-re-e⌉-š[u-um?] ib. 10 “no­tify h[im] of what is his (duty)!”.

c) Durand, ib. p. 96, derives both in­stances from būru “well” and trans­lates “aux puits” and “ceux qui font partie de ses puits” (reading šu-ut), an inter­pret. which makes less sense.

3. Deller 1966, 309: NA bar!-ru! kan-nu uṭṭurū AfO Beih. 6, 54 no. 106: 14 “they are proved, established and fully paid” (reading after Deller).

Dt “to be announced” (CAD B 331 has a separate lemma burrű): OB šumma šāpirī iqabbī li-ib-te-er-ri-šu-nu-ši-im-ma ṣibit ṭēmim liršű AbB 13, 37: 32 “if my superior gives the order, it should be announced to them, so that they will take action”.

MPS (G, D, Dt), NR (G, D)

 

bārűtu, + baruttu “work, lore of the di­vin­er”

OB ina ba-ru-ú-tim ša kakkī anāku etmēku ARM 10, 120: 6 “I am oc­cupied with a divination concerning weapons”. S. also ba-ru-tim-ma ib. 9 and ba-ru-ut-t[im] ib. 11.

 

+ basāmu “to gladden, to please”; OB, Bo., SB

G OB awīlę bi-si-im-ma warkānum dīnam awīlū iqabbűnim AbB 14, 41: 14 “humour the gentlemen, so that later the gentlemen will pronounce a favor­able judgement”. S. Veenhof, ib. p. 206.

D 1. OB awâtim nu-ba-ás-si-im-ši-na-ti-i-ma banīʾā AbB 8, 69: 8 “we have pleas­ed (them) with this matter and they are good”;

2. OB kusīt šikkatim ana bu!-sú-mi-ša idnī AbB 9, 16: 38 (with corr. in BiOr 39, 590) “give (her) a kusītum-garment with a tassel to please her”. Note that CAD Š/2, 432b interprets the last ref. as pussumiša “for veiling her”. Not in CAD P 217f. pasāmu D.

3. bu-sú-mu (var. bu-uš-šu-u) = a-aš-šu (Hitt.) KBo 1, 44 + KBo 13, 1 iv 12 (StBoT 7, 19). After Otten/von Soden, StBoT 7, 22 both equations, bussumu “pleasant” and bušű “goods”, reflect two mng.s of Hitt. aššu-.

4. SB ú-ba-as-sim ṣeḫḫa Jiménez 2017, 398: 4 “I soothed(?) the wound(?)”.

MPS (D 4), NR (G, D 1–3)

 

basāru s. baṣāru.

 

bāsi “soon”

Deller 1966, 309: NA ba-si ŠE.PADmeš ina pa-ni-šú-nu lu ta-a[b-kat] SAA 1, 14 e. 3 “may the barley at their disposal soon be p[iled]”.        

NR

 

baskiltu, biskiltu “a wooden object; a boil”

1. “a wooden object”:

a) OB bi-us-ki-il-tu AbB 9, 16: 18 (reading after von Soden 1982, 590).

b) gišba!-ás-ki-la-tim liqēʾam AbB 7, 43: 6’ (reading after von Soden 1978, 207) “take b.s for me”.

2. šumma awīlum ina pī qinnatišu ba-as-ki-il-tum ittaṣīʾam YOS 11, 29: 8 “if a boil has grown out in the anus of a man”. Cf. ib. 28: 3.

3. Cf. AHw 1547b. CAD M/1, 324 s. v. maskiltu.  

NR

 

baṣāru “to tear off, divide, distribute”; +MB Emar, Karkemiš, MB Ekalte, + NA

1. a) In legal texts from Emar, Karke­miš and Ekalte zīzā ba-aṣ-ra and zīzū ba-aṣ-ru “they are divided, distrib­ut­ed”: s. Pentiuc 2001, 34; Ikeda 2003, 270b; PRU 4, 122: 27; WVDOG 102, 20: 22; 90: 9. Cf. Arnaud, AulaOr 5, 238f. no. 16: 17; Wilcke 1985, 311 n. 181.

b) Diff. Huehnergard 1983, 33; Tsu­ki­moto 1991, 297: 9; Mayer 2001, 26 n. 103; Beckman 1996, 118 no 94: 17 (but the latter transliterates ṣ): G of bussuru “to bring pleasant news”. Pentiuc 2001, 34f.: bḏr “to scatter”.

2. NA ma-ga-di ů ba-ṣa-a-ri SAA 10, 289: 11 “... and harvesting (the grap­es)”.

3. Cf. buṣru.   

MPS (2), NR (1, 3)

 

bāṣu, + pl. bāṣātu “sand”

1. OB GN uruBa-ṣumki etc. RGTC 3, 39. Ša-bāṣi ARM 16, 31 s. v. Šabazim; ARM 27, 141: 30 and p. 234 n. j “That of sand”.

2. OB lit. šaḫur ina ba-ṣí RA 66, 141ff. AO 7682: 8 “(the scorpion lies) quiet in the sand”.

3. SB KUR šá ba-ṣa-a-ti šá Elam SAA 3, 28 r. 14 “land of sand belonging to Elam”.

 

bašālu “to boil, ripen”

G 1. ištū MU.4.ŠČ tuṣī luqūtī adīnimā lā i-⌈ba⌉-šál OAA 1, 17: 5 “you left four years ago: well, is my merchandise not yet ready to be sold by now?”

2. OB aššum ḫazannū adī lā ba-aš-lu lā napālim PN išpuram AbB 12, 25: 5 “PN wrote me regarding not to dig up the garlic before it is ripe”. S. also ba-aš-lu-ma ib. 7 and 10.

3. OB eqlum … ba-ši-il AbB 11, 13: 5 “the field is ripe”.

4. OB akalni Adad adīma ba-aš-lu ikki[m?] CUSAS 18 p. 309: 2 “Adad will take away our food as soon as it is ripe”.

5. OB šeʾum ib-ša-al-ma ARM 14, 69: 13 “the barley has ripened”.

6. OB šamaššammū ... ib-ta-áš-lu FM 8, 81 no. 25: 8 (wrongly read ip-ta-ás-lu) “the sesame has ripened”.

Š 1. OA ú-ša-áb-ša-al-šu!-ma Prag 483: 18 “I will melt it (gold)”.

2. OA ḫurāṣam sāmam ša ša-áb-šu-lim šaʾamma WAG 48-1462: 17 (Fs. Ma­touš II 114) “buy red gold for melt­ing!”. S. also Dercksen 2005, 31 n. 33.

3. OA also metaphorically of silver: “to make liquid” > “to make profitable, to turn into profit”: 190 ṣubātē PN1 u PN2 ú-ša-áb-ší-lu-ni-kum kasapšunu bēt mannim ibašši OAA 1, 21: 32 “PN1 and PN2 have turned 190 textiles into profit for you: in whose house is the silver from their sale?” (lit. “their silver”, i. e. of the textiles). Cf. Veen­hof 2014, 404–407.

4. OB (juniper wood) ana šu-ub-šu-ul 3 GAG SAG ARM 23, 514: 2 “for melt­ing 3 best-quality nails”.

+ Štn OA (silver) uš-ta-na-áb-ša-lá-kum Prag 720: 10 “I keep making your silver profitable for you, some 10 minas each time”. Cf. Veenhof 2014, 404–407.

MPS (G, Š, Štn), NJCK (G, Š, Štn), NR (G, Š)

 

bašāmu II “to create, form”; + OB

G 1. OB šallatum šī ana zitti rēdî ba-aš-ma-at ARM 26/2 p. 274 no. 408: 24 “those prisoners of war form the shares for the soldiers”.

2. OB in the mng. “to set a price” (Kraus, AbB 10 p. 173 n. 192 b; Moran 1987, 134):

a) tamkārū izzizūma kasapšunu ib-ši-mu-ú-ma kaspam addin AbB 10, 192: 16 “the merchants took action and set the price and I have paid”.

b) šīmšu ullânumma bi-iš-ma-am-ma Sumer 14, 73 no. 47: 25 “as for its price, set it immediately!” (s. CAD B 139 s. v. bašāmu C). Note, however, that von Soden 1968, 458 (also AHw 1337b and CAD U/W 76b) prefers the spelling ti!-iš-ba!-am-ma.

3. CAD also has bašāmu B “to carry away” and C “mng. unc.”. According to von Soden 1968, 458 and AHw 1547, the only non-lex. ref. of bašāmu B belongs to balāmu (AHw 1546), and neither bašāmu B nor C exist.

MPS (1), NR (2–3)

 

bāšītu “(people or staples) on hand, valu­ables, possessions”; + MB Ekalte

1. OB tuppi ba-ši-ti-šu ARM 10, 134: 4 “tablet (recording) his possessions”.

2. ēm ba-ši-ti ibaššű lukšudamma šęm ana bītija lušāmam ARM 13, 150: 12 “wherever there are staples for me, I will go there and buy barley for my house”.

3. ba-ši-tum KTT 285: 68; 351: 1.

4. 2 GUD 5 UZU ba-ši-tum FM 12, 214 M.18095: 30 “2 oxen, 5 (pieces) of meat, staples on hand”. Cf. Jacquet, ib. p. 215 with lit.

5. MB Ekalte būši ba-ši-ti, bušītum u ba-ši-tú, būšši u ba-ši-ta-ši WVDOG 102 index p. 160 “possessions and valu­­­ables”.

6. EA u [ša]-ka-an ina ÚR : su-n[i-šu] [ba]-ši-ta5 EA 196 r. 5’ “and [he pu]t in [his] lap (anyone) [pre]sent” (translation after Moran 1992, 274).

MPS (4–5), NR (1–3, 6)

 

bašlu “cooked, ripe; finished(?)”

1. OB. mng. “finished”(?): mārakum ba-aš-lum ... rupšum ba-aš-lum AbB 3, 34: 21, 24 “finished(?) length ... finish­ed(?) width” (s. CAD R 413f.).

2. NA Deller 1966, 309: BURU14 ba-áš-lu na-as-qu Iraq 23, 42 (pl. 22) ND 2664: 8 (s. also CAD N/2, 31 nasqu a2’).

3. Deller 1966, 309: 1 1/2 MA.NA KŮ.BABBAR ba-aš-lu VAT 16564 e: 3 (= Ass. Fd. Nr. 10805).

MPS (1), NR (2–3)

 

+ bašlūtu “ripeness”

OB ana mīnim ḫazannū la ba-aš-lu-us-sú-nu innappalū AbB 12, 25: 13 “why should the garlic be dug up before it is in the state of ripeness?”

 

bašmu “horned viper”

1. OB lit. ba-aš-mu MUŠmeš šu-ku-ú ša daltim CUSAS 10, 1: 27 “horned vi­pers, snakes are its (the temple’s) door poles”.

2. OB lit. šapal šuppātim nadī kī ba-aš-mi Fs. Wilcke 61f. Sb 12360: 3 “it is ly­ing like a viper under the rushes”.

 

baštu s. baltu

 

bāštu “dignity, (source of) pride”

1. OA with šakānu: ba-áš-tam jâti tašakkinī Prag 711: 34 “you will make me proud(?)”.

2. OB lit. nišī ba-aš-tim YOS 1, 24 i 9 “people of dignity”.

3. OB lit. ba-aš-tu unnēnu šēdu u lamassu … kűmma Ištar CunMon. 8, 22ff. i 25 “dignity, prayer, genius and protective spirit is yours, Ištar”.

4. Deller 1966, 309: NA ulṣu bal-tu ḫidűtu mēlulu u nummur kabatti ana LUGAL EN-ia lū taqīš SAA 10, 97: 3 “may she present the king, my lord, with rejoicing, pride, joy, jubilation and mer­ry mood”.       

MPS (1–3), NR (4)

 

bašű “to be (at hand, available), exist”

G 1. SB ba-šat uznī ša lā i-ba-áš-šu-[…] Gilg. SB VII 40 “I am attentive, which [you(?)] are not(?)”. Cf. George 2003, 844, discarding the reading ba-lat AHw. 1546b s. v. balűtu.

2. Deller 1966, 310: delete ABL 358: 13 (SAA 10, 227) in CAD B 151b b. m: instead of li-ib-šú read li-⌈qi⌉-šú “may they grant”.

3. CAD B 151b b. 1n1’: Wiseman Treaties 605 s. baʾāšu G 2 and D, above.

+ D OB lit. ú-ba-ši-a-am CUSAS 10, 14: 49 “she brought into being”.

Š 1. Deller 1966, 310: NA kī ummaka tu-šab-šu-ka-ni IV2 R 61 ii 21 “when your mother made you come into ex­is­tence”.

2. Deller 1966, 310: NA md30-šab-si VAT 10467: 7, 10 “Sîn, cause (it) to come into existence!”

N OB ina libbika lu-ub-ba-ši-ma lā tamaššīʾanni AbB 3, 22: 36 “may I appear in your heart. Do not forget me!”           

MPS (G, D, N), NR (G, Š)

 

bāšű “remaining, available”.

Substantival use, until now attested only with fem. bāšītu: OB ba-ši-a-am ... muḫrīma AbB 10, 169: 14 “receive the possessions”.

 

bâšu I “to be ashamed, come to shame”

G 1. OA PN hypcor. Ba-šum AKT 6a, 75: 48 // 76: 50.

2. Stative in OB PN mAššum-Marduk-ba-ša-ku AbB 7, 187: 21f. “I am asham­­ed because of Marduk”. Else­where, a stative is attested in OA PN, s. CAD B 6 b. 1e1’.

3. Von Soden 1968, 458: BagM 2, 57 ii 6 (CAD B 5b b. b) read ana ša-ba-ši-im lā naṭű “(tribes) can not be sub­jected to collection (of tax)” (CAD Š/1, 6b šabāšu 2a).

4. SB la ta-ba-ia-áš ORA 7, 208: 32’ “don’t be ashamed!”.

5. Borger 1971, 66: NIR.GÁL.ZU-ka NU.TÉŠ (CAD B 6b b. 2c s. v. D-stem) = syllabic at-kal-ku la a-ba-aš and at-kal-ku a-a-ba-aš with bâšu in G-stem (s. also CAD T 64a takālu 1a1’).

D 1. OA in the sense of “to prove wrong”:

a) awīlam ina awātim nu-ub-ta-iš AKT 3, 92: 25 “we proved the lord wrong in the matter”. S. comm. ib. p. 158 (also Akkadica 18, 32: 33).

b) maḫar kārim nu-ba-i-šu ib. 93: 29 “we proved him wrong before the trad­ing colony”.

c) ana ammīʾātim nu-ba-i-šu ib. 36 “we proved him wrong regarding those (af­fairs)”.

2. OB lit. mīnum ú-ba-ša-ka Gilg. OB IM 21 “what will put you to shame?”

3. Deller 1966, 306: PN mLu-ba-áš-a-na-DINGIR CAD B 6a b. 1e5’ is Lā-ubāšanni-ilu/ilī “the god/my god will not put me to shame”. Cf. PNA 2/2, 667.

4. NA PN Lā-tubâšanni-Aššur, s. Del­ler 1966, 306f. and PNA 2/2, 667.

5. NA PN Aššur-lā-kīnu-ubāša, s. Bor­ger 1971, 66 and PNA 1/1, 192.

MPS (G, D), NR (G, D)

 

+ batabtuḫḫu “a textile”; Ur III

túg ba-tab-tuḫ-ḫu-um 3-kam-ús Inana CUSAS 3, 1028: 31 “3rd-quality b.-tex­tile of Inana”. For further ref. s. CUSAS 4 p. 25. Reading and inter­pret. after Waetzoldt 1972, 291; Sallaberger 2011, 357. 

NR

 

batāqu “to cut off, divide, tear off”; +OAkk.

G 1. OAkk. ab-tůq ṣarbatam MAD 5, 8: 19 “I cut off the Euphrates poplar”.

2. In the mng. “to fell”:

a) OAkk. ib-tu-qů RIME 2, 193: 57 (NB copy of OAkk. inscr.; for context s. baqīšu; the spelling is NB orthog­raphy for ibtuq).

b) [i]b-tu⌉-qám ib. 140 r. 10’.

c) OAkk. (the year Narām-Sîn) ... [erēnam] ib-tú-qam RIME 1 p. 86 year z “cut down [a cedar]”.

3. In the mng. “to deduct” (CAD b. 1d): OA (silver) ba-tí-iq AKT 6c, 560: 32 “was missing”.

4. OA with object awātu “to settle an affair, to decide a case” (CAD B 164 b. 7a), corresponding to Bab. warkata parāsu: awātam bu-ut-qá-ma ... awātum ba-at-qá-at AKT 6c, 665: 12, 17 “settle the affair! ... The affair is settled”.

5. OB lit. object enemy: ib-tu-uq nakram kī kiṣir abīḫim FM 14, 13 i 24 “he cut off the enemy like the knot of a rope”.

6. Object water: mę ab-tu-uq FM 1, 94 A.250: 18 “I diverted the water”. mę ab-tu-qú ib. 33.

7. NA ūma annűrig assaprakka A šiprika TA pan Muskāya lū l[ā t]a-bat-taq SAA 1, 1: 14 “I am now writing to (tell) you that you should not cut off your messenger from the Phrygian’s pre­s­ence”. Diff. Deller 1966, 310 and Saggs 2001, 188: i[b]-bat-taq “(your mes­senger) should certainly not be cut off (from the presence of the Mush­kaean)”.

8. NA A.KINmeš-ni-šú-[nu xx TA pa-ni]-ia la i-ba-tú-qu SAA 15, 90: 26 “they should not cut off the[ir] mes­sen­gers [... from] my [presence”. Diff. Del­ler 1966, 310: N-stem.

D 1. OA PN1 PN2 u ālikī ba-tí-iq ATHE 30, 28 “dispatch PN1, PN2 and the (other) travelers!”. Cf. CAD A/1, 348a; Matouš 1964, 137; Hirsch 1961, 50.

2. OB ašlātum ... bu-ut-tu-qa ARM 28, 152: 19 “the ropes are cut”.

3. OB lit. mīnum ú-ba-ta-kúm? qīštam ša iṣim Gilg. OB IM 21 “what will cut down for you(?) the forest of wood?”

+ Š ina ša libbika ša-áb-tí-iq AKT 4, 18: 22 “let it be taken away from that be­long­ing to you(?)!”

N OB ib⌉-ba-at-qú FM 1, 94 A.250: 13 “the water was diverted”.

MPS (G, D, Š, N), NR (G, D)

 

+ bataru “ravine”; OB, Amor. lw.

bazaḫātūya ina ḫamqim qerbetim ba!-ta-ri-im u GN [š]aknā ARM 14, 75: 24 “my military posts were stationed in the val­ley, field, ravine and GN”. Cf. Du­rand 1998, 191f.; Streck 2000, 85.

 

batiqtu “denunciation, rumor, in­forma­tion

1. NA mā udīni ba-ti-iq- lā aḫarraṣa SAA 1, 29: 19 (s. also CAD U/W, 21a) “I do not have the infor­ma­tion yet”.

2. NA ba!-ti!-iq-tú lā niḫarraṣa SAA 1, 30: 10’ “we have not cleared up the in­formation”.

3. NA ⌈ba-ti-iq-tú šī assaparakka SAA 15, 86 r. 9 “I have sent you i[fo]r­ma­tion”.

4. NA ammar GAZmeš-ni ammar ḫabtūni ba-tiq-tú lā ni-šá-[me] CTN 5, 115 ND 2448: 12 “we have not heard the full details yet, how many were kill­ed, how many were taken prisoner”.

NR

 

bātiqu “express messenger, informer, accuser; an axe or hatchet”

1. NA ba-te-qu ana UGU LUGAL [E]N-ia assapra CTN 5, 232 ND 2703 r. 5 “I have sent the accuser to the king my lord”.

2. SB ⌈ba-ti-qu iddūk SAA 8, 567 r. 6 “he killed the informer”.

3. An axe or hatchet (lit. “cutter”):

a) S. AHw 115 b. 3; diff. CAD M/1, 413 s. v. matqanu b. But s. Stol 1983, 299.

b) New ref.: LB 2 ba-ti-qa-nu CT 55, 216: 8; 242: 2! ba-ti-qu ib. 12. 1-en ba-⌈ti⌉-qu CT 56, 355: 2.

 MPS (3), NR (1–2)

 

+ bātiqūtu “function of an informer”; NA

1. [b]a-te-qu-tú ūtuppiš SAA 16, 124: 6 “he has acted as an informer”.

2. ba-ti-qu-tú SAA 15, 73: 7 in bro­ken context.

 

+ batiʾu “a reed container”

1. Ur III 1 giba-ti-um búr 3-sěla CUSAS 4 p. 25 “1 reed container with a vol­ume(?) of 3 liters”.

2. CAD P 285f. mentions two other Ur III ref s. v. pattű “bucket”: pa4-ti-um and pa4-[d]i-um.

3. Since the stem ends in /i/, prob. to be distinguished from pattű < Sum. ba.an. du8.

 

batqu “cut (off), of poor quality, deficit”

1. OA (silver) ša ina tuppim ba-at-qam laptu AKT 7a, 40/t: 7 “which is written on the tablet as(?) deficit”. ba-at-qam-ma ib. 40/z: 7. Cf. bitiqtu.

2. OA AN.NA-ak qātim ba-at-qám Prag 709: 18 “available cheap(?)/low qual­ity(?) tin”.

3. OB šeʾam ... ba-at-qá-am u maskam AbB 7, 53: 17 “barley, of poor quality and bad”.

4. S. also badqu.

 

battatāya “each of several, individually, from all sides”

NA ina bat-ta⌉-ta-a-a upallaḫūn(u)⌉ SAA 16, 128 r. 7 “they are scaring me from all sides”.

 

battu I “side, region around”

1. Deller 1966, 311f.: NA ina UGU URUmeš ša ba-ti ammīte ša Zāba azqupūni CTN 5, 116f. ND 2453: 24 “for the towns which I planted on that side of the Zab”.

2. Deller 1966, 311f.: UNmeš ... igdurū ina bat-⌈te ammīte ša nāre ittalkū mā meni(m)mēni inabat-tiannīte ša nāre lā rēḫe SAA 15, 164 r. 5, 7 “the people have got scared and go[ne] to the other side of the river. Nobody is left on this side of the river”.

3. Deller 1966, 311f.: [Ar]bāya ina bat-ti amm[īte] ša GN šaknū SAA 1, 179: 5 “the Arabs are settled on the other side of the river GN”.            

NR

 

battu II s. bittu

 

+ bātu II, bādu “night’s rest, vigil”; OB, NA

1. OB lit. adī nūram tu-ka-al-la-mu-šu-nu-ti ay ut-te-er ba-atilī akḫīka AnSt. 33, 148 BM 78962: 33 “until you (Girra) show them the light, may the night’s rest of the gods, your brothers, not be restored”.

2. NA nadbāku ša ba-te SAA 12, 69: 18, 26 “the expenditure for the vigil”. Cf. nadbāku ša pandugāni ša šarri ib. 7 “the expenditure for the king’s festival paddugānu”; nadbāku ša UKKIN DINGIRmeš-ni ib. 27 “the expenditure for the divine council”; nadbāku ša rimki ib. 32 “the expenditure for the bath” and nadbāku ša garmarte ib. 35 “the expenditure for the kanwartu festival”.

3. The words NA bādu “evening” CAD B 27 = bâde “abends” AHw 95 and SB/NB bajātu “nocturnal ceremony” CAD B 34 = bajjātu “nächtlicher Opfer­kult” AHw 97 are later variants of the same word. Since we would ex­pect uncontracted forms in OB and NA, the word does not derive from the inf. bīʾāt/ du, but is a diff. noun from the same root.    

MPS (1, 3), NR (2)

 

+ bâtu (only Št attested); OB

Št bittam uš!-ta-ba-at-tu-ma! Iraq 39, 153 A.1285: 47 “they will interweave the weft”. For context s. bittu II, from which the verb is denominated.         

MPS, NR

 

batūltu, NA batūssu “adolescent, nubile girl”; + OB

1. OB lit. ba-tu-ul-tum māratu awīlim ana rigmiya ana {ri-ig} šagīmiya <li>mqut YOS 11, 87: 11 “may the girl, a daughter of a gentleman, fall at my cry, at my shout”.

2. MA 1 ba-tu-ul-ta BATSH 4/1, 17: 7.    

NR

 

batūlu “boy, young man”

1. Deller 1966, 312: NA PN mBa-tu-lu SAA 15, 168: 1, r. 8, 11.

2. Delete BE 14, 168: 16 (CAD B 174b): read now with von Soden 1968, 458, CAD M/1, 23b and CAD P 134a ma-du-tu instead of ba-du-li.       

NR

 

baṭālu “to cease”; + OA

G OB lex. ašar ašpuruka lā ta-ba-aṭ-ṭi-il⌉ CUSAS 12 p. 253: 213 “where I sent you to, do not stop!”

+ Gtn OA adī ayyim ūmim ib-ta-na-ṭí-il5-kŕ-ma Prag 430: 28 “until when will he miss again and again (the payment date) for you?”

 

+ baṭṭu “the sign BAD”; MB, SB

1. MB ([if the “well-]being”) kīma BAD-ma elîš/šapliš dilű šapliš/elîš gigurű CUSAS 18, 33: 34/35 “is like the sign BAD, with the dilű (the hori­zontal wedge) above/below and the gigurű (the winkelhaken) below / above”.

2. For syllabic spellings ba-aṭ-ṭu, ba-aṭ/baṭ-ṭa in SB lex. texts s. Gong 2000, 104.

 

baṭű I “a platter or container”; + OB

1. a) 1 ru-um-u-um 1 ⌈ba?⌉-ṭí-ú-tum ú ⌉-na-an⌉ PN KTT 53: 2 “one lance, b.s and a pair of shoes for PN”.

b) S. also bá-ṭí-ú-tum ib. 13 and 1 ba-ṭí-ʾŕ-an?⌉ 1 u-BU-šu-um a-na PN ib. 54: 13 “a pair of b.s, one u. and one marḫašum-container”.

c) Krebernik KTT p. 55 and 240, tenta­tively analyses the word as pātiḥum.

2. OB fem. pl. 4 ba!-ṭa-tum AbB 7, 116: 23. AbB 7 p. 96 reads ma-DA-tum.

3. OB 2 ba-ṭi-a-tum UD.KA.BAR JCS 25, 211 WHM 014146: 14 “2 bronze vessels”.

4. LB ba-aṭ-ṭu-u UD.KA.BAR AfO 36/37, 23 Nbn. 761: 3 “bronze b.”. Cf. Roth, ib. with further ref. and comm. in  n. 98.

MPS (1–3), NR (4)

 

+ baʾu (or baʾű)? “a bird”

OB ba?(ma?)-ú-um Edubba 7, 100: 65 (in list of birds). Cf. also ib. 29.

 

+ baʾű? I “to seek, desire”; LB, Aram. lw.

G a-ba-ʾ-i SAA 18, 153: 19 in broken context. According to Parpola, ib. p. 125 pos­si­bly a loan from Aram. bʿʾpe. Akk. elsewhere only has D buʾʾű.

 

+ baʾű II “to bark”; SB

i-ba-ʾ-i-ma-aše-el-bi kīma imḫullum Iraq 60, 204: 3 (proverb) “does the fox yowl like a tempest?”. Cf. George/Al-Rawi, ib. p. 206.        

NR

 

bâʾu I “to go along, to come”; + OAkk.

G 1. OAkk. šumma PN1 u PN2la ba⌉-a FAOS 19, 185 Ga 5: 10 “if PN1 and PN2 have not come” (stative dual, s. Kienast/ Volk, ib.). For the mng. “to come” s. AHw 117 b. G 5b, CAD B 181 b. 2a (OA).

2. OA imp. ba-am Prag 499: 14 “come!”

3. OB lit. i-ba-a-ú-m[a] birqu ša Adad ina ṣērišu ALL 1 i 10 “the lightning of Adad swept over it”.

4. OB lit. ib-ta birqum ša ṣīḫātim elīja ALL 1 i 12 “the lightning of love-mak­ing swept over me”.

5. OB lit. OB itti GN mašmaš ilī ba-ʾ-ma. 33, 148 BM 78962: 34 “pass by with GN, the excorcist of the gods! (subj. Girra).

6. OB lit. iṭeḫḫē Enlil ana Apišalîm! // ib!-tu Westenholz 1997, 185: 5 “ap­proach­ing, Enlil came to the Apišalian”.

7. In OB Mari the participle is well at­test­ed. The following passages contain the idiom qāta bāʾīta šakānu/epēšu:

a) matīmā awīlum ša ina ṣūmim imūtu ina nārim iddűšuma ibluṭ ištū qātam ba-i-tam ippešū warkānūm mītum ul iballuṭ ARM 26/1 p. 349 no. 171: 15 (Heimpel 2003, 241) “did ever a man revive who died of thirst (and) was thrown in a river? After (= Even if) they take action, thereafter a dead man does not revive”.

b) bēlī ušamriṣanni išpuram qātam ba-i-tam taškunma karpat karānim u šamnim tašām mimma anāku karpat karānim u šamnim ul ašām A.3362 (MARI 6, 79 n. 202; LAPO 17, 22f. no. 859): 6 “my lord troubled me (and) wrote me: ‘You took action and bought jars of wine and oil!’ I did not buy jars of wine and oil.”

c)ūmkašādiya[ma] [sa]gbam a[na! qātim! b]a-ʾě-tim [ašta]kan u ṣābum [e]niš ul ša mušītim A.1155: 6 (Was­serman/Ziegler 1994; res­tor­a­tions given here deviate from their edition) “when I arrived I [mobil]ized the patrol-unit but the troop was [w]eak, not (fit) for the night-watch”.

d) In broken context: [q]ātu ba-i-[t]u ina libbi⌉ [... šaknat] ARM 4, 86: 21 (Wasserman/Ziegler 1994 with coll.; res­torations given here deviate from their edition) “action [was taken] con­cerning [...]”.

e) Here also belongs the following passage with stative but without šakānu/ epēšu: šarrū ša mātim elītim ... kâtama inaṭṭalūka [inūma? t]illātiya attama tudammiqam [an]a dummuqi[m] qātka ba-ʾě-a-at ARM 28, 1: 15’ “the kings of the upper land look only at you. [When(?)] you have pro­vided gener­ous­ly my auxiliaries, you will be ready to provide generously (troops for them)”.

f) Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 350, followed by Wasserman/Ziegler 1994 (not know­ing A.3362 and ARM 28, 1), translates “compte” and suggests deri­vation from baʾʾītu “thing sought” (Wasser­­man/ Ziegler: “check-list”). Heimpel 1997b (on­ly knowing ARM 26/1 p. 349 no. 171 and A.3362) trans­lates “to take the initiative” and sug­gests a derivation from bâʾu “to go along, overtake”. The mng. “compte”, “check-list” does not fit any of the passages well. Moreover, baʾʾītu is a noun, not an adj., and an Ass. form cannot be expected in Mari. Last­ly, ba-ʾě-a-at cannot be derived from buʾʾű/baʾʾű: the correct form would be *buʾʾât < *buʾʾū-at. On the other hand, a derivation from bâʾu, indeed the only choice left, poses no formal problems: bāʾītu < *bāʾiʾtu is the fem. participle, bāʾiʾat the stative of the participle. qātu bāʾītu lit. means “hand going along/ overtaking”, qāta bāʾīta epēšu / šakānu “to make/put a hand going along/over­taking”, qātka bāʾiʾat “your hand is going along/overtaking”.

8. The participle is also attested in other contexts in OB Mari:

a) Used as synonym of etēqu: TURmeš-ia e-ti-qú-tim ů ba-ú-tim ARM 28, 68: 16 “my passing and com­ing servants”.

b) a-[n]a e-ti-qí-im ů ba-i-[i]m ma-ṣa-r[i-im!] ARM 27, 116:14 “to the guard passing and coming”.

c) S. also outside of Mari: ētiqu u ba-a-ú imšuḫma AbB 12, 194: 5 “a passer-by or someone walking along had stolen (wood)”. The spelling renders the form bājiʾ/yu < *bāʾiʾu.

9. S. also the stative (of the participle?): anāku ba-e-ku ARM 28, 24: 9 “I am on the way(?)”.

10. SB ina pîka dannatī li-ba-aʾ Or. 62, 320 BMS 12: 80 “on your command may my distress pass by”.

11. SB [nā]ir ramnišu [me]ű i-ba-ʾ-uš ORA 7, 318: 16 “the [sto]rms sweep over the one who (only) [ob]eys himself”.

+ D 1. OB lit. mű ú-ba-ú-nim CUSAS 10, 1: 24 “waters pass by”. Cf. George, ib. p. 9.

2. With George 2003, 337, two further forms are:

a)ēnu munaššikat šēp] ⌈mu⌉-be-ʾ-i sūqi Gilg. MB Emar2 18’ “[a shoe that bites the foot of] one passing the street”.

b) rebīt āliya ú-ba-ʾ-ú (var. a-ba-ʾ) nēḫiš Oshima 2014, 464: 291 (note that Oshima on p. 166 has, by mistake, a-ba-ʾu-ú) “I used to pass the square of my city quietly”.

c) Both mubeʾʾi and ubaʾʾu look as if derived from buʾʾű “to search”, and the latter form has indeed been translated accordingly in AHw 775 s. v. nēḫiš.

Š OB lit. kī ša ... sūqamša nišī ummaka tu-uš-bi-ʾ OECT 11, 2: 8 “in­stead of ... letting your mother go along the people’s street”.

+ Štn? OB ištū MU 5kam uš-ta-na-ba-a-ni-a-ši umma šūma AbB 10, 171: 17 “for 5 years he has been heaping(?) on us the following words”. Transferred use of AHw 117 bâʾu 4 “übergießen, über­fluten”? Prob. not nabű (no Š, text writes elsewhere double con­so­nants) or šubeʾʾű (no e-umlaut).

Disc.: AHw 117b and 1547b proposed two words bâʾu in Akkadian, bâʾu I with ā-vowel and bâʾu II with ū-vowel, the latter a loan from “Canaanite”. How­ever, there is no definitive argu­ment to separate the two verbs from each other, and bâʾu II is hardly a loan from Amor., s. Streck 2000, 85: Se­man­tically, the alleged bâʾu II “to come” well fits bâʾu I, and the ū-variant is prob. archaic and genuine Akkadian, primarily attested in OB Mari (i-bu-ma ARM 26/1 p. 187 no. 6: 18; li-bu-a-am-ma ARM 26/1 p. 465 no. 224: 15) and Shemshara (bu-ma Shem­shara 1, 2: 27), but also in EA (CAD B bâʾu 3c) and perhaps also in OAkk. (ib-tu ZA 87, 23 ii 19, cf. C. Wilcke, ib. p. 29). The ā-variant is prob. influenced by /ʾ/ as third radi­cal.

MPS (G, D, Š, Štn), NR (G 10)

 

bâʾu II “to come” s. bâʾu I

 

baʾūlu “great, important”

For lex. baʾūlu = kabtu s. now AOAT 50, 301 I 19 (Malku).

 

bayyāru “hunter”; + OB; + SB

1. OB a-ab-bu ba-ia-ru wāṣűšu FM 14, 20 iii 11 “numerous(?) were the hunt­ers going out with him”.

2. SB ba-ia-ru KAL 3, 77: 8.

 

bayyātu s. bātu

 

bazaḫātu “military post”

Disc. of alleged Amor. etym. in Streck 2000, 85f. S. also buzzuʾu.

 

bazāru s. baṣāru

 

bazāʾu s. buzzuʾu

 

+ baZiḫītum? “an object(?)”; OB

šapilti ṣābiya ba-zi-ḫi-tam [pe]ḫḫazam anzūtam ša giPISANdidli.ḫi.a [išš]ű ARM 26/1 p. 128 no. 18: 24 “the rest of my troops carried the b., the [peḫḫazu]-metal and the eagle-emblem(?) in sev­eral reed boxes”. Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 130 n. d connects the word with OB baziḫtu “claim” (hapax, s. below) and trans­lates “le strict minimum”. Heim­pel 2003, 185 does not give any translation, but in his comm. p. 186 speaks of “pro­visons”. The orthog­raphy does not fit the word baziḫtu entirely, and the con­text might also point to an object as part of mer­chan­dise transported from Mari to Ḫalab.

 

+ baZku “quacking (of ducks)”; SB

ba-aZ-ki ALL no. 11 r. 5, s. paspasu.

 

+ bazūšānu? “?”

NA lā ina ba-zu-šá?⌉-nu-u-a ana šarre bēliya ašpura SAA 10, 187 r. 1 “did I not write in my ... to the king, my lord?” Read ba-ṣú-ṣa?⌉- from baṣāṣu “to trickle”?

 

bed/ṭű “to dispose of(?)”

G 1. OB makkūr mātim elītim u šaplītim te-bé-ed-di maḫīr-ka ul imaṭṭi MARI 5, 258 FLP 1674: 17 “you will dispose of the riches of the upper and lower coun­try. Your economy will not diminish”.

2. For the mng. of this verb s. AHw 1547. There seems to be a second verb beṭ/, s. below. Cf. a. padű.

MPS, NR

 

beʾēšu “to stir”

For OA ref. s. bęšu (Veenhof 2015a, 229–232).

 

+ bēlānu “power, force”; OB

1. ḫiblātika ša ina bé-la-nu-um ukallu luwaššerakkum ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410: 16’ “I will release to you your los­ses that I am keeping by force”.

2. assurri bēlī kęm i[qabbī] ummami ina be-la-ni u[šadbabš]unūtii mimma ul uš[ad]ba[bšunūti] šunuma idabbubū ARM 26/1 p. 435 no. 207: 36 “I am afraid my lord will s[ay]: ‘She [makes] them [speak] by force.’ I absolutely do not make [them sp]eak. They speak by them­selves”.

3. bēlī idninamma ina be-la-ni ušēṣűninnima attalkam ARM 26/1 p. 436 n. b M.8512: 14 “my lord pressed me and they drove me out by force and I went away”.

4. ina GN [PN] ina be-la-nim iklűma ARM 1, 91 (= MARI 5, 179) 4’ “they kept [PN] in GN by force”.

5. (PN has given land in exchange for a plot) annűm ṭūbu ula be-la-nu ARM 8, 8: 5 (cf. MARI 5, 180 n. 27) “this was voluntarily, not by force”.

6. salim be-la-nim usallamšunūti ARM 2, 16: 16 (s. Durand 1998, 93) “I will have them conclude a peace treaty by (lit. of) force”.

7. inanna ina mīnim qišti GN ana PN ittūr bēlī ina be-la-nim qišti GN ana PN ittadin FM 8, 40 no. 3: 27 “now, why has the forest of GN returned to PN? My lord has given the forest of GN to PN by force”.

8. ina be-la-nim FM 9, 151 no. 32: 12 (in broken context).

9. Note instead of ina rather ištū ŠŔ-ba: ištu ŠŔ-ba [b]e-la-ni ašaddadš[u] FM 8, 157 no. 44: 32. “I will remove i[t] by force”.

10. OB apart from Mari:

a) šumma awīlum ina be!⌉-la-a-ni eleppam lā šattam iṣṣabat LE § 6 A i 27 “if a man by force seizes a boat which does not belong to him”.

b) kīma ina be!-la-ni nīš ilim [?] ušazkir[u] ” IM 49238+49543: 13 “that they did [not?] make me take an oath by force”.

11. a) Durand, MARI 5, 180 n. 27 was the first to recognize the adverb ina bēlāni in OB Mari. Previously, part of the references were listed in CAD N/2, 333 s. v. nullānū “evil, fraudulent in­tention”. However, the spelling i-na bé(BI)-la-nu-um ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410: 16’ proves that instead of nu- we have to read be-. Note than none of the altogether four OB references listed in CAD is written nu-ul-.

b) Durand derived the word from “bîlum” (WBL) “moyen de trans­porteur” in the transferred mng. “moyen de faire se mouvoir quelqu’un contre sa volonté”. S. also Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 436 and Durand 2000, 322 ad ARM 26/1 p. 435 no. 207 “par astuce”, Du­rand, ARM 26/1 p. 436 n. b ad M.8512 “l’on m’a fait sortir sur une civičre”, ib. ad ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410 “contre mon gré”, Durand 1998, 93 ad ARM 2, 16 “toute ŕ notre avan­tage”. Durand is followed by Joannčs, ARM 26/2 p. 281 “malgré moi” and Heimpel 2003, 257 ad ARM 26/1 p. 435 no. 207 “She helped them [speak]” with comm. “literally, ‘made them speak with a carrying pole’” (but Heim­pel 2003, 351 ad ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410 leaves the trans­lation open). Durand, FM 8, 157 n. c. derives the word from an unattested word *pęlum and proposes the trans­lation “agir avec astuce”. In the same vol­ume on p. 40, however, he translates “par échange” (s. also the disc. ib. p. 41 n. f).

c) The orthography with be- does not favor a word *bīlu. It is also dubious that a noun of the pattern PiRS could have the mng. “means of transport”. Fur­thermore, the metaphor “means of trans­port” > “trick, deceit” or “against my will” is unconvincing. Lastly, none of the contradicting translations does seem to fit all the references. There­fore, the etym. and mng. given by Durand have to be rejected.

d) The orthography with be- favors a derivation from bēlu “lord”. Whereas the suffix -ān mostly derives concrete nouns, usually designations for per­sons, from other nouns (Streck 2014a, 46 § 135), bēlānu seems to have an abstract mng. “power, force”. A mng. “by force” for the con­struc­tion ina bēlāni (gen­i­tive) or (ina) bēlānū (locative) fits all the ref. well. Only in ARM 2, 16 bēlānim is found after a noun in the con­struct state.

 

bēltu “lady, mistress, proprietress (of)”

Deller 1966, 312: NA ginű ša RN ana Bēlat-Nipḫa GAŠAN rabītu irkusuni Parfümrezepte 34 r. 23 “regular offer­ings which RN established for The-Mistress-of Nipḫa, the great lady”.

NR

 

belű II, balű “to be extinguished, come to an end”

G ABL 1368 r. 1 (CAD B 73a b. 1b) s. balāṭu II.

D 1. OB išātum ... ina danna ú-ba-al-lu ARM 26/1 p. 500 no. 244: 10 “fire ... they extinguished it with difficulty”.

2. Object “battle”: OB lit. bu-ul-lu tuqmātim kűmma Ištar CunMon. 8, 22ff. i 20 “extinguishing wars is yours, Ištar”.

3. LB ub-te-lu imatka AMD 1, 237 no. 14: 2’ (inc. against a scorpion) “they have nullified your venom!”

MPS (D), NR (G, D 3)

 

bēlu “lord, proprietor (of)”

1. OAkk. Beydar:

a) ITI.SAR/UD.SAR dBe-lim “month of Bēlum”, ITI.SAR (d)Be-lí GN etc. “month of Bēlum from GN” Subartu 2 p. 180, Subartu 12 p. 124.

b) In PN: Be-la-ma-DINGIR Subartu 2, 5 v 4 “God is lord”. Šu-be-lim ib. p. 190 “He of the lord”.

2. OB be-el mar-ṣa-tim ARM 26/2 p. 337 no. 434: 35 “victim” (lit. “lord of pain­ful things”), s. Joannčs, ARM 26/2 p. 338 n. i and Heimpel 2003, 217 n. 130. Cf. bēl marušti “enemy” CAD M/1, 318b maruštu 1e.

3. Deller 1966, 312: Negated: NA A. ŠŔ.GA ša pāḫat GN šumma ramű ša EN-e šū Iraq 20, pl. 38 ND 2734+ 2416+2457: 49 “if the field in the prov­ince of GN is abandoned it is owener­less”; cf. CTN 5, 210.

4. SB lā bēl ili “unkucky person” s. Borger 1971, 66 and CAD I/J 103b.

5. LB bēl ḫanšę instead of normal rab ḫanšę: EN 50-ú “commander of 50” Bēl-rēmanni p. 252: 9.

6. bēl sūti instead of normal rab sūti: PN1 PN2 u PN3⌉ENmeš gišBŔNmeš šád⌉[UTU] Bēl-rēmanni p. 221 BM 42646+43612: 3f. “lords of the sūtu-taxes of [Šamaš]”.

MPS (1–2, 5–6), NR (3–4)

 

bennu I “epilepsy”

NA Borger 1971, 66: dLUGAL. AMAŠ. PA.Č = be-en-nu CT 16, 2: 61f. 

NR

 

+ bennūtu “epileptic fit?”; NA

adu bé-nu-ti-šú BAM 234: 6 “(he is filled with anger …) until his epileptic fit”. Cf. Stol 1993a, 29 n. 56.           

NR

 

+ bērâ “per double mile”; OA

šumma ayyēma udappir be-ra-a u 1 GÍN.TA tuggaršuma TPAK 156a: 17 “if he goes somewhere else, he can hire one (other employee) for 1 shekel per double mile”. S. comm. in Michel/Ga­elli, ib. p. 215.          

NJCK, NR

 

**beriʾu CAD B 207a; CDA 43a

1. For OB Lu MSL 12, 194 C3: 13 s. DCCLT OB Lu2-azlag2 (2006): lú na-ĝá-aḫ = nu-ḫu-ú-um “stupid one”.

2. For bi-ri-e-em ARM 3, 79: 8’ s. berű II “to be hungry” (AHw 123a; von Soden 1968, 458; Durand 1998, 595).

NR

 

+ berkabtu “charioteer”; SB

SB lex. lú-en-gišgigir = bé-er-kab-tú/tu (< bēl narkabti) OIP 114, 119: 12; 121: 12. Cf. comm. Cole, ib. p. 248: lú-en-gišgigir in NB/LB to be read berkabtu instead of bēl narkabti?        

NR

 

berű II “to be hungry”

G 1. For Cop. 10055 (CAD B 119 b. B 1c) s. FAOS 19, 163 Di 8: 5.

2. OB [k]urummatī ana bé-ri-ki [l]ā ipparras AbB 12, 110: 18 “may my food provision for your hunger not be cut off!”.

3. OB add bé-re-e-em ARM 3, 79 r. 9; cf. the lit. s. v. **beriʾu.

4. OB said of field: eqlum ul be-ri ... eqlum inanna šeʾam mali AbB 9, 228: 12 “the field has not been hungry ... The field now is full of barley!”.

Št2 1. “to be made hungry”: OB qēmam nu-uš-te-bé-r[e] ARM 26/2 p. 62 no. 306: 10 “we are made to hunger for flour”.

2. For other ref. s. barű III, above.

MPS (G, Št2), NR (G)

 

bēru II, beʾru “selected; choice; elite troup”

1. OA an official (AHw b. II 1b):

a) inūmī kaspam ašqulu PN1 u PN2 be-ru-ú AKT 5, 35: 27 “when I weighed thesilver, PN1 and PN2 were the b. of­fi­cials”.

b) (figurines of gods have been de­posited as pledge) ilū ik-kunuk 3 be-re-e kankū ib. 46: 14 “the gods have been sealed with the seal of 3 b. officials”.

c) inūmī weriʾam ilqēʾūni 3 be-ru-ú ... iš-šaḫātišunu izzīzū ib. 36 “when they received the copper, 3 b. officials stood at their side”. S. also be-ru-ú ib. 17.

d) bé-ru TPAK 26: 5, 13, 14, bé-ri 18. Cf. Michel/Garelli, ib. p. 93. bé-ru PIHANS 75, 80 n. 272 Kt n/k 204: 18.

e) The ref. show that, pace CAD B 213, there is prob. no bērūtu “a collegium of officials”; rather, the form in -ūt- is an adjectival pl. This means, in turn, that a derivation of the word bēru from the adj. bēru is likely. According to Veen­hof, AKT 5 p. 135, the b. offi­cials act “for and by the order of the Assyr­ian authorities” and serve “the fi­nan­cial in­terests of the City, especially in the col­lection of debts”.

2. OB A.ŠŔ bé-er-tam ARM 26/2 p. 386 no. 462: 17 “choice field-area” (Heimpel 2003, 378).

3. OB lú.mešbi-ḫi-ir [DUMU]meš um-me-ni ARM 22, 13 iv 15 “elite of artisans”.

4. 1 túgGUZ.ZA bé-rum ARM 22, 139: 7 “1 choice ...-cloth”.

5. OB lit. ina bé-eḫ-ri-im wāšibūt aḫ Purantim FM 14, 18 ii 35 “by the elite troop, sitting at the bank of the Eu­phra­tes”. Pace Durand 1998, 362, Heimpel 2003, 593f., Charpin/Ziegler 2003, 217 n. 430 and Guichard, FM 14, 48 not piḫru “assembly” (note the spelling with be in lex. texts, CAD B 211; cor­rect in CAD P 369).

6. SB gada-i-ri ka-ad-i-⌈ri?⌉ = ka?-te bé-re⌉-tum Emar 6/4, 556: 50, s. DCCLT MB Ura 10 “hatcheled flax = choice flax”. For the process of hatch­el­ing s. Waetzoldt 1980–1983b, 585 § 4c. Cf. CAD B 207 bēru A lex. sect. for bērētum, said of siki “wool”.

7. No Amor. etym., s. Streck 2000, 86. Cf. Ugar. biḫīru, below.

MPS (1–7), NR (1)

 

bēru III “double hour, league”

In the adverbial acc., s. von Soden 1967, 335a; 1968, 459; Veenhof 1981–1982, 66:

1. OB ina eqlim bé-ra-am šakin ARM 4, 26: 28 “(the city) is situated at a distance of one double hour”. Cf. CAD B 246 bīram.

2. ů eqlum ana GN bé-ra-am ů zu-[uz/za-am] ARM 2, 42: 7 “and the dis­tance to GN is one double hour and a half”. Cf. CAD B 208b s. v. bēru.

3. OB pirṣum bé-ra-am irtapiš AbB 3, 52: 29 “the breach is a mile wide”. Cf CAD P 414a.

4. LB zibbat ídEDIN.NA bé-ra-am A.ŠŔ KI PN1, PN2 u PN3 gerram ušēṣű CT 8, 8c: 2 “PN2 and PN3 rented from PN1 the road along the rear part of the Edin Canal over a distance of one dou­ble hour”.   

NR

 

bęru I, baʾāru “to choose”

1. OA TÚG ni-be-er-ma AKT 2, 34: 5 (s. also 23) “we chose the cloth”.

2. OB aššum fTURmeš šiṭrim ... bé-ri-im ... fTURmeš šiṭram lā i-bé-er-ru ... fTURmeš ana šiṭrim e-bé-er-ra-am-ma ARM 10, 125: 6, 11, 20 “about choos­ing the girls for the š.-song ... they must not choose the girls for the š.-song ... I will choose the girls for the š.-song”. Note two diff. con­struc­tions, one with ana and one with double acc. fTURmeš šiṭrim is not a gen­i­tive construction (thus ARM 10) but reflects the construction with double acc. with case attraction in the inf. construction (cf. Streck 2014 § 209a).

3. By-form baʾāru in OB: ṣābam yalūtam[l]u-ub-ḫa-ar-[ma FM 5, 109 n. 276 A.3594+: 35, “let me select alliance troops”.

4. “to examine” also NA: anāku dibbīšu a-bé-á[r] SAA 13, 3: 8 “I will per­son­ally examine his matter”.

MPS (1–2, 4), NR (3)

 

berűtu “hunger”

OB bé-ru-ta-am ša šę u kaspim AbB 12, 66: 16’ “hunger(?) for barley and sil­ver”.

 

bęšu “to go away, withdraw”

G 1. Cf. Veenhof 2015a, 229–232, with new OA ref., concluding a mng. “to de­clare, give information”; how­ever, the semantic connection with the mng. “to go away”, remains unclear.

2. OB ṣābam aṭrudma itrűniššunūti aššum pa!?-ni bēlija la i-bi-šu usanniqšunūtima ḫūrassu ēkim ARM 27, 66: 15 “I sent troops and they brought them here. I checked them and took the sumach away from them so that they can not flee from(?) the pres­ence(?) of my lord”. Birot, ARM 27 p. 131 “afin que mon seigneur ne soit pas irrité, je les ai interrogés”, thinking of baʾāšu with subject panū “to look bad, to be angry”. However, baʾāšu is only attest­ed in LB (CAD B 5 baʾāšu A 2) and the supposed pa!-ni is in oblique case. Fur­ther­more, baʾāšu always has a strong aleph. Birot, ib. in his comm. also quotes a trans­lation of J.-M. Durand: “je les ai ré­primandés de s’ętre montrés sans vergogne envers mon seigneur”. How­ever, baʾāšu B “to come to shame” is not i- but a-class.

3. SB ina asīdū šēpīšunu qaqqari i-bi-iš-šú ina sârišunu uḫteppű GN1 u GN2 Gilg. SB V 133 “at the heels of their feet the earth divided; as they whirled about they shattered GN1 and GN2”. Diff. AHw 1547: bâšu II “(Erde) stamp­­fen”, fol­low­ed by CDA 41a.

MPS (1–3), NR (3)

 

bēšu “distant”

SB bé-eš-tú : rūqu : aḫű SpTU 1, 84 ed. 3 “distant : remote : strange”.

 

beṭ/dű “to cheat(?)”

G 1. OB i-bé-DU-né-ši-ma AbB 10, 111: 4 in broken context, uncertain. Som­merfeld 1990, 143: bedű.

2. MB ib-TE-e MBLET 42: 14 in bro­ken context. Uncertain.

D ú-ba-aṭ-ṭi-a-ni-ma šę im-ta-ša!-aḫ AbB 6, 220: 17 “he cheated me and stole my barley”. Diff. CDA 42: “to delay”.

Disc.: There seems to be a second verb bed/ṭű, s. above. Cf. also padű.

MPS (G, D), NR (G, D)

 

bīʾātu, bīʾādu “to spend the night, to be safe”.

G 1. OA said of silver and goods. Cf. Hecker 1966, 64f.: “‘Übernachten des Sil­bers’ (ist wohl) seine sichere Auf­bewahrung im Hause”. Larsen 2002, 24 ad. 13: “to be available, ac­tive”.

a) šīmam lašʾamma lutaʾʾerakkumma KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN li-bi-it OAA 1, 15: 13 “I shall make purchases and return that to you, and the silver, 1 shek­­el, shall be safe”.

b) šīmam lašʾamma lušēbilakkumma li-bi-ta-am OAA 1, 17: 23 “I shall make purchases and send the (goods) to you, so that they may be safe”.

c) KŮ.BABBAR 1 GÍN li-bi-tám OAA 1, 38 r. 9’.

2. OB lit. [in]a MUL li-bi-it-ma YOS 11, 29: 6 “let (the medication) spend the night under the stars”.

3. OB [šamaššammū k]īma tanappaṣu ina kīdim lā i-bi-tu AbB 10, 93: 12’ “after you have crushed the sesame, it should not stay overnight outside”.

4. The form with d is also attested in OB Mari: i-bi-du ARM 26/1 p. 187 no. 42: 9.

5. SB lū īdēma lū lā uṣṣāma lū a-bi-it ina ḫurriya FAOS 22, 42 II iii 42 “had I known, I would not go out, I would stay safe at my burrow”.

6. SB said of an animal: irtappud serramu i-bit ina ṣēri Westenholz 1997, 46: 58 (Sargon Birth Legend) “the ona­ger ran about, stayed overnight in the steppe”. Pace Westenholz, ib. not i-biṭ “he twitches”.

7. Deller 1966, 312: NA umā šarru bēlī annaka bé-e-d[e] illakūnu ušallumū SAA 15, 223 r. 10 “now that the king my lord is staying overnight here, they will come and comp[lete] (their work)”.

8. Deller 1966, 312: UD 15-KÁM ina bēt ili ni-bi-ad SAA 1, 134 r. 4 “we shall spend the night in the temple on the 15th”.

Gtn OB ina ekallimma ib-ta-na-ia-at ARM 26/2 p. 433 no. 495: 17 “he kept staying overnight in the palace”.

MPS (G, Gtn), NR (G)

 

bibbu, + bību “wild sheep”

1. SB lex. bi-i-bu Emar 6/4, 551: 47 (Ḫḫ XIV 142; MSL 8/2, 17).

2. As demon: SB bi-ib-bu murtappid[u] AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 19: 2 “ever running b.” (in list of demons).

3. The names listed in AHw and CAD s. v. bibű “baby(?)” may belong here. S. the spellings Bi-ib-bu-ú(-a).

 

bibbulu, bubbulu “flood; day of the disappearance of the moon; juggling”

Juggling (with weapons): OB 50 ṣābam damqam ... ana bu-ub-bu-lim ušērib FM 1, 138 A.486+M.5319: 37 “I made 50 good soldiers enter for juggling”.

 

bibēnu, + pl. fem. bibinnātu, bibēnātu “tem­ple; a hair-style designating slaves”

Also attested OAkk., OA, both in­stances in the fem. pl., designating a hair-style given to enemies in order to make them slaves:

1. OAkk. bí-bí-in-na-at-su-nu ugallib RIME 2, 105 ii 4 “I shaved their bibēnu hair-style(s) (= I shaved their hair to give them a b.-hair-style)”. Cf. Gelb/ Kienast 1990, 241.

2. OA bi4-be-na-tim qaqqadātīšunu aškun OA Sarg. 52 “I applied b. hair-style(s) to their heads”.           

MPS, NR

 

bibinnu s. bibēnu.

 

biblu “bringing; things brought; invisi­bility of the moon”

Invisibility of the moon (cf. bibbulu): SB Ugar. ina pī bi-ib-li ina rēš arḫi AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 65: 1 “at the day of the invisibility of the moon, when the month starts”.

 

+ bibnu? “a bird”

OB bi/pí-ib/p⌉-nu-ummušen Edubba 7, 100: 28 (in list of birds). Black/Al-Rawi 1987, 124 read, with the copy, bi-⌈x⌉-nu-um, but Al-Rawi/Dalley, Edub­ba 7 p. 105 ⌈a-ta⌉-nu-um.

 

bibű s. bibbu

 

bidalu, pl. bidalūm/na “substitute, dep­uty, assistant”; Ugar., Ugar. lw.

Del Olmo Lete/Sanmartín 2004, 217 (with previous lit.), on the base of the alphabetic ref. of the word: “substitute, reserve personnel”. Cf. Dietrich/Loretz 2008, 288f.; Tropper 2012, 180 with pre­­vious lit. b. in DAM. GŔRmeš : bi-da-lu-ma is not an equation for tamkāru “merchant” but rather quali­fies the word.

NR

 

+ Bigű “a piece of jewelry”; OB

1. Bi-gi-i-im ARM 32 p. 344 M.10532: 3.

2. Bi-gu KŮ.GI! ARM 32 p. 464 M.8153: 8’.

3. S. Arkhipov, ib. 74. Related to the plant pigű (CAD P 359f.)?   

NR

 

biḫirtu “levy”

SB šumma ina araḫ Šabāṭi šarru lū ana bi-ḫir?-t[u? l]ū ana dDI.KUD īrub CUSAS 25, 229 K.7079 r. ii 1 “if, in the month of Šabāṭu, a king enters either for levy(?) or for Mandānu” (serie Inbu bēl arḫi; reading after Labat 1960, 168). Cf. the reading BI SAR x [x] in CUSAS 25, 229.   

NR

 

+ biḫīru “a soldier”, lit. “chosen”; Ugar., Ugar. lw.

[lú.]mešb[i]-ḫi-ru uruu-g[a-ri-it] PRU 6, 71: 5’ “b.-soldiers from Ugarit”. Cf. Sivan 1984, 171 and 211; Huehnergard 1987, 112f.; Tropper 2012, 175f. Cf. bēru II, beʾru.

 

billatu “mixture”

OB in transferred mng.: ištūma awātum bi-il-la-at alkā māpalīku<nu> nīš ilim ina GN1 ūlūma ina GN2 šuzkirāšunūti ARM 27, 116: 42 “because the matter is a mess, go (and) make your spokes­men take an oath in GN1 or GN2!” Pace J.-M. Durand apud M. Birot, ib. p. 203 note n, there is no need to correct the text to bi-il-la-tum. For OB Mari “alloy” s. Arkhipov 2012, 25.

 

billu I, + bīlu “(ad)mixture, alloy”; + OB

1. OB 6 SIMUG.GAL šu bi-lim ARM 19, 342: 3 “6 experienced smiths for (making) an alloy”.

2. OB 39 1/2 MA.NA ZABAR bi-il-li 7-ŔM ARM 21, 274: 2 “39 1/2 minas of bronze, an alloy of seven (to one)”. Cf. bi-l[i] ib. 276: 2, [b]i-il-l[i] ib. 285: 8. S. Durand, ib. p. 312f. n. 12.

3. bi-il-li 7 GÍN-ŔM ARM 22, 203 ii 8 and passim in this text. S. also Arkhipov 2012, 24f.

4. MA [b]i-i-laana šiltāḫī BATSH 4/1, 16: 18 “(iron), an alloy for ar­rows”.

 

bilṣusquint-eyed(?)

SB PN ḫibtu nīku akī 2-ma maḫḫu akī 2-ma bil-ṣu akī 2-ma SAA 3, 30: 1 “PN raped captive(?), doubly so, runny-eyed one, doubly so, squint-eyed man(?), doubly so”.

 

biltu, bīsu “load; talent; yield; rent; tribute”

1. Deller 1966, 313: NA ana šēṭišu PN bi-lat lušātera bi-lat lumaṭṭi SAAB 5, 20: 9 (s. also notes on p. 53) “for his carelessness, PN will give one bundle extra, or reduce one bundle (of his part)”.

2. NA by-form bīsu (cf. AHw 1548; or bissu): bi-si gišKIRI6 StAT 3, 32: 25 “yield of the orchard”.

MPS (2), NR (1)

 

bīltu s. bīštu

 

binītu I “creation; shape, appearance, structure”

1. OB 3(b) bi-ni-a-tum AbB 7, 141: 3’ “3 seah of eggs”.

2. OB bi-ni-a-tim ina a-la-al-li AbB 3, 4: 14 “fish roe in an alallű-con­tainer(?)”.

3. Beaulieu 2003, 196f.: LB 1 GÚ KŮ.GI šá ZIZNA 65 bi-ni-tú YBC 4174: 24 “1 gold necklace of fish-roe-shaped beads (comprising) 65 beads”.

4. Von Soden 1968, 459: SAG.DŮ KU6 BAM 124 i 25, ii 43 =(?) binīt nūni “fish roe”.   MPS (1–2), NR (3–4)

 

binītu II “a type of crossbeam(?)”; Ur III

1. 20 ĜURUŠ [bí-n]i-tum GÍD.DČ CUSAS 4 p. 289 “20 workmen to tight­en crossbeams (for construction of the brewery-kitchen-mill complex)”.

2. 10 ĜURUŠ bí-ni-tum GÍD.[DČ?] ib. bí-ni-tum IM SUMUR AKA CUSAS 4 p. 249 (5 references) “(workmen) hav­ing plastered crossbeams”.

3. The word is already known from other Ur III texts (CAD B 238). Heim­pel 2009, 180–182 suggests the reading bi-ě-tum “a container”, lit. “house”. S. also Sallaberger 2011, 357, who con­siders the interpret. “a type of cross­beam” as unsub­stanti­ated.

 

bintu, bittu “daughter”

1. bittu in MB: adverbial expression in absolute state: bi-⌈it⌉-ta-at bukur HS 1893: 4 “daughters (and) son(s)” (courtesy E. Zomer, s. forthcoming publ. TMH 11).

2. bittu in Ug: fbi-it-ta rabīti AnOr 48, 11f. RS 1957.1: 6, 10 “daughter of the Great Lady”. fbi-it-ti ib. 18, 21. fbi-it-[ti] MRS 9, 128 RS 17.348 r. 4. Pace Kühne 1973, 177 and Sivan 1984, 212 bittu is not necessarily a WSem. cognate of Akkadian bintu.  

NR

 

bīnu I, binnu “son”; + OB

1. lu-lu bi-in YOS 11, 17: 3 “the pri­me­val man is a son(?)”, s. also bi-ni ib. 1 (incant. childbirth).

2. Von Soden 1968, 458f.: SB ṣa-bi-tu! bi-in-na tu-na-kap CT 14, 50: 72 (word square) “the gazelle knocks the child down”. Cf. CAD B 217b, disc.

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

bīnu II “tamarisk”

1. OB paššūru ša aḫâ[tušu] ša gišbi-nim FM 8, 46 no. 6: 7 “a table whose sides are of tamarisk”.

2. OB kīma bi-nim šumqutū qarrādū FM 14, 16 ii 15 “the warriors had been struck down like a tamarisk”.

3. Unusual spelling OB GIŠḫi.a bi-ia-ni ARM 26/2 p. 533 no. 541: 5, 18 (letter from Karkemiš). Cf. Streck 2013, 322f.: uncontracted spelling /baynī/.

4. For OB Mari s. also Kupper 1992, 164.

5. a) SB itti ĝišŠINIG aḫî u kušāri ēdi šēpēki arakkas Lamaštu ii 47 (Farber 2014, 168f.) “I will bind your feet to a free-standing tamarisk and a lone reed stalk”.

b) SB itti ĝišŠINIG aḫî u kušāri ēdi rukussima (note the inverse order in some duplicates: itti ĝišŠINIG ēdi u kušāri aḫî) Lamaštu ii 146 (Farber 2014, 176f.).

c) S. already Borger 1971, 66f., and correct CAD K 598b kušāru a and CAD A/1, 38b abāru III.

MPS (1–4), NR (5)

 

+ bīnu? III “a type of garment”; OB

ŠU.NIGIN 20 túgbi-nu-um ARM 30 p. 30 T.158: 8’ (summary of diff. tex­tiles).

NR

 

binűtu, MA bunűtu “creation, creature, product, form”

binűt amīlūti “child; human being”:

1. MA bu-nu-ut LÚ.U18.LU luṣṣâ līmur IZI.GAR Iraq 31, 31: 49 “may the hu­man being come out, may he see the light”.

2. SB āšib ekleti bi-nu-ut amīlū[ti] ammīni lā tabkī ina libbi ummi[ka] MesCiv 2, 110 § 39: 16 “you (embryo), living in the darkness, human being, why did you not cry in the womb of your mother?” S. also Farber, ib. p. 139.

NR

 

binzurru s. bunzerru

 

+ biqlu “sapling”; OB

1. GIŠḫi.a bi-iq-lam ša taskarinnim ARM 26/1 p. 134 no. 21: 11’ “trees, sapling(s) of boxtree”.

2. For biqlu instead of piglu s. Zadok 1993, 321: BQL, etym. Syr. bqlʾ “sprout“, Ugar. bql “groats”. Also Heim­pel 2003, 188, who connects the word with buqlu “malt”. The lemma biqlētu (AHw 127 “Malzkeime”, CAD B 244 “malt in one of its stages of ger­mi­­na­tion”) is the pl. of this word. S. also Stol 2008, 353 (with the spelling piglu). Disc. of Amor. etym. Streck 2000, 86f.

 

bīram (CAD B 245) s. bēru III

 

birbirru, + mirmerru “luminosity”

1. The word is also attested in the sg. (cf. also Mayer 2016, 197):

a) OB lit. lišānāšu bi-ir-bi-ir-ru-um VS 17, 4: 4 “its two tongues are luminos­ity”.

b) OB lit. šinnāšu mi-ir-me-er-ru-um CUSAS 32, 27: 5 “its teeth are lumi­nos­ity”. Cf. mermerru AHw 1575.

c) Stative sg. fem.: OB lit. bi-ir-bi-re-et UET 6/2, 404: 1 “she is a shining light” (diff. Mayer 2016, 197: nisba).

2. Instead of bīt bír-bír-ri-im ARM 10, 38: 10 read prob. É.BABBAR-ri-im = Ebabbarim.

 

+ birīdu? “a jewel”; OB

1. bi-ri-di ARM 22, 237: 5 among other items delivered for the goddess Dērītu. 2. bi-ri-du ARM 32 p. 475 M.12299: 7’’, qualifying the garment mudű. S. Arkh­ipov, ib. p. 74.

3. Form of the word unclear: b/pirīdu, b/piriddu?    

NR

 

biriḫḫu “string, bundle”

OB ref. Stol 1987b, 74 n. 108: 12 bi-ri-ḫi ša šūmim AbB 10, 201: 19 “12 strings of garlic”; cf. also CBS 408.

 

birīt, berte in MA and NA “between, among”

1. OB ana ḫârim qatālim bi-ri-it Ḫa-nameš ů GN ARM 2, 37: 7 “in order to kill a donkey (= to establish peace) be­tween Ḫana and GN”.

2. birīt- u birīt- (CAD B 252 birīt 4) in the adv. acc.: OB salīmim bi-ri-sú ů bi-ri-it PN ARM 26/2 p. 280 no. 410: 5 “peace between him and PN”.

3. Deller 1966, 313: NA PN [ina pa-n]a-tu-u-a ina bi-[r]i-tu-uš-šú-nu madaktu CTN 5, 22 ND 2717: 8’ “PN [has set up] a camp in [front] of me in the midst of them”.

4. Deller 1966, 313: with assimilation of r: NA šulmu ana bi-ta-šu-<nu> Iraq 16, 54 ND 2079: 5.

5. Deller 1966, 313: with connecting vowel a:

a) ina ber-ta!-šú-nu MCS 2, 19: 7.

b) ina ber-ta-šú-nu SAAB 5, 66: 9, 12; ib. 16: 10.

6. Deller 1966, 313:

a) NA dēnu ina ber-tú-šu-nu iptaras StAT 3, 102: 6.

b) NA []nu ina ber-te-šú-nu iptarsa SAAB 9, 97: 12 “he decided the case be­tween them”.

c) Without dēnu: ina ber-ta-šú-nu iptarsu SAAB 5, 66: 9 “(PN) gave a decision between them”.

7. LB Cf. Jursa 1999, 89 with n. 361 for ina GN ina bi-rit BŔDki VS 5, 103: 2 “in GN within the city wall” and KI-tě bi!-[ri]t [BŔD]ki CT 55, 128 obv. 2 “a plot with[in] the city [wall]”.

MPS (2, 7), NR (1, 3–6)

 

birītu I “space between, distance”

1. Lex. be-ri-tum/ti Emar 6/4, 542: 219–221 (Ḫḫ I).

2. OB: Unusual plene spelling in OB bé-e-ri-i-tim AbB 13, 2: 9.

3. Pl. in SB 4 ina ammati bi-rat tu-li-šú AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 42: 35 “the middle parts of his breast were 4 cubits (big)”.

 

birku, burku, + barku (OA, MB Emar) “knee”

1. OA ba-ar-ke-a qallil Innāya 240: 17; AKT 7a, 41: 25 “make my knees light”, hence “make things easy for me, ease my burden”. The same expression is found in Early OB: birkīya qú-li-il5 Sumer 23 pl. 16: 15; for corresponding G, s. CAD Q 55b s. v. qalālu 1b end.

2. OA PN Bu-ur-kŕ-num Innāya 152: 37 “The one with knee(?)”. Michel, ib. p. 207 Bu-ur-qá-num. Bu-ur-ki-a ib. 273: 11.

3. OB lit. urrukbir-ki AMD 1, 215ff. BM 79125: 1 “he is long as relates to the knees”.

4. OB lit. urruḫ bi-ir-ki-i ib. 218f. BM 79938: 1 “he is swift as relates to the knees”.

5. Lex. šar DŮG bá-ar-ku Emar 6/4, 537: 276.

6. SB [i]mtanaqqutū ištū bur-ke-šu AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 43: 4 “fall con­stantly to(?) (text: from) his knees” (unclear).

7. NA a piece of meat as temple offer­ing: 24? u[zu]bu-ur-ki⌉ ša 14 alpī SAA 7, 200 r. 6 “24(?) ‘knees’ of 14 oxen”. [bu]-ur-ki ib. 202 r. 8.

MPS (2–4, 6–7), NJCK (1), NR (5)

 

birmu I “multicolored cloth”

1. a) OB kisal bi-ir-mi ARM 23, 494: 14 “courtyard of (the workshop for) multi­colored cloth”.

b) bīt bi-ir-mi ib. 574: 6 “house (= workshop) for multicolored cloth”. Cf. CAD b. A a.

2. NA GŮN SAA 7, 104 r. 3.

3. NA [x ]gbir-me JCS 7, 169 Bi 71: 5’.

4. 2 túgqa[r]-⌈aru(PA)⌉ bir-me StAT 3, 1: 9 “2 multicolored bedspreads”.

MPS (1), NR (2–4)

 

birqu “lightning”

OB bi-ir-qum ša ṣīḫātim ALL 1 i 12 “lightning of love-making”, s. ḫašḫūru.

 

birru “lattice, grill”; + Ur III(?)

4 túgbu-ti-um? gišbe-rum SIKI gišGARIĜ AKA CUSAS 3, 807: 2 (CUSAS 4 p. 30) “4 butiʾum-cloths for a lattice(?), made of combed wool”. However, Sal­la­­­berger 2011, 359, tentatively as­sumes the spelling BAD.AŠ = zara6 “a textile” for be-rum here.

 

birṣu “a luminous phenomenon”

NA šumma ina šubat amēli bir-ṣu ib-ru-uṣ marušta immar ZA 71, 114: 23 “if a light flashes in a man’s house, he will experience trouble”.                      

NR

 

biršu “felt(?)”

Deller 1966, 313:

1. NA ⌈6⌉ túgna-ṣa-bat […] bir-še SAA 7, 119 r. ii 3’ “6 straight garments [...], felted”.

2. NA túgma-qa bir ZAG GI [n] túgma-qa bir ZAG SA SAA 7, 95: 1f. “gowns, felted, the front black; [n] gowns, felted, the front red”; cf. ib. 98: 4f.

3. [x túgu]r-nat bir NÍGIN SAA 7, 102: 2 “[x u]rnutu-garments, felted, the edging [...]”.   

NR

 

birtu I “fort, castle”; + OA

1. OA ina bi4-ir-tim ša GN TPAK 1, 100: 9 “in the fort of GN”.

2. OB Plene spelling: [ER]IM bi-i-i[r]-tim AbB 13, 24: 8 “soldiers of the fort”.

3. Appositional construction of ṣābum birtum already attested in ARM 2, 39: 62: ṣa-ba-am bi-ir-tam “garrison” Shem­­shara 1, 12: 10; 21: 15; 30: 13. ṣa-bi-im bi-ir-tim 30: 8.

4. eqel bi-ir-tim ARM 10, 134: 6 “fenc­ed(?) field”.

5. Pl. bi/erētu:

a) OB ṣābam ša bi-re-tim ... wašbū ARM 27, 148: 9 “the troops who occupy the fortresses”.

b) MB Qaṭna lú.mešUGULA.10.KUD be-re-ti mariyannū QS 3, 20: 1; cf. ib. 26: 1 “decurions of the forts of the mariyannū”.

c) lú.mešUGULA.10.KUD be-re-ti lú.mešḫu-up-še-na ib. 25: 1 “de­cu­rions of the forts of the ḫupše”.

d) S. the disc. in QS 3 p. 100.

6. Deller 1966, 313: Since birāti/birāte and ḫal-ṣumeš seem to be inter­change­able in NA letters, ḪAL.ṢU is an Ak­ka­do­gram for birtu. See, e. g., šulmu ana bi-ra-ti CTN 5, 194 ND 2372: 8 and šulmu ana ḪAL.ṢUmeš ib. 195 ND 2409: 7. Cf. SAA 16 p. 181: uruḪAL.ṢU-ú-te = birtūtu.

7. Deller 1966, 313f.: rab birti “com­mander of a fortress”: NA mār šipri ša GAL bir-te SAA 5, 204 r. 4 “mes­sen­ger of the fort commander”.

MPS (1–3, 5–6), NR (4, 6–7)

 

bīru I “divination”

LB prob. fem. pl.: bi-re-e-tu4 šá UDU. NÍTA Bēl-rēmanni p. 177: 2 “ex­tispicies(?) of a ram”.

 

bīru III “ridge”

Ad CAD bīru C 2: OB ina bi-ri-i ... mę lirdē AbB 8, 133: 8 “let him flow water in the ridges (between the furrows)”.

 

bīru IV, bēru IV “hunger”

MB Ekalte be-ri-im ana šu-zi-bi-im WVDOG 102, 28: 4 “to save (him) from hunger(?)” (construction and form of the inf. seem to be wrong; for context cf. tišű).

 

**bīru E in ša bīrišu

Delete bīru E (CAD B 267): Ša-bīrēšu is a geogr. name, “(That) of its wells(?)”, and not a designation of an official. Cf. Radner 2006–2008, 474f.

NR

 

birűtu II “mound, commemorative stone(?)”; + OB

1. S. the disc. by Durand 2005, 191–200. He concludes that the word de­signates a “commemorative stone” and suggests an -ūt-derivation from barű “to see, look at”. However, although a der­ivation of barű makes sense, the assumption of an -ūt-suffix does not, since this suffix never has a concrete mean­ing. Therefore rather nominal pat­tern PiRūS (s. GAG § 55j: occurs with roots III infirmae instead of PiRiSt, e.g., minűtu, ṣibűtu). For ref. in the dict. s. AHw bērūtu (AHw 123 “Unter­grund”, AHw 1548 with lit. “ein Hügel”) and CAD B 213 berūtu “foun­da­tion pit” and 267f. birūtu.

2. OAkk ḫirītam iškun u bé-ru-tám ibnī FAOS 7, 341 Ur 5: 13 “he dug (lit. established) a trench and heaped up (lit. built) a mound”.

3. OAkk. KI.GAL išpuk RIME 2, 129 iii 3 “he heaped up a mound”, cf. Kie­nast/ Sommerfeld 1994, 191.

4. + OB (mathematical text): [b]é-ru-tum 30 GAM AfO 42/43, 103 B2: 8’. For comm. s. Jursa/Radner, ib. 104f.

MPS (1–3), NR (4)

 

bis “then, afterwards”

1. Deller 1966, 314: NA PN ša issišu šēbilanni bi-is anāku ilīkunu lušēbilakkunu u sulummű laškun JCS 54, 82 BM 132980 r. 16’ “send to me PN and those with him, and then I myself will send your gods to you and make peace”.

2. bi-is ša MN bīt-salā-mę neppašuni SAA 10, 219: 10 “then, (is it that[?]) we shall perform the (ritual) bīt-salā-mę of month MN?”

3. Spelled bi-si SAA 10, 189 r. 4.

MPS (2–3), NR (1)

 


bisru, bišru “leek”

1. bi-si-ir saḫ-le-e lā ikkal MSL 9, 109 IM 50964: 5’ “he should not eat bisru-leek”.

2. bi-šir saḫ-le-e MSL 9, 107 and 108 note D K.8068+: 21.

3. Instead of biš-ra CAD B 268 (KAR 147: 25 and dupl.) read bi-iš-ra.         

NR

 

+ bisrű, bissű “from the Ǧabal Bišrī”; OB

1. aššum kalbī bi-is-sé-e bēlī išpuram kalbū bi-is-s[ú-]ú mādūtum ibbašű ARM 26/1 p. 571 no. 271: 5, 7 (cf. Heim­pel 2003, 280) “my lord wrote me about Bissean dogs. There existed many Bissean dogs”.

2. tuppum ša bēliya aššum kalbī bi-is-re-e illikam ib. no. 272: 6 (cf.  Heimpel

2003, 281) “a tablet of my lord about Bisrean dogs came to me”.

3. Note that the expected pl. would be bisr/sűtu/im instead of bissű and bisr/ (or are these forms of the sg.?).

 

bissu, bīsu s. biltu

 

**biṣḫu Pentiuc 2001, 39

Read with Tsukimoto 1998, 185 úr-ḫi/ḫu instead of bi-iṣ-ḫi/ḫu:

1. panūšu úr-ḫu HANEM 2, 7: 6 “its front is the road”.

2. ina úr!-ḫi ša bāb GN Emar 6/3, 171: 2 “(a field) at the road (leading to) the gate of GN”.

 

biṣinnu s. buṣinnu

 

biṣṣūru, piṣīru “female genitals, vulva”

1. OB [b]i-i-ṣú-ru-um [š]a lā i-ka-[l]u AbB 12, 181: 7’ “a vulva, which (he?) does not use (lit. eat)” (in broken con­text, but the text speaks of sexual activ­ities).

2. OB (if a foetus) šārat bi-iṣ-ṣú-ri-ša īlűnim “the hair of its vulva is sprout­ing” CUSAS 18 p. 317: 7.

3. OB bi-ṣú-ri ilput išaršu ana bi-ṣú-ri-i[a] ul īrub ARM 26/2 p. 423 no. 488: 36 “he touched my vagina, (but) his penis did not enter my vagina”.

4. OB u ašar abu u ummum panīka ittaplasū u ištū bi-iṣ-ṣú-ri-im tamqutamma annânum bi-ṣú-ru-um imḫurka FM 1, 117 A.1146: 36 “and atthe (same) place where father and moth­er used to look at your face and you had fallen out of the vulva, here a vulva has received you”.

5. Of animals:

a) OB lit. [b]i-iṣ-ṣú-úr ṣerri AMD 1, 235 no. 11: 2 “vulva of a snake”.

b) bi-ṣú-ur kalbatim ib. 258ff. H 72: 4 “vulva of a bitch”.

6. For piṣīru KAR 466: 7 s. Böck 2000, 164f.

MPS (1–5), NR (6)

 

bišru “baby”; + OA, + OB

1. OA lit. tašaqqīʾame mę bi-iš-ri-im Or. 66, 61: 16 “she gives (them) to drink the amniotic fluid (lit. water of the baby)”.

2. OB lit. mę bi-iš-ri YOS 11, 20: 12.

3. For the interpret. of mę bišri as “am­niotic fluid” s. Michel 1997, 63f. See, however, Farber 2014, 204 and. n. 20: mę pí-iš-ri-im “water/liquid of dis­so­lution”.       

NR

 

bīštu, bīltu “evil”

SB ana tęlte u bil-te ina pī nišī ittaškin SAA 3, 29: 9 “he was put as proverb and evil in the mouth of the people”. Derives from baʾāšu, other ref. are found in the dict. under the adj. bīšu, but in fact belong here.

 

bīšu “bad; malodorous”

Lex. [túl a] ⌈ur5⌉? = bi-iš-tum Emar 6/4, 559: 128 (Ḫḫ XXII; for Sum. s. DCCLT MB Ura 13) “stinking (restore būrtu ‘well’)”.

 

+ bitaḫwa “to gore(?)”; Hurr. foreign word?

OB (the king’s vassals) kīma! rīmim bi-ta-aḫ-wa CUSAS 18, 19: 24’ “who will gore like an aurochs”, cf. George, ib. p. 121.

 

bītānu “in the house, inside”

1. Deller 1966, 314: NA dibbē annűti TA ŠŔ GN ina bit-a-nu-uk-ka esip Langdon Tammuz pl. 2 ii 23 “collect these words from GN in your inside!”

2. Deller 1966, 314f.: NA ša UGU bit-a-ni Iraq 25, pl. 19 BT 101b: 14.

NR

 

bītānű “inner, interior”

Deller 1966, 315: Ebeling Stiftungen p. 19: 3 (CAD B 276 b. b) read uzubit-a-ni-ameš.       

NR

 

bitiqtu “damage, loss, deficit”; + NA

1. OA bi-it-qá-at AN.NA AKT 2, 55: 16 “outstanding amount of tin”.

2. kaspim bi-it-qá-tim ša naruqqišu AKT 7a, 52: 6 “silver, deficit of his investment capital”.

3. iṣṣēr bi-tí-iq-tí-ni šakin ib. 276: 10 “it is added (lit. put on) to our loss”.

4. bi-it-qá-tim ib. 259: 24.

5. OB ina bi-it-qa-ti-im išaggum ARM 26/1 p. 413 no. 192: 5 (cf. Heimpel 2003, 248) “he shouts because of(?) the losses” (unclear context).

6. Deller 1966, 315:

a) NA: bi-tiq-tú Iraq 23 pl. 11 ND 2386+ r. i 24’.

b) bi-ti-[i]q-tú [ša?] Úme [?] taddana CTN 2, 182, no. 181 r. 18 “[but do not(?)] give the loss on plants(?)”.

c) Note that contrary to CAD B 277a b. disc. sect., these Assyr. ref. use the sg.

MPS (1–5), NR (6)

 

bitqu “break(age), cutting”

1. Stol 2008, 354: OB IGI 6 GÁL UKU.UŠ ša aššum bi-it-qí-im (cf. CAD P 441b pí-it-qí-im) illikam UET 6, 481:31 “one-sixth (barley ration for) the sol­dier who came here on account of the break­age”.

2. NA GN Bāb-bit-qí SAA 15, 186: 8; 45: 11; 194 r. 7; SAA 1, 94: 9, r. 4, 12.

NR

 

+ bitru? I “a garment”; OB

1. OB TÚGḫi.a [...] bi-it-ri damqūtim lišābil[am] ARM 26/2 p. 540 no. 549: 8’ “may he send [me] cloths (and) good b.-garments”.

2. ARM 22, 164: 10 and in unpubl. texts túgbi-it-rum (ARM 30 p. 54 and 99).

3. Since the last vowel is not written plene in ARM 26/2 p. 540 no. 549, prob. does not derive from bitrű “out­stand­ing” (pace Durand, ARM 30 p. 99). Hardly to be connected with bitru CAD B 279 “mng. uncert.”. The first conso­nant may be b/p, the second d/t/.

 

+ bitru II “cutting, sluice; section, half”; SB, MB Emar, WSem. lw.

1. Lex. AN.KUD = bi-it-ru ša ša[] Emar 6/4, 567: 5’ “section of the sky”. CAD P 449 has this ref. s. v. piṭru.

2. SB dEN bi-ta-ri Emar 6/3, 448: 19’ “lord of the sections(?)”.

3. MB Emar qarnu ZÚ.AM.SI AN bi-it-ru ša PNf HANEM 2, 37: 20 “a horn of ivory is the (inheritance) por­tion of PNf”.

4. Cf. Pentiuc 2001, 39f.

NR

 

bitrű II s. barű III Gt

 

bittu I “daughter” s. bintu

 

bittu II, + battu “weft”; OB

1. ṣubātum šū kīma ṣubātim Tuttubęm šutâm u bi-it-ta-am damqiš lū nasik u lū kaṣir ... assurre ana ṣubātim šâtu [ša]tęm u bi-it-tam uš!-ta-ba-at-tu-ma! u ina zunnātim šakākim zunnātum ikabbitāma u ṣubātum uštarraṭ Iraq 39, 153 A.1285: 40, 47 “this garment should be well woven and knotted of warp and weft (yarns), like a Tuttubian garment. Under no circumstances, in or­der to weave that garment, should they interweave the weft. Nor, when attach­­ing the ornaments, should the orna­ments become heavy, should they allow the gar­­ment to become un­raveled”. Cf. Du­rand 2009, 30; Wasser­­man 2013, 265.

2. New by-form battu: 5/6 MA.NA ba--um 3 1/2 MA.NA nīdu ša 1 túgḫalī šiknim 1/2 MA.NA ba--um 2 MA.NA nīdu ša 1 túgilbum 1/2 MA.NA ba--um 1 1/2 MA.NA nīdum ša 1 túgsaq burē šēʾim 2/3 MA.NA ba--um 3 MA.NA nīdum ša 1 túgkap lurmîm 1/3 MA.NA 5 GĚN ba--um 1/2 MA.NA nīdum ša 1 túgsaq burē daqqum ARM 30 p. 29f. T.263: 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 “5/6 mina of weft, 3 1/2 minas of warp for a (double-sided) blanket; 1/2 mina of weft, 2 minas of warp for a i.-garment; 1/2 mina of weft, 1 1/2 minas of warp for a (tight­ly) woven fabric for a mattress pad of a (stuffed) mattress; 2/3 mina of weft, 3 minas of warp for a ‘wing of ostrich’      (-garment); 1/3 mina 5 shekels of weft, 1/2 mina of warp for a fine(?) (tightly) woven fabric for a mattress pad”.

3. OB lit. ana bi-it-tim ... kīma šu-tu-um⌉ ... “to the weft yarns ... so that the warp yarns ...” UET 6/2, 414: 11 Cf. Wasserman 2013, 265 and 274. CAD P 443 quotes this passage under pittu A “side”.

4. For disc. of the term s. Durand, ARM 30 p. 29–31 (bittu “warp”, nīdu “weft”); Wasserman 2013, 265 (bittu “weft”, šutű “warp”). 

NR

 

bītu “house”

1. Ur III: Spelled bi-ě-tum in Ur III Garšana (Heimpel 2009, 180–182)? S. binītum B.

2. OA É-tum ana lā bé-tim itūʾar AKT 6c, 647: 7 “the firm will be ruined (lit. becoming a not-house)”.

3. OB: The expression bīt eqlētim prob. belongs to the ref. CAD B 292 b. 5 “place, lot, area, region”: ana É eqlētim ... šūšibšu Shemshara 1, 50: 22 “settle him in a region with fields!”. Eidem/ Lćssře, ib. p. 120 translate “farm”.

4. Shelter of animals: OB bi-it imērī AbB 13, 58: 14 “house of donkeys”.

5. Deller 1966, 315: NA É epšu adi gušūrēšu adi dalātešu É dannu É ZAG ina libbi 3 É NÁ-šat meš x[ ] É šanie É šaḫūru UŠ É NÁ É šid-d[i? ] É kisalli É rēdűte NIM? É ubsāte É KUR-ru ina libbi 2 SIG4 ina libbi SIG4 šá É abi igārātešu gammurūnišu Ameš ša tarbaṣi ina É ešši Donbaz 1999, 50 no. 30: 6ff. (Ass. 13955gl; house sale contract) “a built house with its beams and doors, main building, the building of the front side with 3 sleeping rooms inside; ser­vants’ quarters, a subsidiary building near the house of the bed, house of the long side, a building in the courtyard, upper(?) succession house, storehouse, a ... house with two walls in it, one of which belongs to the paternal house, its walls encompass it, (and) water is in (lit. of) the yard in the new house”.

6. Deller 1966, 316: ša bīti šanî “palace servant”: NA ()ša É 2-e Iraq 23 pl. 18 ND 2498: 17; ib. pl. 30 ND 2803 r. i 20.

7. Deller 1966, 316: ša muḫḫi bīti “palace supervisor”: NA šá UGU É Iraq 19, pl. 28 ND 5448: 20. VAT 8270: 1. VAT 8232 r. 10. SAA 12, 92 r. 7. Parfümrezepte 37 ii 18 (s. also CAD R 220a rāṭu c); ib. 38 iii 17.

8. LB bīt rēdűti: d30 ⌈É⌉ re-du-ú-tu Bēl-rēmanni p. 177: 4 “Sîn of the re­si­dence of the crown prince”.

MPS (1–4, 8), NJCK (2), NR (5–7)

 

+ bi-TU-ru-um “a building?”; OB

bi-tu-ru-um ARM 19, 258: 4, s. 10. The text lists flour for diff. buildings (store-house[?], workshop, temple, pal­ace, prison, kitchen), hence the sug­gestion of a composed noun with bīt “house” as first element. In ARM 6, 12: 11f. a bīt (É) TU-ur-ri is attested, read in CAD R 96 rakāsu 2e as bīt turri, but in CAD Ṭ 165 ṭurru B “an architectural feature, perhaps a court­yard or en­clo­sure” as bīt ṭurri. This word de­signates a con­struc­tion made of reed used in irriga­tion, prob. the cladding of a canal (s. also Du­rand 1998, 635: “coffrage”), a mng. which hardly fits the ref. in ARM 19.

 

bīʾu, bību “opening, outlet”

Deller 1966, 316: NA Pl. bībī (also bībānu): bi-bi kupru kaprū CTN 5, 215 ND 2666: 11 “the outlets are smear­ed with bitumen”.           

NR

 

“a bird” s. III

 

buʾāru “happiness, health, prosperity”

1. OB lit. bu-a-ar maštaki kűmma Ištar CunMon. 8, 22ff. i 44 “the happiness of the chamber is yours, Ištar”.

2. SB qīt bu-ḫa-ri-šu AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 29: 10 “the end of his happiness”.

 

+ būʾāʾu(?) “to intimidate, trump, de­feat”; OA

Cf. Veenhof 2015a, 234f. with OA ref. Also the first two ref. in CAD P 472 puāgu a belong here. However, the etym. of the verb remains unclear.

 

bubű “a topographical feature”

Stol 1988, 175: OB (a field of the) bu-bi-im CT 48, 90: 4, cf. bu-bi-im qablim ib. 6 “lower b.”.   

NR

 

bubūtu I “hunger, sustenance”

OB lit. bu-bu-ti-iš nišī Atra-ḫasīs I 339 // CUSAS 10, 2: 4 “for the suste­nance of the people”.

 

bubūtu II “axle”; + OB

1. OB ana ... bu-bu-a-tim šupur AbB 3, 73: 7 “send for axles!”

2. OB [n] bu-ba-at narkabtim FM 7, 114 no. 30: 17 “[n] axles of a chariot”.

3. giš[b]u-ba-tim ša yašibim ARM 27, 8: 6 “axles of a battering-ram”. S. also ib.: 13.

4. gišbu-ba-tum ARM 32 p. 475 M.12348: 2. S. also Arkhipov, ib. p. 153.

5. OB lit. ana ereq šamę bu-ba-a-tim talâṭ CUSAS 10, 15: 48 “you shackle the axles for the wagon of the sky”. Cf. George, ib. p. 116f. in favor of the mng. “axle”.

6. Moran 1992, 57 and 60 n. 53 (s. also CAD M/1, 351):   EA 22 iv 37  (CAD B 

302 b. a) read 10 [gi]šbu-bu-[t]um in­stead of 10 GAR bu-bu-[tu]m.

MPS (1–3, 5), NR (4, 6)

 

buddudu “to waste, dissipate”

1. NA É ENmeš-ni pāḫutū ub⌉-ta-di-du SAA 16, 42: 9 “the governors have squandered the household of our lord”.

2. tu-ub-ta-di-id SAA 15, 62: 13 “you have squandered (the barley)”.

3.lā ú-ba-du-du ib. 55 r. 7 “they should not squander”.

 

budę “a fruit confection or sweet sauce”

1. LB [šikar]u duššupu Bu-du-ú šumšu OLA 40, 160 no. 18 (Nippur Compen­dium) vi 11 OLA 40, 160 “sweet [bee]r which is called b.”.

2. CAD G 65 and AHw 287b list the word as giddę, CDA 47 as Budű, SAA 12 p. 129 as budę. Since we never find a spelling gi-id- the reading budű (or pudű) is more likely.

MPS (2), NR (1–2)

 

būdu II “shoulder”

1. Lex. murg[u]-sa-ĝu10 = bu-da-a CUSAS 12 p. 150: 36 (Ugumu) “my shoulders”.

2. OB 1 ṣubātam u naḫlaptam ša ēpušu bēlī ana bu-di-šu liškun ARM 10, 17: 12 “may my lord put the cloth and the coat which I made on his shoulders”.

3. OB lit. šadî bu-di-ni PRAK 1 B 472 i 10 “the hills of our shoulders”.

4. OB lit. ina bu-di-ia ēmidam šadīʾam CUSAS 10, 5: 5 (Gilg.) “with my shoul­­der I leaned against a mountain”.

5. Of snake: OB lit. rapšā bu-da-šu CUSAS 32, 48: 1 “broad are its shoul­ders”. Cf. George, ib. p. 107 n. 1: co­bra?

6. Of scorpion: OB lit. bu-da-šu libittum ib. 49: 7 “its shoulders are brick”.

 

būdu III, budű “a sacrifice or cultic ceremomy”; + LB

1. Lex.: lú-bala = bēl bu-di-im MSL 12, 170: 407 (Talon ARM 24 p. 215) “man on duty = lord of the b.”. Note also PSD B 72 bala C “shoulder”, which might indicate that būdu III is in fact identical with būdu “shoulder”.

2. OB inūma šarrum bu-da-a-am ša PN ša U4 30kam imḫuru ARM 24, 65: 12 “when the king received the b. of PN on the 30th day”.

3. OB DN bēl bu-di-im ŠU.NIGIN 14 DUMUmeš bu-di-im ša ana puluḫti kaṣrū ARM 23, 436: 1, 31 “DN the patron of b. ... Altogether 14 members (= respon­sibles[?]”) of b., assembled to venerate DN”.

4. OB 5 DUG GEŠTIN ša DUMUmeš bu-⌈di-im⌉ ARM 23, 494: 6 “25 wine pots of members of b.”.

5. OB 5 GUR ana bu-di-imša DN ARM 23, 462: 12 “5 gur of grain for b. of DN”.

6. OB 1 1/2 GUR ana bu!-[d]i-im ša É DN ARM 24, 19: 1’ “1 1/2 gur of grain for the b. of the house of DN”.

7. 1 GÚ.Č.A kitītum ana PN inūma bu-di-im ša PN ina bīt mayyāli ARM 25, 17 “1 linen coat for PN in the time of the b. of PN in the bedroom”.

8. 1/2 SĚLA ḫazannu ana bu-di-im ša šarrim ina bīt DN ARM 24 p. 214 “1/2 sila garlic for the b. of the king in the temple of DN”.

9. OB a-na LÚ.TUR PN ša šarrum anabu⌉-di uterra[m] Vincente 1992, 77: 4 “(1 garment) for the boy PN, whom(?) the king returned to the b.”.

10. LB udę erî ša ana bu-du OIP 114, 111: 17 “copper utensils, which are for the b.”.

11. LB 19 UDU bu-ud ina pānīšu AUWE 5, 9 edge 1 (s. also AUWE 5, 11 r. 3) “19 b.-sheep at his disposal”.

12. AHw p/būdu II “?”, CAD būdu B “mng. uncert.”, CDA būdu III “a fes­tival?” and pūdu “design. of sheep”. Further lit.: Sasson 2001, 416f.; Jacquet 2011, 57f.; Talon ARM 24 p. 213–215 with unpubl. ref.

MPS (1–2, 10, 11), NR (3–9, 12)

 

budūḫu (mng. unkn.)

Note that the only ref. bu-du-ḫi-im occurs in AHw 117b under bedű D. Durand 2002, 34 n. 103 connects the word with būdu III, above, and derives both words from padű “to spare”. However, the spelling with does not favor this derivation.      

NR

 

budulḫu, bidurḫu and var. “(resin from) bdellium-tree”

1. New LB ref. in Jursa 2009, 158:

a) šimbi-du-ur-ḫu BM 64588.

b) gišbi-du-ur-ḫu NCBT 853.

c) šimbi-du-ḫu Iraq 59, 123 no. 40: 12.

d) bid-lu-ḫu BM 65030.

e) šimbi-du-uḫ-ḫu YBC 4173.

2. Gum of Commiphora mukul, s. Jursa 2009, 158 n. 51.   

NR

 

+ buggu? “a bird”; OB

OB b/pu-ug?-gu-ummušen Edubba 7, 100: 52 (in list of birds). Not *buqqum, since the next line of the text has qa-qú-um with .

 

buginnu, bukinnu “bucket, trough”

1. OB lit. bu-ki-na-am CUSAS 32, 31 iii 4.

2. NA 9 giš[b]u!-kín(ḪAR)-ni SAA 7, 126 r. 2.

 

+ b/puḫdinnu “part of a chariot”; OB, Hurr. word(?)

OB 1 BU-uḫ-di-in-nu ša šinni pīri bābušu ḫurāṣam šaknu ARM 21, 254: 7 “1 b. of ivory, its ‘gate’ is laid with gold”. Durand, ib. p. 285f., compares b/putinnu (AHw 144 “Knopf des Schuhs”, CAD B 356 “button of a san­dal”) and puḫtu (AHw 877 “ein Kup­fer­gerät”, CAD P 493 “a tool”) and trans­lates “shaft” (“timon”).

 

+ buḫratum “an offering of warm dishes”; OB

1. aššum bu-uḫ-ra-tim ana DN1 n[aqęm] bēlī išpuram [i]na panītimma aššum bu-uḫ-ra-t[im] šuttum innamerma ... bu-uḫ-ra-tam ana DN1 u... DN2 liqq[ű] ... adī ebūrim 3-šu-[ma?] bu-uḫ-ra-tum ARM 26/1 p. 470 no. 231: 5ff. “my lord wrote me about [offering] warm dishes to DN1. Pre­vious to this a dream about an offering of warm dishes had been seen ... They must offer a warm dish to DN1 and ... DN2 ... 3 times an offering of warm dishes until the harvest”.

2. S. the disc. of Durand, ib. p. 471 n. a. Similary Heimpel 2003, 265. Cf. buḫru, below. Durand 1989b, 35 n. 26 (s. also Durand 2004b, 189 n. 424; Stol 2008, 354), based on the idiom puḫram nadānum “to hold an assembly” (s. puḫru here), reads pu-uḫ-ra-tim ... n[a-da-nim]. This is, however, unconvinc­ing, because a) the same word in the same text is used with liqq[ű], b) the mng. “to make an assembly for a god” would remain unclear, c) there is no other occurence of a fem. (pl.) *puḫra/ ātum (note, however, a single ref. for puḫurtu in CAD P 502 in broken context). Disc. of etym. (not Amor.!) Streck 2000, 87.

MPS, NR

 

buḫru “cooked state, cooked food”; + OB

1. Lex.: li-im : NE : bu-úḫ-rum CUSAS 12 p. 9: 35 (Ea).

2. OB bu-uḫ-ri-im ša dDa[g]an FM 8, 81 no. 23: 8 “offering of warm dishes for Dagan”.

3. Cf. buḫratum, above.

 

bukānu “(wooden) pestle”

1. OB lit. [zi]bbatāšu kī bu-ka-nim Fs. Wilcke 61f. Sb 12360: 5 “(the snake’s) two tails are like a pestle”.

2. Edzard 1970b: bukānam šūtuq (CAD 308f.) “man hat ihn/es am b. vorbei­gehen lassen”: the Akkadian expres­sion implies that a bukānu was set up and the person (the seller) passed it (and did not stride over) to conclude a sale. Cf. also Malul 1985, 66ff.           

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

+ buk(k)u? Ia bird”; OB, SB

1. Lex. [u5]-bimušen = b/pu-ku/qú-[ ] Emar 6/4, 555: 118’ (Ḫḫ XVIII).

2. OB b/pu-ku/qú-ummušen Edubba 7, 100: 64 (in list of birds). For l. 18 s. būṣu.

 

 bukku II “to dance”; foreign word(?)

OB lex. bu-uk-ku = MIN (raqādu) MARI 5, 412 BM 38590: 14.

 

bukru “son, child”

SB bu12(U)-kúr PN SpTU 2, 28: 19; AOAT 2, 48 no. 115: 2 (colophon) “son of PN”. S. Oelsner 1996, 443 n. 32.

NR

 

buku s. buk(k)u I

 

būku s. pūku

 

bukurtu “first-born daughter”

NA lit. ištartu bu⌉-kur-!⌉ SAA 3, 8: 21 “(Irnina), first born goddess”.

 

+ bulālu “goo”; SB

qēm KUR-nu-DIB kīma bu-la-lim īnīšu taptanaššaš SpTU 3, 83: 2 “you re­peatedly smear his eyes with a powder of šadânu-ṣabītu-stone as if with goo”. Cf. balālu. Hardly the bulālu plant, as von Weiher, ib. p. 112 suggests.

 

bullu I “to throw down, cast away”

1. SB [ṣeḫru] u rabű ú-ba-al-lu dulla STC 1, 220: 6, 8 Reschid/Wilcke 1975, 61 “[young] and old cast away the work”.

2. The form ubtīl derives from bullu (AHw 137a; von Soden 1966, 358; 1968, 459; Reschid/Wilcke 1975, 60f.) and not from abālu (CAD A/1, 17b and 29a).    

NR

 

bultu “a textile”; + LB

Disc. by Zawadzki 2010, 421. LB 1-en bul-tu4 ib. 423 BM 61528: 4.

 

bulṭu “life; cure, healing”

1. Pl. (cf. AHw b. 5) also OB, mng. “life”: bu-ul-ṭú ana māt bēliya iššaknū MARI 8, 327 A.3394: 9 “life was es­tab­lished for the land of my lord”.

2. Deller 1966, 316: NA ina bu-ul-ṭi gabbu akī an-ni-ie-e qabi in all pre­scriptions it is said as follows” SAA 10, 326: 3.

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

+ bulṭūtu “life, health”; MB Ekalte

PN ina bu-ul-ṭú-ti-šu aḫḫē ušēšibma šīmti bītišu ... išīm WVDOG 102, 19: 2; 54: 2; 65: 2; 92: 2 “PN, in full com­mand of his mental faculties, let the brothers enter and drew up a will of his estate”.

 

bulű “dry wood”; + NA

1. OB lit. MUŠ bu-li-a-tim⌉ CUSAS 32, 27: 20 “snake of the dry wood”. Note bulī- instead of bulā-.

2. Pl. NA ša dullu annę gabbi bu-le-e memēni lā iddinannâ[še] SAA 16, 40: 12 “for all that work, nobody has given u[s] dry wood”.

 

būlu “animals, livestock”

Mayer 2016, 197: Usually masc. For fem. s. bu-lim ṣeḫḫertu MSL 14, 366: 290 (Ea IV, s. CAD B 313 b. lex. sect.). kīma bu-lu elī šamkānī ḫabrat RA 36, 10: 9 “as the animals(?) are su­pe­rior to the servants”.

 

bunbullu “cone(?)”

For the mng. “cone” cf. Kwasman 1999, 5f.; Cherry apud Luukko/van Buylaere 1987, 61, citing Neo-Aram. banbūl gelīdi “icicle”. Diff. Jursa 2009, 164 n. 82: “tuber”. 

MPS, NR

 

bunna(n)nű “physiognomy, (facial) fea­tures”

von Soden 1968, 459: IVR 24 no. 1: 34 (CAD B 317b) read bu[-ni! š]u-un-na-ta “you are different with respect to (your) appearance”.   

NR

 

bunnű “beautiful”

A bird: OB bu-nu-ummušen Edubba 7, 100: 61 (in list of birds).

 

buntu “daughter”; + OB

a-bu-un-ti luštuḫma CUSAS 10, 12: 8 “let me grow long for the daughter”.

 

būnu II, bunnu “goodness; features”; pl. “face”

1. OB bu-né ša GN ARM 26/2 p. 23 no. 293: 5 “face of GN”.

2. OB ṣubātam ana bu-ni-ka ul ēpuš AbB 13, 103: 7’ “I did not make the gar­ment for your good appearance”.

3. ša būnī epēšu:

a) OB ša ... ša bu-ni-ni ippušu u pānīni ana ṣalāmi lā inaddinu AbB 10, 147: 10 “who does that of our favor (lit. coun­te­nance) and does not let our face become black”.

b) ša bu-ni-ia li-pu-uš BMS 19: 26 “may he do that of our favor”.

c) Kraus apud Walker 1973, 124f.: the idiom means “to read every wish from somebody’s face”; cf. already AHw 138 b. 2b: “was in meinen Mienen liegt”.

4. OB bu-nu namrūtum ša DN ili ālika limḫurūka AbB 13, 140 r. 4’ “may theshining countenance of DN, the god of your city, welcome you”.

5. NA ṣalmu šarri ... ina muḫḫi bu-un-ni ... aqabbâššunu SAA 13, 34: 9 “The royal image ... I could speak with them about (its) features”.

6. NB ina bunnī “before” synonymous to ina panī: šandabakkū maḫrūte ša ina bu-un-ni-ka SAA 18, 3: 5 “the former šandabakkus who were there before you”. Cf. comm. ib.

7. SB ša būnīšu synonymous to ša panī + suffix: ša bu-ni-šú ippalis CTMMA 2 no. 5: 15’ “he looked at that which was in his sight”. Cf. Maul, ib. p. 53 ad 15’.

MPS (1–3), NR (3–7)

 

bunzerru, + b/pi/enzurru, + pezzurru “web, enclosure, trap”

1. New by-form b/pi/enzurru, pezzurru:

a) Lex. bi/pi-in-zur-ru = ṣulūlu AOAT 50, 347: 194 (Malku) “web = shelter”.

b) Cf. also CAD P 326 penzurru (in AHw “ein Funktionär”); s. Civil 2006, 60.

2. Related is also CAD pizzir “cobweb” = AHw pizzer “a plant”. A connection with biṣṣūru “vulva” (CAD P 452f. s. v. pizzir; Civil 2006, 60; Hrůša, AOAT 50, 219), is doubtful.

3. kuškin-tur = bu-un-zi!-ir!-ri! Ḫḫ 11: 144 (Civil 2006, 59).

MPS (1–2), NR (3)

 

buppānu “face”; + OB

1. OB tęrētum ... bu-up-pa-na-am abkā ARM 26/1 p. 349 no. 171: 10’ (Heim­pel 2003, 241) “the extispicies ... are turned on their face (= are per­plex­ing)”.

2. Mayer 2016, 197: OB lit. abikma ina epri bu-up-pa-ni-šu UET 6/2, 397 i 12’f. “he is thrown into the dust, on his face”.

3. Cf. AHw 139 buppānī- and buppāniš, CAD B 322 buppāni.

 

buqāmu “lamb ready for plucking”

OB kupram bu-qa-ma n šamaššammī idnāniššu! AbB 13, 118: 25 “Give him bitumen, a b. lamb(?), (and) n ses­a­me!”

 

buqāru “(young) cow”; + MB Emar

1. MB Emar (sheep for Dagan) bēl bu-[q]ŕ(KA)-ri Emar 6/3, 373: 39 “the lord of bovines”.

2. MB Emar itimarzaḫāni ina UD 14 bu-qá-ra-tu Emar 6/3, 446: 85 “month M., at day 14, (rite of) cows(?)”. Diff. Pentiuc 2001, 141: pugarātu “funerary rites”.

3. For further ref. and disc. s. Pentiuc 2001, 36f. Cf. baq(a)ru.       

NR

 

buqlu “malt, vegetables”

1. OAkk NUMUN bu-uq-lu RA 55, 94 no. 407: 3 “seed of b.”.

2. OA bu-uq-lam AKT 2, 26: 17, s. bappiru.

3. OA ištū ša bu-uq-[]-tím ana ša bu-uq-lá-tím!(ed.: tim) išaqqal AKT 7a, 149: 4, 5 “he will pay from the (time of) malt until the (time of) malt(?)”.

4. OA ana bu-uq-lá-tim išaqqulū Prag 500: 6 “they shall pay at (the time of) the malt”.

5. OB šeʾum ša a-na MŮNU rubbę MŮNUmeš imḫurū CUSAS 9, 188: 1; s. also 200: 2 “barley, which the malt­sters received for risen malt”. Dalley, ib. p. 124 comm. on the mng. of rubbű: “Might it refer to stimulating fermen­tation with a new batch of malt­ing bar­ley?” However, rubbű is the ter­mi­nus technicus for making the soaked malt rise, s. Stol 1987–1990, 324 s. v. Malz  § 4. rubbę is prob. the verbal adj. rather than the inf.

6. Borger 1987, 145f.: SB pagrī nuballišu u Aḫlamę ... kīma MUNU5 (ŠE. BŮLUG) áš-ṭe-e-ma Iraq 16, 186 vi 49 “I spread out the corpsesof his vanguard and of the Arameans like malt” (cf. CAD Š/2, 343b šęṭu). Note the incorrect reading kīma pu-ṣu-di-e-ma in CAD P 541.

7. For buqlu s. Stol 1987b, 65 and 19871990, 323: not always “malt”, but also “vegetables”.    

MPS (2–5), NR (1, 6–7)

 

+ buqqumtu “a plant(?), (lit. plucked)”; LB

1. 1/2 GÍN bu-qu-ma-tu4 (// bu-qu-mat-tu4) Fs. Lambert 149 no. 1: 2 “1/2 shekel of b.”.

2. 2 GÍR-e bu-qu-ma-tu4 Fs. Lambert 151 ad. 2 BM 132097 r. 4.   

NR

 

buqūmu, buqūnu “wool plucking, wool yield”; + OA

1. OA 6 GÍN KŮ.GI ana paḫār bu-qú-nim išaqqal AKT 7a, 190: 14 “he will weigh 6 shekels of gold at (the time of) collecting wool”.

2. OB bu-qú-um GN libbaqimma MARI 8, 387 A.2459 r. 3’ “may the pluck­ing of GN be carried out”.

 

bur s. buru

 

burāšu “juniper”

1. Lex. kur a-u5! = MIN (= šadū) bu-ra-ši Emar 6/4, 559: 15 (Ḫḫ XXII) “juniper mountain”.

2. OB 5 SĚLA bu-ra-ša AbB 12, 94: 17 “5 liters of juniper (berries)” (s. comm. in Charpin 1993, 88).

3. OB 5 SĚLA karšum 5 SĚLA bu-ra-šum Fs. Garelli 289 BM 97079: 15 and passim.

4. For OB Mari s. Kupper 1992, 164.

5. MB 1 SĚLA NUMUN LI bīt G[N] MBLET 78: 6 “1 liter of juniper seeds, house of G[N]”.    

MPS (1, 4–5), NR (2–3)

 

burbānu “foal(?)”; NA, Aram. lw.

1. sissę ga-mu-zu lipšuḫū bur-ba-a-ni SAA 5, 64 r. 6 “the horses have been heavily pressed; the foals(?) should rest out”.

2. bu-ur-ba-ni SAA 10, 239 r. 9’ in broken context.

3. Lanfranchi/Parpola, SAA 5 p. 56 n. 64 consider ga-mu-zu and bur-ba-a-ni as Aram. lw. (< Aram. bar bānā “calf”). Cf. AHw 1549.         

NR

 

burbillatu “an insect”; LB

LB qaqqassu ša⌉ [bur]-⌈bi-il⌉-lat BabA 1, p. 219f. BM 55551: 5’ “his (god’s) head is a b.-insect’s”. S. comm. Rey­nolds, ib. p. 220.        

NR

 

burḫiš s. burṭiš

 

burmāmu “piglet; a striped or speckled mouse (lit. speckled, multi­color­ed)”

1. Lex. péš-giš-gi-a = burmāmu Ḫḫ XIV 190a “mouse of the marsh reed = b.”.

2. Weszeli 2011–2013, 49f.: not the porcupine (AHw, CAD) but the piglet with striped back and speckled legs and shoulders. This identification is proven by the equation with šaḫű “pig” in Malku V 48, because there is no reason to assume that the porcupine was con­sidered a pig as in Europe. Also lit. texts rather point to the pig instead of the porcupine.

 

burmu “color(ed) part”

1. OA bīt bu-ur-mi ARRIM 9, 13: 9. S. Charpin 1991.

2. OB lit. <ina> bu-ur-mi-ni⌉-ia dīmatum izannun CunMon. 8, 110: 18 “a tear rains out of the iris of my eyes”.

3. OB bīt birmī/burmī:

a) ki-sa-al É bu-ur-m[i] ARM 26/1 p.214 no. 74: 25 “courtyard of the house with colored decorations”.

b) S. already CAD B 257 birmu A a for É bi-ir-mi/bu-ur-mi. The expression re­fers to the Ištar temple in the palace of Mari (Durand, ARM 26/1 p. 608).

MPS (2–­3), NR (1)

 

burru I “a cereal”

1. OB bu-ra-am ištū GN ublūnim KTT 142: 4 “(who) brought b. from GN”. S. also bu-rum, bu-ri ib. index p. 234.

2. OB bu-rum ARM 21, 189: 1; 190: 1; 192: 1.

3. OB 6 1/2 GUR bu-ur-rum ARM 12, 17: 2 (between ZÍZ “emmer” and ḫallūru “peas”) and bu-rum passim in ARM 12.

4. S. bu-rum passim in ARM 23, 586.

5. a) Women in the harem of Mari, sum­ma­rized as lāqitāt bu-ri FM 4, 137 no. 3 vi 5’ “gleaners of b.”.

b) S. the disc. by Ziegler, ib. p. 104f., with corr. of CAD B 339 burű A a 1’. Ib. p. 105 n. 625 ref. for this expression in the OB Chagar Bazar texts, among them lāqitāt bu-rum Akkadica Supp. 10, 86: 34.

6. OB ⌈50⌉ gišparīsī bu-rum CHANE 75, 325 AlT 56: 15.  

MPS (1–5), NR (6)

 

+ burru II “tin(?)”; Ugar., Ugar. lw.

1GÚN bu-ri GAL PRU 6, 158: 14: “1 large talent of b.” Cf. Huehnergard 1987, 115 and del Olmo Lete/San­martín 2004, 240: =(?) alphabetic Ugar. br(r) “tin”.

NR

 

burrű “a temple servant(?)”

Von Soden 1968, 459: MB Bo. MUNUSmeš bur-ru-tim KUB 10, 91 ii 7.  

NR

 

burrumu, barrumu, + burramu “multi­colored, pied, speckled”; + OAkk.

1. Ass. by-form barrumu also lex.: nēbeḫu bar-ru-mu Emar 6/4, 556: 60 (Ḫḫ XIX) “multicolored belt”.

2. OAkk. bu-ra-ma-ti ēnēki MAD 5, 8: 13 “your multicolored eyes”.

3. OB naḫlaptu bu-ur-ru-um-tum FM 1, 140 A.486+M.5319: 41 “multi­colored coat”, cf. ib. 60, 63, 69.

4. Read the logogr. in EA 22 iv 14 and EA 25 iv 50 GŮN+A = burrumu, not U+GŮN = iḫzētu (so CAD I 46 and AHw 367). S. Adler 1976, 166 and 202; Moran 1992, 60 n. 45 and CAD S 390a.

5. For ABL 1077 (CAD b. e) s. SAA 7, 89 r. 2: kur-kur-ru! URUDU bar-ru-mu “2 k. containers of copper, speckled“.

MPS (1–3, 5), NR (4)

 

burruqu “sparkling”

Lex. [… lú-igi-s]i12-si12 “man with sparkling eyes” = bu-ur-ru-qu SpTU 4, 190 obv. i 15.

NR

 

burrušu “with hair growing in patches”

Lex. [x z]é-⌈zé⌉-a-ĝu10 = [bu-ú]r-ru-šu-ti CUSAS 12 p. 154 ii 24 “my patches of hair”.

 

+ buršānu “servant”; lex., Sum. lw.

bur-saĝ = bur-šá-nu Secondary Proto-Lu Fragment II 11 (MSL 12, 83; s. also PSD B 188 ad bur-saĝ).  

NR

 

būršašillu (or pūršašillu) “a bowl”; OB

1. OB bu-ur-ša-ši-lu! (ed.: -ku) ARM 22, 206 ii 7 in broken context. The text deals with metal, hence the bowl is prob. made of metal and not of stone (s. CAD B 333 buršušallu “a stone bowl”).

2. OB 1 na4bu-ur-ša-ši-lum ARM 24, 84: 6.

3. OB 2 bu-ur-ša-ši-lu ib. 95: 1.

4. OB [n] bu-ur-ša-ši-il-lum KŮ. BABBAR ib. 97: 30.

5. 1 GAL bu-ur-ša-ši-lum KŮ. BABBAR bābušu u išissu KŮ.GI MUL na4ZA.GĚN ina išdišu 1/2 mana 7-su KI.LÁ.BI ARM 31, 34: 11’ “1 b.-bowl (made of) silver, its opening and base are (covered with) gold, on the base (is fixed) a lapis lazuli star, its weight is 1/2 mina”.

6. For further ref. s. Guichard, ARM 31, 188f.

7. The syllabic ref. above show that pace MSL 10 p. 25 ad l. 277 the entry in CAD B 333 is correct. b. is prob. a sub­stan­tivation of the genitive con­struc­­tion b/pūru ša š/sīli.

MPS (1–3, 6), NR (4–5)

 

būrtu I “cistern, well, fish pond, source (of river); hole, pit”

1. Lex. túl ků-ga = bu-ur-tum ellatum Emar 6/4, 559: 121 (Ḫḫ XXII) “clear well”.

2. Lex. túl dEN.ZU = bu-ur-ti Sîn ib. 122 “well of Sîn”.

3. Lex. túl [lugal-gi]-na = bu-ur-ti Šarrukī ib. 123 “well of Sargon”.

4. Lex. túl GIŠ.TUK.MAŠ = [b]u-ur-ti Gilgameš ib. 124 (cf. DCCLT MB Ura 13) “well of Gilgameš”.

5. túl a kům-ma = bu-[ur-]ti mę emmūti ib. 125 “well with hot water”.

6. Lex. túl a šed10 = bu-ur-ti mę ki!-ṣú-u ib. 126 “well with cold(!) water”.

7. túl a du10-ga = bu-ur-ti mę ṭābūti ib. 127 “well with sweet water”.

8. OB 8 GIḫi.a bu-ur-t[a]-am ept[ēma] mę ušēlīma ARM 26/2 p. 307 no. 419: 11’ “I opened a well 8 reeds (= 24 m) (deep) [and] brought up water”.

9. OB Sūtű bu-ra-ti-ni ... ṣabtū FM 8, 101 no. 31: 25 “the Sutians have seized our wells”.

10. OB lit. bu-ur-ti elletum munassiḫat murṣi CUSAS 32, 54: 3 “pure well that uproots the disease”.

11. Deller 1966, 306: MA PÚ 1 LÚ šaplat iltaḫlū mű maʾdū NABU 2013/28 VAT 9968: 13’ “the well was ʻone manʼ deep. They filtered (the water). The water (was) much”.

12. SB ina rēš [eql]ika [b]u-u-ur-tá // ⌈PÚ⌉ lā teḫerrī Šūpę-amēli 92 (s. also 93) “do not dig a well at the head of your [fiel]d!”

MPS (1–12), NR (11)

 

būrtu II “cow, she-calf”

1. OB itti ÁB.GA šināti AbB 9, 89: 17 “with those suckling she-calves”.

2. 1 amarbu-ur-ti ši!-iz-bi YOS 12, 447: 1 “1 milk calf”. For amar as a deter­minative here to distinguish between burtu “she-calf” and būrtu “cow” s. Stol 1995, 179 and 203 n. 42.

3. 2 ábbu-ra-tum 1 gu4bu-ru-um BiMes 3, 38: 1f. “2 she-calves and 1 he-calf”.

4. LB 1-it gu4bu-ur-ti CT 55, 691: 2.

5. LB bu-ur!-tum šaddittum BM 74482 “draft cow” (van Driel 1995, 234 n. 14).

6. LB bu-ra-tum BM 50028 (van Driel 1995, 234 n. 14).

7. LB gu4bu-uš-ti mit-tum CT 55, 673: 1 “a dead cow”.

8. LB 1-it gu4ÁB … gu4bu-uš-tum CT 55, 686: 1, 4 (van Driel 1995, 235 n. 14).

NR

 

burṭiš “yak(?)”

NA 6 bur-ṭiš StAT 2, 10: 4 “6 yaks(?)”. The spelling shows that bur-ḪI- has to be read bur-ṭí-iš and not bur-ḫi-iš (AHw, CAD).           

NR

 

+ buru “son”; NA, Aram. lw.

NA PN1 bur! PN2 SAA 6, 173: 6 “PN, son of PN2”.

 

burű I, OA burāʾu “a garment; (reed) mat, mattress”

1. OA adī bu-ra-im ša litabšika šatašpuranni bu-ra-am lā našʾakkum AKT 6c, 543: 25, 28 “concerning the b. for your dress that you have written about, he will not bring you a b.”.

2. OA bu-ra-am ša Akkedē ib. 537: 14 “a b. from Akkad”.

3. OA 4 TÚG-té ša Akkadē ŠŔ.BA 1 bu-ra-u[m] AKT 2, 44: 5 “4 Akkadian garments, among them 1 b.”.

4. OA 1 túgbu-ra-ú-um ša Akkadē Prag 709: 24 “1 b. garment from Akkad”.

5. OB mattress padded with diff. fab­rics:

a) ṣubāt bu-re-em ARM 22, 325: 1 “mattress pad”.

b) 2 saq bu-ri-im!? ARM 21, 257: 18 “2 saqqu-cloths for a mattress”.

c) túgnamaḫuš bu-re-e-em ARM 30 p. 549 M.12479: 5’.

d) ḫurrur bu-re-e-em ARM 9, 97: 1.

6. LB: bu-ra-né-e CT 56, 744: 6; 294: 24.

7. Disc. of OA ref. by Michel/Veenhof 2010, 232, with further ref. Disc. of OB ref. Durand, ARM 30 p. 31 with further ref.; pace Durand, the OB Mari form is burűm < burāʾum and not uncontracted **burēʾu.           

MPS (1–4, 7), NR (5–7)

 

būru I “cistern, well, pool pit; source”

1. Lex. [túl gí]d-da = bu-ru ar[ku], [túl lu]gud-[da] = bu-ru [kurű] Emar 6/4, 559: 130f. (Ḫḫ XXII) “long / short cistern”. Var. [bu-u]r!-ti arku and [bu-ur]-ti kurű ib. 130f. with wrong gender of adj.

2. OB bu-ri eperī tumallā CUSAS 18, 25: 9’ “you will fill the wells with earth”.

3. OB lit. in transferred mng.: ali bu-ur sīḫiki CUSAS 10, 10: 26 “where is the source of your trouble-making?”

4. Deller 1966, 316: All references in CAD B 343a b. 2b belong to pūru “lot”; s. also Radner 1997, 257 and n. 1374.

MPS (1–3), NR (4)

           

būru II “calf”

1. Epithet of scorpion: OB lit. bu-ru-um ekdum munakkipu šamru RA 88, 155ff. M.15289: 2 “furious calf, gor­ing, rag­ing”.

2. LB gu4bu-ra-a-ni CT 55, 662: 1. S. van Driel 1995, 222. 

MPS (1), NR (2)

 

burubalű, + parbalű “ruin, unimproved land; a snake”

1. Kraus 1984a, 43 n. 111: Note KI.BUR.BALA CT 8, pl. 44a: 1 // KISLAḪ (= turbalű?) CT 48, 31: 1.

2. b. is not a regional variant of kislaḫ or ki-gál (so CAD B 343), since all three words occur in Sippar and Dilbat together (Edzard 1970b, 22 n. 41).

3. Snake: OB amḫaṣ pa-ar-ba-la u pa-ra-ku-ul-la AMD 1, 224: 10 “I smote the b.-snake and p.-snake”.           

NR

 

burullu “a commercial police official”

For OA ArOr. 24 (CAD b. a 4’) s. Prag 491 with comm.

 

burūmū, + burű “heaven, sky”

1. SB bu-ru-me // bu-ru-ú Or. 59, 461: 9.

2. SB e-di-lat bu-ru-ú SpTU 3, 75: 12 “who closes the heaven”.

3. SB mar-ka-su bu-ru-u! ib. 19 “bond of heaven”.

4. Mayer, Or. 59, 465: burű < burūwū < burūmū.

5. Plene spelling: SB šiṭir bu-ru-me-e⌉ KAL 3, 34: 3 “writing of the fir­ma­­ment”. 

MPS (2–3, 5), NR (1–4).

 

burzibandű “a vessel”

1. Deller 1966, 317: NA dugBUR.ZI. BŔNDAmeš Parfümrezepte 33 r. 7.

2. Sallaberger 1996, 110: “ein kleines, verschließbares Gefäß”.      

NR

 

+ burzisallű? “a vessel”; SB; Sum. lw.

1. pēndu ina dug⌈BUR⌉.ZI.SAL.L[A] BaF 18, 133: 74 “charcoal in a b.-vessel”.

2. Maul, ib. p. 149 n. 153 (s. also Sallaberger 1996, 11): read burzisallű in­stead of pursītu raqqatu. S., however, Ḫḫ X 273 (CAD R 171 raqqu lex. sect.): dugBUR.ZI.SAL.LA = (pursītu) raqqatu.        

NR

 

burzisilagallű “a pot holding one sila”; + NA

5 BUR.ZI.SĚLA.GA[L] CTN 1 pl. 38: 14’ (as a subdivision of the šappu-container, s. Postgate 1976, 69 § 6.4.2).

NR

 

+ b/puskatu? (mng. unkn.)

OB (on the gall bladder) bu-us-ka-tam?⌉ peṣűti CUSAS 18 p. 296: 19 “white b.

 

+ bussanű (mng. uncertain); LB

1 šá bu-sa-né-e.⌈SIG17 YOS 17, 246: 5 (Beaulieu 2003, 195; list of jewelry of Nanāya) “1 gold necklace with b.”.          NR

 

bussuru “to bring, send a message”

1. CAD B 347b b. 2a: ABL 1166 r. 9 read with Deller 1966, 317 and SAA 10, 286 (s. also CAD P 311b) ú-pa-za-ru-ú-[ni] “I do not conceal [anything]”.

2. For an alleged G-stem s. rather baṣāru.    

MPS (2), NR (1)

 

+ būsu (or bussu) “a bird”; OB

As piece of jewellery:

1. (gold) ša MUŠEN bu-si-im ARM 24, 133: 4.

2. (gold for) 1 MUŠEN bu-si-im GAL KŮ.GI ib. 122: 3 “1 big golden b. bird”.

3. Talon, ib. p. 122 connects the word with būṣu “hyaena; a bird”, but the shift from to s would be difficult to explain.

 

+ buṣāru “struggle, quarrel”; OB

1. ina birīt GN1 [b]u-ṣa-ru šakin ḫaziyannam ana GN1 ḫaziyanna ana GN2 [bēlī l]išpuramma [… m]uškēnim liṣṣurū [akkī]ma mātum ina qāt bēliya [lā uṣṣ]ű ARM 28, 45: 6 “between (diff. parties of) GN1 a struggle has broken out. [My lord] may send a mayor to GN1 and a mayor to GN2, that they protect the [...] of the poor [so tha]t the land does not [get out of] control of my lord”.

2. bu-ṣa-ru-um i-a GN <it>taškan ARM 2, 38: 18 “in GN a struggle broke out”.

3. CAD B 346 has a word busāru “an­nouncement”, derived from bussuru, for which only the ref. ARM 2, 38 is mentioned. AHw does not list such a word. Durand 1997, 521 pro­poses a word buṣārurupture” instead, a pro­posal accepted by Kupper, ARM 28 p. 61 with translation “dis­sension”. Du­rand 2000, 547 offers the translation “divergence d’opinion/fracture soci­ale” and derives the word from baṣāru “zer­beißen” (AHw 110), “to tear off” (CAD B 134).

 

buṣinnu, bi/eṣinnu “lamp wick, lamp”; +OA

1. By-form bi/eṣinnu also OA:

a) be-ṣí-nam Kt d/k 38 b: 13 (Balkan 1986, 3 n. 4).

b) bi-ṣí-nu ana bīt PN šakin Kt 88/k 1070: 9 “the lamp is placed at the house of PN”. Cf. also bi-ṣí-nam ib. 12 (Don­baz 1993, 148, n. 55).

c) S. also bi-ṣí-ni Kt h/k 87: 3, CAD U 282 s. v. ūsu A b; Dercksen 1996, 77.

2. OB bu-ṣi-ni ARM 18, 32: 27.

3. OB bu-ṣí-nu ARM 23, 74: 12.

4. OB (oil) ana pašāš bu-ṣi-ni ša gizillę FM 3, 245 no. 95: 8’ “for anointing the wicks of the torches”.

5. OB 30 riksī ša bu-ṣí-ni AbB 7, 13 // 14: 8 “30 packages of lamp wicks”.

6. SB bu-ṣi-ni nūri KAL 1, 20 r. 5 “wick of a lamp”.          

MPS (2–6), NR (1)

 

būṣu I “hyaena; a bird”; + OA

1. As PN:

a) OA Bu-ṣí-ia AKT 2, 58: 17.

b) OB Bu-ṣú-um KTT 15: 10; 48: 4.

c) Bu-ṣí-im ARM 24, 132: 6.

2. OB bu!-ṣú-ummušen Edubba 7, 100: 18 (in list of birds). For l. 64 s. buk(k)u.

3. S. AHw būṣu I 2 “etwa ‘Steinhuhn’” und CAD B būṣu C “a bird”. It is unclear whether the ref. for the PN refers to the hyaena or the bird.

4. Cf. būsu.

 

būṣu II “fine linen, byssus; glass”; + OB

1. OB 1 DUG GEŠTIN ša itti dugbu-ṣí-im ana bīt PN … innadnu AWTL 39: 2 “1 jar of wine which was given to the house of PN together with a glass vessel”.

2. NA 1dugbu-u-ṣú kudimme SAA 12, 77 r. ii 6, cf. i 6 “1 glass-vessel of k.-seeds”.

3. LB dullu bu-ú-ṣu u dullu šīpāti rabű u qalla ulammassu Persika 9, 204 BM 31803: 6 “he will teach him the work of byssus and the work of wool, big and small”.

4. LB [ša ana] bu-ú-ṣu illikūnu CT 55, 147: 9 “who have gone away to ac­quire byssus”.

5. LB GADA bu-ú-ṣu NCBT 597: 2 (unpubl., s. Beaulieu 1989, 71).

MPS (2), NR (1, 3–5)

 

+ buṣūtu (or b/puṣṣutu) “an object”; SB

bu-ṣu-tum (after the plant argannu before tamšīlu) Emar 6/4, 545: 496 (Ḫḫ V–VII).

 

buʾšānu “bad smell (a disease)”

1. bu-ʾ-šá-nu dān ṣibissu kīma nēši napšāra iṣbat kīma barbari iṣṣabat nurza iṣbat nu[rba] iṣṣabat lišāna ina ebbūbi ḫašę ittadi kussâšu SpTU 1, 44: 55 // BAM 543 iii 43’’ (Scurlock/An­der­sen 2005, 40) “mighty is the afflic­tion of b. It seized the uvula like a lion; it seized the hard palate like a wolf. It seized the soft p[alate]; it seized the tongue. It set up its throne in the wind­pipe (trachea and/or bronchi)”.

2. dān ša bu-ʾ-šá-nu ṣibissu kīma nēši qaqqada i[ṣbat kīma barbari iṣ]bat luʾḫa iṣbat KA iṣbat lišāna ina birīt šinnāti ittadi [kussâšu] SpTU 1, 44: 65 // BAM 543 iii 58’ (Scurlock/Andersen 2005, 41) “mighty is the affliction of b. It [seized] the head like a lion; [it] seized the throat [like a wolf]. It seized the mouth; it seized the tongue. It set up its throne among the teeth”.

3. šumma [amēlu KA]-šú bu-ʾ-šá-nu ṣabitma SpTU 1, 44: 29 (Scurlock/ Andersen 2005, 40) “if b. has seized [a person’s nose/mouth]”.

4. šumma amēlu appašu u pâšu bu-ʾ-šá-nu ṣabitma SpTU 1, 44: 26 // BAM 543 ii 19 (Scurlock/Andersen 2005, 40) “if b. has seized a person’s nose and mouth”.

5. [šumma pīšu bubuʾ]ta mali u illātūšu illakā bu-ʾ-šá-nu šum[šu] AOAT 43, 357: 87 (Scurlock/Andersen 2005, 41) “[if his mouth] is full of boil(s) and his saliva flows, [it] is called b.”.

6. [šumma amēlu pīšu b]u-ʾ-šá-nu ṣabit ina rebīt šinnātišu […] BAM 157 obv. 10’ (Scurlock/Andersen 2005, 41) “[if]b. seizes [a person’s mouth] and in the ‘square’ of his teeth […]”.

7. šumma amēlu šinnīšu munű u bu-ʾ-šá-nu … SpTU 1, 44: 80 (Scurlock/ An­der­sen 2005, 41) “if munű and b. … a per­son’s teeth”.          

NR

 

+ bušītu “possessions”; MB Ekalte

bu-ši-tum u bāšītu ... uzazzā WVDOG 102, 36: 17 “possessions and valuables ... they will divide”.

 

bušlu “ripening, (s)melting; molten”; +EA

1 GA.RÍG ša NA4 bu-u[š-lu] EA 25 ii 62 “1 comb of mol[ten] glass” (s. CAD M/2, 291a mušṭu a4’ and Moran 1992, 82 n. 20).

NR

 

būštu, būltu “shame, dignity”

1. OB (the army of the enemy’s country) ina bu-ul-ti u lumun libbi iturra CUSAS 18, 29 §57’: 48’ “will return in shame and misery”.

2. OB ina qāt bu-uš-tim ARM 27, 133: 33 “from shame”.

3. NB ina bu-ul-ti-ia anaḫḫis SAA 17, 27 r. 2 “I return in dignity”. Prob. not bulṭu “life” because of -ti- instead of -ṭi-.

 

bušṭītu “wood worm”

SB namburbű lumun bal-ṭi-it-ti SpTU 1, 6: 20 “apotropaic ritual (to avert) the evil (portended) by a wood worm”.

 

būšu “goods, property”

Deller 1966, 306: MA ba-ši-šu bu-ši-šu VDI 80, 71: 21.     

NR

 

buʾšu, būšu “stench; a stinking plant”; +OB

1. OB lit. erṣetum ulid bu-ša-am bu-šum ulid luḫummâm YOS 11, 5: 2 “the earth bore the stench, the stench bore the mud”.

2. Whether gišbu-šu in ARM 19, 260–264: 4; 265: 5 (early OB), mentioned among beer, groats and barley as a food­ stuff, belongs to the buʾšu plant, as sug­gested by Limet, ib. p. 23f., is un­clear. The buʾšu plant, as well as its equation aktam, and also the frequently attested būšānu plant (mng. “like buʾšu”) are al­ways written with det. Ú where­as our word has the det. GIŠ. Kupper 1992 does not mention the word in his disc. of trees in the Mari texts.

 

+ bušuttu (or pušuttu) “grief, depres­sion”; SB, foreign word(?)

Lex. nissatu : bu-šu-ut-tu! Emar 6/4, 564: 4’ (after the diseases asakku : ḫurḫurru, murṣu and diʾu); cf. disc. by Pentiuc 2001, 42.        

MPS, NR

 

+ butāqu “cut (of rush)”; SB

bu-ta-qa ša ašli BagF 18, 140: 142 “cut of a rush”. For batāqu + ašlu s. also CAD A/2, 448.      

NR

 

būtinnu, + buʾtinnu “button; part of a chariot (drawbar?)”; + OB; Hurr. lw.(?)

1. OB ana 2 bu-uḫ-di-nu ša me[šēni] ARM 30 p. 227 M.12169: 3 “(gold) for 2 buttons for shoes”.

2. OB narkab[tu] ... 1 bu-uḫ-di-in-nu ša šinni pīri bābušu ḫurāṣam šaknu ARM 21, 254: 7 “a chariot ... 1 drawbar(?) of ivory, its opening is laid with gold”.

3. b[u]-ti-in-na-šu-nu ḫilipa EA 25 ii 42 “their b[ut]ton(s) are of ḫilibű-stone” (Moran 1992, 76 and 81 n. 13).

4. Disc.: Durand, ARM 21 p. 285f.; ARM 30 p. 169; Richter 2012, 322f. puḫdinni “timon”; Arkhipov 2012, 171 (with further ref.).      

MPS (2), NR (1–4)

 

+ butiʾu “a textile”; Ur III

4 túgbu-ti-um? gišbe-rum SIKI gišGARIĜ AKA CUSAS 3, 807: 2, s. birru.

 

+ buttatu (or puttatu) “a rope”; OB

7 ušpaḫe GAL 10 našpanu 10? éšbu-ut-ta-tum 2 lű arku GÍD.DA ARM 30 p. 227 M.9889: 7 “7 big u.-cords, 10 n.-tethers, 10 b.-ropes, 2 long l.-ropes”. Derivation from pâdu “to fasten, affix” CAD P 10 pace Durand, ib. p. 181 impossible.     

MPS, NR

 

buṭnānu “terebinth”

Clearly terebinth: ḫīli allānu⌉ u gišbu-ṭu-na-nu // [bu]ṭun ša šadî Lamaštu ii 189 (Farber 2014, 125) “resin of oak tree and terebinth (of the mountains)”.

 

buṭnu, + buṭmu “terebinth”

1. OB gišbu-uṭ-mi naksūtim FM 2, 164 no. 88: 8 “felled terebinths”.

2. Deller 1966, 317: NA gupnī ša gišbu-ṭu-ni CT 53, 230: 7 “terebinth trunks”.

3. buṭmu is a back formation from buṭumtu. 

MPS (1, 3), NR (2)

 

buṭumtu, + buṭubtu(?) “terebinth; green seed (of cereals)”

1. Terebinth and oak:

a) OB lišsīʾaššumma ina bu-ṭů-um-tim lišarʾibaššum ina allānim CUSAS 32, 48: 16 “may he shout at it in the tere­binth, make it tremble in the oak”. Cf. comm. George, ib. p. 109 and CAD B 358 buṭnu a for association of tere­binth and oak.

b) SB a-kal al!-la-an ů bu-ṭů!-um-ta⌉ AulaOr. Suppl. 23, 14: 6 “eat(!) the oak and the pistachio!”

2. OB ana KUR.RA GN ana warkat gišbu-uṭ-ma-tim parāsim awīlī [...] KUR.RA GN kalâšu ittalkūnimma gišbu-ṭú-um-tum maḫṣat u annűmma gišb[u-u]ṭ-m[a-t]im nisan šattim ša ina pānīšunu ilqűnim ana ṣēr bēli[ya] ušābilam ARM 27, 123: 7, 10, 12 “[I sent] men to mount GN in order to investigate the matter of the terebinths. They went through all of GN, but the terebinth(s) had been smashed, and (therefore) I have now sent to my lord the terebinths from the beginning of the year, which they had collected earlier”.

3. OB bu-uṭ-ma-tim ARM 27, 53: 7, 10.

4. OB ana dKUR.RA allikma gišbu-ṭú-um-tam āmurma ul išar maḫṣat FM 3, 189 no. 19: 7 “I went to the mountain and inspected the terebinth(s). (The sit­u­ation) was not in order. (The tere­binth[s]) were smashed”.

5. bu-ṭú-ma-tum ARM 21, 153: 12; 155: 13 (after dates).

6. bu-ṭů-um-tum FM 12, 171 M.10593: 5; 192 M.10106: 4; 203 M.11134: 4; 216 M.9994: 4.

7. OB 2 gišbu-ṭú!-tum RA 90, 127 NBC 8531: 1 (with corr. in AfO 46/47, 568) “2 (beams of) terebinth”.

8. OB Prob. by-form bu-ṭub-tum FM 2, 42 no. 13: 5’, 10’ (in broken context), s. Maul, ib. p. 44.

9. 1 ANŠE ZÍD bu-ṭů-um-t[im] ARM 10, 20: 8 “1 homer of b. flour”.

10. 1 (PI) nāḫum 10 (SĚLA) bu-uṭ-na-tim ARM 10, 116: 29 “1 (PI) of lard, 10 (liter) of b.”.

11. As PNf:

a) OB Bu-ṭú-um-tum ARM 21, 403 viii 15.

b) Deller 1966, 317: NA fBu-uṭ-nu-tu VAT 8674 r. 16; VAT 8689 r. 3’; VAT 8681 r. 7’. S. PNA 1, 357 Buṭnutu.

12. On terebinths s. Postgate / Streck 2011–2013 with previous lit. Etym., there is only a single buṭumtu (AHw) and not three (CAD B 359f. b. A–C; Powell 1984, 52): the mng. “green seeds (of cereals)” is de­rived from “green nuts of the terebinth” (s. Post­gate/Streck, ib. p. 595 with pre­vious lit.). Powell, ib. p. 52: in OB, MB crush­ed emmer, in NB prob. husked emmer.

MPS (1–3, 5-6, 8–12), NR (4, 7, 11)

 

buʾʾű II “to look for”; + OA

1. Stative:

a) OB (1 ship) ul bu-uḫ-ḫa-a[t] ARM 13, 95: 7 “has not been inspected”.

b) (2 ships) ul bu-uḫ-ḫa-a! ib. 96: 8, s. Durand 2000, 31.

2. Deller 1966, 317: NA issu libbi šallete ša tūṣânni [ub]-ta-ʾi 30 napšāte [ina lib]bi ātamar CTN 2, 194: 9 “out of the captives who came out I have search­ed and chosen 30 persons”.

3. Deller 1966, 317f.: NA anāku alpānī qātē manni ú-ba-ʾu SAA 5, 37: 26 “(I shall show the king) whom I hold ac­count­able for the oxen.

MPS (1), NR (2–3)

 

buzzuʾu “to encroach on, to loot”

1. OB gerseqqűka qāssunu išakkanūma šurīpam ú-ba-az-za-ḫu FM 2, 149 no. 82: 21’ “your servants lay claim to and loot the ice”.

2. OB … ālam šętu taṣbatāma tu-ba-zi-ḫa ARM 26/2 p. 339 no. 435: 14 “how could you seize that city and en­croach on it?”.

3. OB ⌈ú⌉-ba!-zi-ḫu ARM 28, 101: 38 “they looted (sheep)”.

4. OB PN ana mātiya iḫḫabtamma 3 4 ālānīya ilqē mātī ú-ba-za-ḫa ARM 26/2 p. 199 no. 384: 27’ (Heimpel 2003, 332) “PN made incursions to my land and took 3, 4 of my cities. He was looting my land”.

5. OB awīlam šâtu ina GN iṣbatūma ú-ba-zi-ḫu-šu u mimma ša našű īkimūšu MARI 6, 63 n. 129: 20 “they seized that man in GN and looted him and took away from him all he was carry­ing”.

6. OB kīma bu-zu-ḫu-um ibaššī ú-ba-az-za-ḫa-an-ni ARM 10, 77 r. 7’, 8’ “when­ever there is (a possibility) to en­croach (on me) he encroaches on me”.

7. For ARM 5, 39: 13 (CAD B 185a b. 2b; AHw 145b) s. pasāsu.

8. a) Heimpel 2003, 332 and 367 trans­lated “to encroach on”. Joannčs, FM 2, 150 n. c, suggested the slightly dif­f. nu­ance “piller”, Durand 2000, 547 “agres­­ser qu’un, traiter avec mépris”.

b) A short disc. of diff. suggestions (BZḪ, BZʾ/W, BṢʾ) for the etym. of the verb is found in Streck 2000, 85f. s. v. bazaḫātu. The verb is perhaps con­nect­ed with Hebr. BZZ “to plunder, to loot” (HAL I 113, also Arab.; cf. also possible variant BZʾ “to sweep away” HAL I 113) rather than with Hebr. BZʾ/W (AHw 145; cf. Hebr. HAL I 113 “to dis­dain”). There is no need to postulate an Amor. lw., and a con­nection with bazaḫātu is still se­man­tically difficult.

MPS (1–6, 8), NR (7)