Bibliographical Abbreviations

AAA                                         Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 1–28 (Liverpool 1908–1948).

ÄAT                                          Ägypten und Altes Testament. Studien zu Geschichte, Kultur und Religion Ägyptens und des Alten Testaments.

aATU                                        K. Hecker, Altassyrische Texte in Umschrift. https://www.hethport.uni-wuerzburg.de/HPM/index.php

AbB                                          Altbabylonische Briefe in Umschrift und Übersetzung.

ABL                                         R. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian letters belonging to the Kouyounjik collection of the British Museum.

Adš                                           G. Wilhelm / D. L. Stein, Das Archiv des Šilwa-Teššup, 1–9.

AfO (Beih.)                             Archiv für Orientforschung (Beihefte).

AHw.                                        W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch.

AION                                        Annali dell’Istituto (Universitario) Orientale di Napoli.

AJBI                                         Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute.

AJS                                           Actes Juridiques Susuiens (= MDP 22–24).

Akkadica                                 Akkadica. Revue semestrielle de la Fondation Assyriologique Georges Dossin.

AKT                                         Ankara Kültepe Tabletleri (Ankaraner Kültepe-Tafeln).

ALL                                          N. Wasserman, Akkadian Love Literature of the Third and Second Millennium BCE (= Leipziger Altorientalische Studien 4).

AlT                                           D. J. Wiseman, The Alalakh Tablets.

AMD                                        (Studies in) Ancient Magic and Divination.

AMT                                         R. C. Thompson, Assyrian medical texts from the originals in the British Museum (London 1923).

Amurru                                    Amurru (Paris 1996ff.).

ANES                                       Ancient Near Eastern Studies. An annual (publ.) by the School of Fine Arts, Classical Studies and Archaeology University of Melbourne.

AnSt.                                        Anatolian Studies. Journal of the British Institute of Archaeo-logy at Ankara.

AO                                            Tablets in the collections of the Musée du Louvre.

AOAT                                      Alter Orient und Altes Testament.

AoF                                           Altorientalische Forschungen.

AOS                                          American Oriental Series.

API                                            E. Herzfeld, Altpersische Inschriften.

ARM                                        Archives Royales de Mari.

ArOr.                                         Archív Orientální.

ARRIM                                    Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Project.

AS                                             Assyriological Studies (Chicago).

ASJ                                           Acta Sumerologica.

Ass.                                           Field number of tablets excavated at Assur.

Astronomical Diaries            A. J. Sachs / H. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia.

ATHE                                      B. Kienast, Die altassyrischen Texte des Orientalischen Seminars der Universität Heidelberg und der Sammlung Erlenmeyer-Basel.

Atra-ḫasīs                                W. G. Lambert / A. R. Millard, Atra-ḫasīs. The Babylonian story of the flood.

AUCT                                       Andrews University Cuneiform Texts.

AulaOr.                                    Aula Orientalis. Revista de estudios del Próximo Oriente Antiguo.

AUWE                                      Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka. Endberichte, DAI Baghdad (Mainz 1987–).

AWTL                                     F. Ismail, Altbabylonische Wirtschaftsurkunden aus Tall Leilān Syrien (PhD thesis Tübingen 1991).

BabA                                        Babylonische Archive (Dresden 2002ff.).

BagF                                         Baghdader Forschungen.

BagM                                       Baghdader Mitteilungen.

Ballad of Early Rulers          Line numbering after Y. Cohen, Wisdom from the Late Bronze Age (Atlanta 2013) 132–139.

BAM                                        F. Köcher et al., Die babylonisch-assyrische Medizin in Texten und Untersuchungen.

BATSH                                    Berichte der Ausgrabung Tall Šēḫ Ḥamad / Dūr-Katlimmu.

BBR                                         H. Zimmern, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der babylonischen Religion.

BE                                             The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania.

Bēl rēmanni                            M. Jursa, Das Archiv des Bēl-rēmanni (= PIHANS 86).

BiMes.                                     Bibliotheca Mesopotamica.

BIN                                           Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies, Yale University

BiOr.                                        Bibliotheca Orientalis.

BIWA                                       R. Borger, Beiträge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals.

BM                                           Tablets in the collections of the British Museum.

BMS                                         L. W. King, Babylonian magic and sorcery.

Bo.                                            Field number of tablets excavated at Boghazköy.

BRM                                        J. P. Morgan, Babylonian records in the library of J. Pierpont Morgan.

BSA                                          Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture.

BWL                                        W. G. Lambert, Babylonian wisdom literature.       

CAD                                         The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago.

Cagni Erra                               L. Cagni, L’epopea di Erra (= Studi Semitici 34).

CBS                                          Tablets in the collections of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia).

CCT                                          Cuneiform Texts from Cappadocian Tablets in the British Museum.

CDA                                         J. A. Black / A. George / N. Postgate, A concise dictionary of Akkadian.

CH                                            Codex Hammurapi.

CHANE                                    Culture and History of the Ancient Near East.

Chuera                                     S. Jakob, Die mittelassyrischen Texte aus Tell Chuēra in Nordost-Syrien.

CNIP                                         Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications.

CRRAI                                     Compte rendu, Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale.

CT                                             Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum.

CTMMA                                 Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

CTN                                          Cuneiform Texts from Nimrud.

CunMon.                                 Cuneiform Monographs.

CUSAS                                     Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology.

DamM                                      Damaszener Mitteilungen.

DCCLT                                    N. Veldhuis (ed.), Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts. http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/dcclt/.

DCS                                          D. Charpin/J.-M. Durand, Documents cunéiformes de Strasbourg conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire (= RGC Cah. 4).

EA                                            J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. Cf. W. L. Moran, The Amarna letters.

Edubba 7                                 F. N. H. Al-Rawi / S. Dalley, Old Babylonian Texts from Private Houses at Abu Habbah, Ancient Sippir.

Ee                                              Enūma elîš (W. G. Lambert, Babylonian Creation Myths [2013]; T. R. Kämmerer / K. A. Metzler, Das babylonische Weltschöpfungsepos Enūma elîš [= AOAT 375, 2012]).

Emar                                         D. Arnaud, Recherches au Pays d’Aštata. Emar 6/1–4. Textes sumériens et accadiens.

FAOS (Beih.)                          Freiburger Altorientalische Studien (Beihefte).

FLP                                           Tablets in the collections of the Free Library of Philadelphia.

FM                                            Florilegium Marianum (= Mémoires de NABU).

Fs. Alp                                     H. Otten / E. Akurgal / H. Ertem / A. Süel (eds.), Hittite and other Anatolian and Near Eastern Studies in honour of Sedat Alp (= Anadolu Medeniyetleri Araştırma ve Tanıtma Vakfı Yayınları 1, Ankara 1992).

Fs. De Meyer                          H. Gasche / M. Tanret / C. Janssen / A. Degraeve (eds.), Cinquante-deux réflexions sur le Proche-Orient ancien: offertes en hommage à Léon De Meyer (= MHEO 2, 1994).

Fs. Garelli                               D. Charpin / F. Joannès (eds.), Marchands, diplomates et empereurs. Études sur la civilisation mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Paris 1991).

Fs. Günbattı                            İ. Albayrak / H. Erol / M. Çayır (eds.), Studies in Honour of Cahit Günbattı (Ankara 2015).

Fs. Hoffner                              G. M. Beckman / R. H. Beal / G. McMahon (eds.), Hittite studies in honor of Harry A. Hoffner Jr. on the occasion of his 65th birthday (Winona Lake 2003).

Fs. Kraus                                  G. van Driel / Th. J. H. Krispijn / M. Stol / K. R. Veenhof (eds.), Zikir šumim: Assyriological studies presented to F. R. Kraus on the occasion of his seventieth birthday (= Studia Francisci Scholten memoriae dicata 5, Leiden 1982).

Fs. Lambert                             A. R. George / I. L. Finkel (eds.), Wisdom, gods and literature: Studies in Assyriology in Honour of W. G. Lambert (Winona Lake 2000).

Fs. Larsen                                J. G. Dercksen (ed.), Assyria and beyond: studies presented to Mogens Trolle Larsen (= PIHANS 100).

Fs. Matouš                              B. Hruška / G. Komoróczy (eds.), Festschrift Lubor Matouš, 1–2 (Assyriologia 5/1–2 = Az Eötvös Loránd tudományegyetem Ókori történeti tanszékeinek kiadványai 24–25, Budapest 1978).

Fs. Owen                                  G. Wilhelm (ed.), General Studies and Excavations at Nuzi 11/2: in honor of David I. Owen on the occasion of his 65th birthday, October 28, 2005 (= SCCNH 18, 2009).

Fs. N. Özgüç                           M. J. Mellink / E. Porada / T. Özgüç (eds.), Aspects of Art and Iconography. Anatolia and its Neighbors. Nimet Özgüç’e armağan. Studies in Honor of Nimet Özgüç (Ankara 1993).

Fs. Reiner                                F. Rochberg-Halton (ed.), Language, Literature and History. Philological and Historical Studies Presented to Erica Reiner (= AOS 67, 1987).

Fs. Röllig                                 B. Pongratz-Leisten / H. Kühne / P. Xella (eds.), Ana šadî Labnāni lū allik: Beiträge zu altorientalischen und mittelmeerischen Kulturen: Festschrift für Wolfgang Röllig (= AOAT 247).

Fs. Sjöberg                              H. Behrens / D. Loding / M. T. Roth (eds.), DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A. Studies in honor of Åke W. Sjöberg (= OccPubl. S. N. Kramer Fund 11, 1989).

Fs. Steve                                  L. De Meyer / H. Gasche / F. Vallat (eds.), Fragmenta historiae elamicae: mélanges offerts à M.-J. Steve.

Fs. Stol                                     R. J. van der Spek (ed.), with G. Haayer, F. A. M. Wiggermann, M. Prins, J. Bilbija, Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society, Presented to Marten Stol on the Occasion of His 65th Birtday, 10 November 2005, and His Retirement from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Fs. Veenhof                             J. G. Dercksen et al. (eds.), Veenhof Anniversary Volume. Studies presented to Klaas R. Veenhof on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday (= PIHANS 52, 2001).

Fs. Walker                               C. Wunsch (ed.), Mining the archives. Festschrift for Christopher Walker on the occasion of his 60th birthday 4 October 2002, (= BabA 1, 2002).

Fs. Wilcke                               W. Sallaberger / K. Volk / A. Zgoll (eds.), Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke (= Orientalia Biblica et Christiana 14, 2003).

GAG                                         W. von Soden, Grundriß der akkadischen Grammatik.

GAO                                         N. J. C. Kouwenberg, A Grammar of Old Assyrian.

Gilg.                                          A. R. George, The Babylonian Gilgamesh-Epic (Oxford 2003), and recent publications.

Gs. Sachs                                 E. Leichty / M. deJong Ellis / P. Gerardi (eds.), A scientific humanist. Studies in memory of Abraham Sachs (= OccPubl.S. N. Kramer Fund 9, 1988).

Gs. Vargyas                            Z. Csabai (ed.), Studies in Economic and Social History of the Ancient Near East in Memory of Péter Vargyas (= Ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean Studies 2, 2014).

HAL                                          L. Koehler / W. Baumgartner / J. J. Stamm, Hebräisches und Aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament.

HANEM 2                               G. Beckman, Texts from the Vicinity of Emar in the Collection of Jonathan Rosen (History of the Ancient Near East 2).

HEG                                          J. Tischler/G. Neumann, Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar.

Hermitage                                Tablets in the collections of the Hermitage St. Petersburg.

Ḫg                                             Lexical series ḪAR-gud, published MSL 5–11.

Ḫḫ                                             Lexical series ḪAR-ra = ḫubullu, published MSL 5–11.

HSAO                                       Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient.

HSS                                           Harvard Semitic Series.

HUCA                                      Hebrew Union College Annual.

ICK                                           Inscriptions cunéiformes du Kultépé.

IM                                             Tablets in the collections of the Iraq-Museum.

Imdilum                                   M. Ichisar, Les archives cappadociennes du marchand Imdilum.

Iraq                                           Iraq. Journal of the British Archaeological Institute.

Ištar Bagdad                            M. P. Streck, Die Klage „Ištar Bagdad“, in: Fs. Wilcke, 304–309.

Ištar Louvre                            M. P. Streck / N. Wasserman, The Man is Like a Woman, the Maiden is a Young Man. A new edition of Ištar-Louvre.

IV R                                         H. C. Rawlinson et al., The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia.

Izi                                              Lexical series izi = išātu, published MSL 13, 154ff.

JAOS                                        Journal of the American Oriental Society.

JCS                                           Journal of Cuneiform Studies.     

JEOL                                        Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap “Ex Oriente Lux”.

JRAS                                        Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

JSS                                            Journal of Semitic Studies.

KADP                                       F. Köcher, Keilschrifttexte zur assyrisch-babylonischen Drogen- und Pflanzenkunde: Texte der Serien uru.an.na : maltakal, ḪAR.ra : ḫubullu und Ú-GAR-šú (= DAWIfO 28).

KAJ                                           E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur juristischen Inhalts (= WVDOG 50).

KAL                                         Keilschrifttexte aus Assur literarischen Inhalts.

KAR                                         E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts.

KIM                                          Kültepe International Meetings (Turnhout 2015–).

KKS                                          L. Matouš / M. Matoušov-Rajmová, Kappadokische Keil-schrifttafeln mit Siegeln aus den Sammlungen der Karls-universität in Prag.

KTT                                          M. Krebernik, Keilschrifttexte aus Tuttul.

KUB                                         Keilschrifturkunden aus Boghazköi 1–60 (Berlin 1921–1990).

Lamaštu                                   W. Farber, Lamaštu. An Edition of the Canonical Series of Lamaštu Incantations and Rituals and Related Texts from the Second and First Millennia B.C.

LANE                                       Languages of the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake 2008ff.).

Langdon Tammuz                  S. H. Langdon, Tammuz and Ishtar.

LAPO                                       Littératures Anciennes du Proche-Orient (Paris 1967ff.).

LBAT                                       Th. G. Pinches et alii, Late Babylonian astronomical and related texts.

LE                                             Laws of Eshnunna. Editions: A. Goetze, The Laws of Eshnunna. R. Yaron, The Laws of Eshnunna.

Lie Sg.                                      A. G. Lie, The inscriptions of Sargon II, king of Assyria.

LKA                                          E. Ebeling, Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur.

M.                                             Field number of tablets excavated at Mari.

MAD                                        I. J. Gelb, Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary.

Malku                                      Lexical series malku = šarru, published AOAT 50.

MARI                                       MARI. Annales de recherches interdisciplinaires.

MARV                                     H. Freydank et al., Mittelassyrische Rechtsurkunden und Verwaltungstexte.

MBLET                                   O. R. Gurney, The Middle Babylonian legal and economic texts from Ur.

MCS                                         Manchester Cuneiform Studies.

MDP                                         Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse.

MEE                                         Materiali Epigrafici di Ebla (Neapel 1979–).

MesCiv.                                   Mesopotamian Civilizations (Winona Lake 1989ff.).

MesZL                                     R. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon (= AOAT 305).

MHEM / MHET / MHEO    Mesopotamian History and Environment. Memoirs /Texts / Occasional Publications.  

MRS                                         Mission de Ras Shamra (Paris 1936–1978).

MSL                                         Materialien zum sumerischen Lexikon / Materials for the Sumerian lexicon.

NABU                                      Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires (Paris / Rouen 1987ff.).

NATN                                       D. I. Owen, Neo-Sumerian archival texts primarily from Nippur in the University Museum, the Oriental Institute and the Iraq Museum.

NBC                                         Tablets in the collections of the Nies Babylonian Collection (Yale University, New Haven).

NCBT                                      Tablets in the collections of the Newell Collection of Babylonian Tablets (Yale University, New Haven).

ND                                            Field number of tablets excavated at Nimrud (Kalḫu).

OAA                                         Old Assyrian Archives (Leiden 2002ff.; in PIHANS).

OBO                                         Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis.

OBTR                                       S. Dalley / C. B. F. Walker / J. D. Hawkins, Old Babylonian Tablets from Tell al Rimah.

OccPubl. Bab. Fund              Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund.

OECT                                       Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts.

OIP                                            Oriental Institute Publications (Chicago 1924ff.).

OLA                                         Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta.

Or.                                             Orientalia.

ORA                                         Orientalische Religionen in der Antike (Tübingen 2009ff.).

Parfümrezepte                        E. Ebeling, Parfümrezepte und kultische Texte aus Assur.

PBS                                          The Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section, University of Pennsylvania.

Persika                                     Persika (Paris 2001ff.).

PIHANS                                  Publications de l’Institut Historique-Archéologique Néerlandais de Stamboul.

PNA                                         K. Radner et al. (eds.), The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

POAT                                       W. C. Gwaltney, The Pennsylvania Old Assyrian texts (= HUCA Suppl. 3).

Prag                                          K. Hecker / G. Kryszat / L. Matouš, Kappadokische Keil-schrifttafeln aus den Sammlungen der Karlsuniversität Prag.

PRAK                                       H. de Genouillac, Premières recherches archéologiques à Kich: mission d’Henri de Genouillac 1911–1912.

PRU                                          C. F.-A. Schaeffer (ed.), Le Palais Royal d’Ugarit.

PSBA                                        Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.

PSD                                          Å.W. Sjöberg et al. (eds.), The Sumerian dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania.

QS 3                                         T. Richter / S. Lange, Das Archiv des Idadda (Qaṭna Studien 3).

QuadSem.                                Quaderni di Semitistica.

RA                                            Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale.

RATL                                       J. Eidem, The Royal Archives from Tell Leilan (= PIHANS 117).

RGTC                                      W. Röllig et al. (eds.), Répertoire géographique des textes cunéiformes.

RIMA/E                                   The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Periods / Early Periods.

RINAP                                      The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period.

RlA                                           Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie.

Rm.                                           Rassam. Tablets in the collections of the British Museum.

RSO                                          Ras Shamra − Ougarit

SAA                                         State Archives of Assyria.

SAAB                                      State Archives of Assyria. Bulletin.

SAALT                                     State Archives of Assyria. Literary Texts.

SAAS                                        State Archives of Assyria Suppl.

SANER                                    Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records.

SCCNH                                    Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians.

SD                                             Studia et Documenta ad Iura Orientis Antiqui Pertinentia.

SEAL                                        M. P. Streck / N. Wasserman, Sources of Early Akkadian Literature. http://www.seal.uni-leipzig.de.

Sefarad                                     Sefarad. Revista de la Escuelade Estudios Hebráicos.

Shemshara 1                           J. Eidem / J. Læssøe, The Shemshara Archives. Vol. 1: The Letters (Copenhagen 2001).

ShT                                           J. Læssøe, The Shemshāra tablets: a preliminary report (Copenhagen 1959).

SpTU                                        Spätbabylonische Texte aus Uruk.

ŠRT                                          C. D. Gray, The Šamaš Religious Texts.

StAT                                         Studien zu den Assur-Texten.

StBoT                                       Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten.

StPohl SM                               Studia Pohl. Dissertationes scientificae de rebus Orientis antiqui, Series Maior.

Streck Asb.                             M. Streck, Assurbanipal (= Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 7).

STT                                          O. R. Gurney / J. J. Finkelstein / P. Hulin, The Sultantepe tablets.

Subartu                                    Subartu, edited by the European Centre for Upper Mesopotamian Studies (Turnhout 1995ff.).

Sumer                                       Sumer. A Journal of Archaeology and History in Arab World.

Šūpê-amēli                              Line numbering after Y. Cohen, Wisdom from the Late Bronze Age (Atlanta 2013) 84–101.

TBER                                       J.-M. Durand, Textes babyloniens d’époque récente.

TCL                                          Textes Cunéiformes. Musée du Louvre.

TCS                                          A. L. Oppenheim et al. (eds.), Texts from cuneiform sources.

TDP                                          R. Labat, Traité akkadien de diagnostics et pronostics médicaux.

TIM                                          Texts in the Iraq Museum.

TLT                                          C. A. Vincente, The 1987 Tell Leilan tablets dated by the Limmu Habil-kinu, 1–2.

TMH                                         Texte und Materialien der Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities im Eigentum der Universität Jena.

TPAK                                       C. Michel / P. Garelli, Tablettes paléo-assyriennes de Kültepe.

UCP                                          University of California Publications (Berkeley 1907–).

UET                                          Ur Excavations. Texts.

UF                                             Ugarit-Forschungen. Internationales Jahrbuch für die Altertumskunde Syrien-Palästinas.

UFBG                                       W. R. Mayer, Untersuchungen zur Formensprache der babylonischen „Gebetsbeschwörungen“.

VAT                                         Tablets in the collections of the Vorderasiatische Abteilung (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin).

VOM                                        A. Finet (ed.), La Voix de l’opposition en Mésopotamie.

VS                                             Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmäler.

WAG                                        Tablets in the collections of the Walters Art Gallery.

Weidner Tn.                            E. F. Weidner, Die Inschriften Tukulti-Ninurtas.

WHM                                       Tablets in the collections of The Welcome Institute of the History of Medicine, London.

Wiseman Treaties                  Wiseman, D. J., The Vassal-Treaties of Esarhaddon, Iraq 20 (1958) 1–99.

WVDOG                                 Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft.

WZKM                                    Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.

YBC                                         Tablets in the Babylonian Collection, Yale University.

YOS                                         Yale Oriental Series.

ZA                                             Zeitschrift für Assyriologie.

ZABR                                       Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte.